BioKnowledgy DP 11.4 Sexual reproduction notes (AHL) - bottom line
6 Human Physiology and 11 Animal physiology (AHL) – reproduction
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6.6 Hormones, homeostasis and reproduction & 11.4 Sexual reproduction - the bottom line
The learning Statements
The can you statements tell you what you notes should enable you to do. They are guidance to a minimum
expectation. The deeper your understanding the easier you will find it to respond to questions and
communicate your understanding.
11.4.S2 Annotations of diagrams of mature sperm and egg to indicate functions.
Can you label, on a diagram of a mature egg, the (haploid) nucleus, polar body, plasma membrane, follicle
cells (corona radiate), zona pellucida, cortical granules and cytoplasm?
Can you annotate a mature egg to outline the function of the nucleus, polar body, follicle cells, zona
pellucida, cortical granules and cytoplasm?
Can you label, on a diagram of a mature sperm, the head, acrosome, plasma membrane, nucleus,
midpiece, helical mitochondria and tail?
Can you annotate a mature sperm to outline the function of the head, acrosome, nucleus, midpiece, tail?
Nature of science: Assessing risks and benefits associated with scientific research—the risks to human
male fertility were not adequately assessed before steroids related to progesterone and estrogen were
released into the environment as a result of the use of the female contraceptive pill. (4.8)
Can you outline how the high progesterone and estrogen content of the female contraceptive pill prevents
Can you describe problems estrogen polluted water could cause to human fertility?
11.4.U1 Spermatogenesis and oogenesis both involve mitosis, cell growth, two divisions of meiosis and
differentiation. and 11.4.U2 Processes in spermatogenesis and oogenesis result in different numbers of
gametes with different amounts of cytoplasm.
Can you define oogenesis and spermatogenesis?
Can you outline the process of spermatogenesis within the testes, including mitosis, the two phases of
meiosis and cell differentiation?
Outline the process of oogenesis within the ovary, including mitosis, the two phases of meiosis, the unequal
divisions of the cytoplasm and the degeneration of the polar bodies?
Can you compare and contrast the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis with reference to mitosis,
cell growth, two divisions of meiosis and differentiation the number and size of gametes?
11.4.S1 Annotation of a diagram of seminiferous tubule and ovary to show the stages of gametogenesis.
Can you label on a diagram of a seminiferous tubule the interstitial cells, basement membrane,
spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids, developing spermatozoa,
Sertoli cells and the lumen of the tubule?
Can you label on a diagram of a ovary: basement membrane, germinal epithelial cells, primary follicles,
primary oocytes, developing follicles, secondary oocycle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, mature egg, and
degenerating corpus luteum.
11.4.U3 Fertilization in animals can be internal or external.
Can you outline the process of fertilization?
Can you compare and contrast the processes of internal and external fertilization giving examples of each?
11.4.U4 Fertilization involves mechanisms that prevent polyspermy.
Can you define polyspermy?
Can you suggest why most animals have mechanisms to prevent polyspermy?
Can you describe the mechanism in mammals that prevents polyspermy?
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11.4.U5 Implantation of the blastocysts in the endometrium is essential for the continuation of pregnancy.
Can you distinguish between a zygote, blastocyst and fetus?
Can you outline development from a zygote to blastocyst?
Can you draw and label a diagram of a blastocyst, including the inner cell mass, the outer layer, fluid filled
Can you explain why the blastocyst implants in the endometrium?
11.4.U6 HCG stimulates the ovary to secrete progesterone during early pregnancy.
Can you state the source and target of HCG?
Can you describe how HCG interacts (positive and negative feedback) with the other female reproductive
hormones to maintain the pregnancy?
11.4.U7 The placenta facilitates the exchange of materials between the mother and fetus.
Can you describe the structure of the placenta, including the fetal villi, fetal capillaries, intervillous space
(containing maternal blood)?
Can you explain the benefit of fetal villi and the thin membrane that surrounds them?
Can you list the substances that are exchanged from the mother’s blood to the fetus’ and identify the blood
vessel used to transport the substances to the fetus?
Can you identify the blood vessel that transports the substances to the placenta and list the substances that
are exchanged from the fetus’ blood to the mother’s?
11.4.U8 Estrogen and progesterone are secreted by the placenta once it has formed.
Can you state the hormones secreted by the placenta?
Can you outline the role of the placental hormones in maintaining the pregnancy?
11.4.U9 Birth is mediated by positive feedback involving estrogen and oxytocin.
Can you outline how the birth process is initiated by estrogen?
Can you explain the role of muscle contractions an oxytocin play in the birth process?
Can you explain why contractions continue for a short time after the birth of the baby?
11.4.A1 The average 38-week pregnancy in humans can be positioned on a graph showing the correlation
between animal size and the development of the young at birth for other mammals.
Can you distinguish between altricial and precocial mammals at the time of birth?
Can you analyze a graph and determine the relationship between gestation period and adult animal mass?
Allott, Andrew. Biology: Course Companion. S.l.: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.