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BioKnowledgy DP 2.3 Carbohydrates - bottom line

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BioKnowledgy DP 2.3 Carbohydrates - bottom line

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BioKnowledgy DP 2.3 Carbohydrates - bottom line

  1. 1. 2 Molecular biology – 2.3 Carbohydrates and lipids Name: http://www.bioknowledgy.info/ (Chris Paine) 2.3 Carbohydrates and lipids - the bottom line The learning Statements The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and communicate your understanding. 2.3.U1 Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide polymers. Can you define monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide? Can you list three examples of disaccharides and state the monosaccharides from which each is formed? Can you list three examples of polysaccharides? Can you draw a molecular diagrams to show the formation of maltose from two glucose monomers, including label the glycosidic bond and annotate the diagram to explain why this is a condensation reaction? 2.3.A1 Structure and function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans. Can you compare and contrast the structure and function of cellulose, amylose, amylopectin and glycogen? 2.3.S1 Use of molecular visualization software to compare cellulose, starch and glycogen. Can you use JMol to view molecular structures, including changing image size and rotating the image? Can you produce a molecular diagram of a monosaccharide from a JMol image, including numbered carbon atoms? 2.3.U2 Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Can you distinguish between saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids? Can you correctly identify the type of fatty acid from a molecular diagram? 2.3.U3 Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers. Can you distinguish between cis and trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids? Can you correctly identify, from a molecular diagram, whether a fatty acid is a cis or trans isomer? 2.3.A4 Evaluation of evidence and the methods used to obtain the evidence for health claims made about lipids. AND Nature of science: evaluating claims - health claims made about lipids in diets need to be assessed. (5.2) Can you define the term what evaluation means in terms of scientific research? Can you outline how the strengths of a research project can be assessed or validated? Can you outline how the limitations of a research project can be assessed or validated? Can you use your evaluative skills to assess a health claim made about lipids? 2.3.A2 Scientific evidence for health risks of trans fat and saturated fatty acids. Can you discuss the links between saturated fatty acid and trans-unsaturated fat in the diet and coronary heart disease? 2.3.U4 Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol.
  2. 2. http://www.bioknowledgy.info/ (Chris Paine) Can you draw a diagram to describe a condensation reaction connecting fatty acids and glycerol to form a triglyceride, including the ester bonds formed and an explanation of why it is a condensation reaction? 2.3.A3 Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage in humans than carbohydrates. Can you list two function of triglycerides in humans? Can you state the location in the body where triglycerides are stored? Can you explain why triglycerides contain 6 times the energy per gram of body mass compared to carbohydrates? Can you outline why it is benefit to human to utilise lipids, as opposed to carbohydrates, as the primary storage molecule? Given the advantages of lipids can you explain why glycogen is needed for energy storage as well as lipids? 2.3.S2 Determination of body mass index by calculation or use of a nomogram. Can you calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an individual? Can you determine the Body Mass Index (BMI) of an individual from a nomogram? Can you outline the limitations of BMI in determining health risks of being underweight or obese? Recommended resources http://www.bioknowledgy.info/23-carbohydrates-and-lipids.html Allott, Andrew. Biology: Course Companion. S.l.: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.

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