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BioKnowledgy A.4 Innate and learned behaviour

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BioKnowledgy presentation on A.4 Innate and learned behaviour

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BioKnowledgy A.4 Innate and learned behaviour

  1. 1. Essential idea: Behavioural patterns can be inherited or learned. A.4 Innate and learned behaviour Song birds, such as the Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), display both innate and learned behaviour in their songs: all young have the ability to sing, but those exposed to adult birds have more developed songs. Isolated populations of Indigo buntings also show regional variations in their songs. By Chris Paine http://www.bioknowledgy.info/http://ebird.org/content/pa/wp-content/uploads/sites/29/Indigo- Bunting-Male-by-Jacob-Dingel.jpg
  2. 2. Understandings Statement Guidance A.4.U1 Innate behaviour is inherited from parents and so develops independently of the environment. A.4.U2 Autonomic and involuntary responses are referred to as reflexes. A.4.U3 Reflex arcs comprise the neurons that mediate reflexes. A.4.U4 Reflex conditioning involves forming new associations. A.4.U5 Learned behaviour develops as a result of experience. A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular life stage and is independent of the consequences of behaviour. A.4.U7 Operant conditioning is a form of learning that consists of trial and error experiences. A.4.U8 Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge. A.4.U9 Memory is the process of encoding, storing and accessing information.
  3. 3. Applications and Skills Statement Guidance A.4.A1 Withdrawal reflex of the hand from a painful stimulus. A.4.A2 Pavlov’s experiments into reflex conditioning in dogs. A.4.A3 The role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction. A.4.S2 Drawing and labelling a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex. Drawing of reflex arc should include the receptor cell, sensory neuron, relay neuron, motor neuron and effector.
  4. 4. http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/co ntent/reflexarcs.html A.4.U2 Autonomic and involuntary responses are referred to as reflexes. Reflexes are rapid, involuntary or autonomic responses to a stimulus, e.g. the constriction of the pupil in bright light
  5. 5. A.4.U3 Reflex arcs comprise the neurons that mediate reflexes. The neural pathway of a reflex arc Reflexes involve the generation of a nervous impulse, which is transmitted as an action potential, along a series of neurons. A very basic overview from the BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_pre_2011/brain_mind /reflexactionsrev1.shtml The action potential stimulates an effector, usually a muscle or gland, to generate a response. The neural pathway always involves a sensory neuron, which is stimulated by a sensory cells, and motor neuron, which is connected to an effector. Commonly the sensory and motor neurons are linked together by relay neurons.
  6. 6. A.4.A1 Withdrawal reflex of the hand from a painful stimulus. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System The pain withdrawal reflex A rapid, involuntary response to danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. http://bcs.whfreeman.com/webpub/Ektron/pol1e/Animated%20Tutorials/ at3404/at_3404_info_proc_spinal_cord.html A more detailed explanation of the pain reflex
  7. 7. A.4.S2 Drawing and labelling a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex. A Dorsal root ganglion (passage for neurons) Ventral root ganglion (passage for neurons) B C D E F G Contains the cell bodies of neurons Consists of nerve fibres, the lipid rich myelin sheath gives the white appearance
  8. 8. A.4.S2 Drawing and labelling a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex. Contains the cell bodies of neurons Consists of nerve fibres, the lipid rich myelin sheath gives the white appearance
  9. 9. A.4.S2 Drawing and labelling a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex. Contains the cell bodies of neurons Consists of nerve fibres, the lipid rich myelin sheath gives the white appearance
  10. 10. A.4.U1 Innate behaviour is inherited from parents and so develops independently of the environment. Innate behaviour reflex is an example of innate behaviour along with taxis, kinesis and instincts Taxis is a directional movement towards or away from a stimulus Innate behaviour can be characterised as being: • Genetically based, it is inherited from parents • Fixed, experiences do not alter the behaviour, it is independent of the environment • Adapts the animal to its environment making survival more likely *It follows therefore that innate behaviour can only change by the mutation of genes. The mechanism of natural selection is necessary for the spread of modified behaviour; it has to give a competitive advantage. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Macaca_fuscata_juvenile_yawning.jpg http://www.coral.org/files/images/LeatherbackTurtles.jpg Kinesis is a change in movement (e.g. turning or speed) due to a stimulus Instincts are relatively (compared to reflexes) complex behaviour in response to a stimulus, e.g. yawning, newly hatched turtles will search for water, scratching an itch
  11. 11. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction.
  12. 12. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction.
  13. 13. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction.
  14. 14. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction.
  15. 15. A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behaviour experiments in terms of the effect on chances of survival and reproduction. Suggest an extension to the investigation to make sure that the data is reliable. Describe what you would expect to find if the data was found to be reliable. The sample data shows an overall movement of woodlice to the moist chamber. What statistical test could you use to test whether the results are significant after 180 seconds?
  16. 16. A.4.U1 Innate behaviour is inherited from parents and so develops independently of the environment. AND A.4.U5 Learned behaviour develops as a result of experience. AND A.4.U8 Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge. Behaviour The behaviour of an animal is the ways in which it reacts and relates to stimuli and the environment. Innate Behaviour Learned Behaviour genetically based Based on experience Not modified by the individual Modified by the individual by trial and error Generally uniform: low variation in population High variation within the population Unaffected by environment (in the individual) Highly affected by the environment Beneficial behaviours evolve through natural selection: survival and reproduction. Capacity to learn may be product of natural selection, rather than specific behaviours. Examples: Suckling instinct in newborns Migration of blackcaps Hunting instincts Examples: Acquisition of language & social skills Domesticated behaviour in pets Training dolphins to perform.
  17. 17. A.4.U1 Innate behaviour is inherited from parents and so develops independently of the environment. AND A.4.U5 Learned behaviour develops as a result of experience. AND A.4.U8 Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge. Behaviour The behaviour of an animal is the ways in which it reacts and relates to stimuli and the environment. Innate Behaviour Learned Behaviour genetically based Based on experience Not modified by the individual Modified by the individual by trial and error Generally uniform: low variation in population High variation within the population Unaffected by environment (in the individual) Highly affected by the environment Beneficial behaviours evolve through natural selection: survival and reproduction. Capacity to learn may be product of natural selection, rather than specific behaviours. Examples: Suckling instinct in newborns Migration of blackcaps Hunting instincts Examples: Acquisition of language & social skills Domesticated behaviour in pets Training dolphins to perform.
  18. 18. https://youtu.be/5Cp7_In7f88 https://youtu.be/bXQAgzfwuNQ
  19. 19. AND A.4.U5 Learned behaviour develops as a result of experience. AND A.4.U8 Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge. Learning for Survival Innate behaviours can only be modified as a result of natural selection, taking many generations. Learning allows for behaviours to be modified by the individual, in response to the environment, giving a survival advantage. Many behaviours have an innate component, such as birds learning birdsong, which can then be modified by learning. Associative learning through reflex (classical) conditioning pairs stimulus with response. Animals can be conditioned to accordingly to positive stimuli (such as mate calls) and negative stimuli (such as danger). With operant conditioning, positive behaviours are rewarded (e.g. more food for foraging in one area), where negative are punished (e.g. pain as a result of dangerous actions). Observation can be used as a method of learning, as can imprinting: learning which occurs at key periods of development and susceptibility to learning. Human children learn by ‘Money See, Monkey Do’. Chimps don’t. By Carl Zimmer. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/ 13/science/13essa.html?_r=0
  20. 20. A.4.U9 Memory is the process of encoding, storing and accessing information. Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Memory is essential for the process of learning; without it knowledge and skills could not be acquired and the cues for initiating the learned behaviour could not be recognised. Encoding receiving, processing and combining of received information Storage creation of a permanent record of the encoded information in short term or long term memory Retrieval calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity https://stlong.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/mmap_memory.jpg
  21. 21. http://animals.howstuffworks.com/pets/dog-training.htm http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/pavl ov/pavlov.html Pavlov’s Experiment on Reflex (Classical) Conditioning of dogs A.4.U4 Reflex conditioning involves forming new associations. AND A.4.A2 Pavlov’s experiments into reflex conditioning in dogs.
  22. 22. A.4.U7 Operant conditioning is a form of learning that consists of trial and error experiences. https://youtu.be/I_ctJqjlrHA http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/anim_5.htm Learn about Skinner’s original work: Use operant conditioning on yourself:
  23. 23. A.4.U7 Operant conditioning is a form of learning that consists of trial and error experiences. https://youtu.be/H6LEcM0E0io Operant conditioning in The Big Bang Theory https://youtu.be/JA96Fba-WHk
  24. 24. A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular life stage and is independent of the consequences of behaviour. AND A.4.A3 The role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong. https://youtu.be/VjE0Kdfos4Y https://youtu.be/Hm_peAugIk0
  25. 25. A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular life stage and is independent of the consequences of behaviour. AND A.4.A3 The role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong. https://sourceforge.net/projects/audacity/ http://www.virtual-bird.com/birdsounds.htm
  26. 26. A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular life stage and is independent of the consequences of behaviour. AND A.4.A3 The role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong. http://www.starlingtalk.com/BirdSong.htm
  27. 27. A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular life stage and is independent of the consequences of behaviour. https://youtu.be/2UIU9XH-mUI
  28. 28. Nature of science: Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies - laboratory experiments and field investigations helped in the understanding of different types of behaviour and learning. (3.1) laboratory experiments and field investigations into behaviour There were several famous experiments highlighted in the presentation that critical to the development of our understanding of behaviour: Pavlov gained a Nobel prize for his work. Revisit the links and videos to find out more about them: https://youtu.be/2UIU9XH-mUI Imprinting: Konrad Lorenz https://youtu.be/I_ctJqjlrHA Operant conditioning: B F Skinner Reflex conditioning: Ivan Pavlov http://www.nobelprize.org/e ducational/medicine/pavlov/i ndex.html
  29. 29. How do you learn? TOK Think of instances of learning in your own life. To which of the following methods of learning might you attribute them? • Reflex conditioning • Operant conditioning • Imprinting • Observation/ imitation If we think of learning as a ‘relatively permanent change in behaviour’, can you think of examples of behaviours or responses you have unlearned? Why? How might the role of the following affect your learning in a subject? • Feedback • Grades • Demonstrations or labs • Discussion Reflex conditioning a human: https://vimeo.com/35754924
  30. 30. Bibliography / Acknowledgments

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