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BioKnowledgy 4.4 Climate change

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BioKnowledgy presentation on 4.4 Climate change

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BioKnowledgy 4.4 Climate change

  1. 1. Essential idea: Essential idea: Concentrations of gases in the atmosphere affect climates experienced at the Earth’s surface. By Chris Paine https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/ The greenhouse effect is accepted scientific theory. There are certain gasses in the atmosphere cause the sun's heat to be trapped and allow the surface of the planet to warm. Without it the surface of the planet would be too cold for life to exist. To explain the images are quotes from NASA: "Left: 1880-1889. Right: 2000-2009. These maps compare temperatures in each region of the world to what they were from 1951 to 1980 ... Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15 to 0.20 °C per decade”. These changes in temperature correlate with changes in CO2 levels. CO2 is now at a record high of 400 ppm. 4.4 Climate change http://climate.nasa.gov/images/ImageLarge-61.jpg
  2. 2. Understandings, Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. The harmful consequences of ozone depletion do not need to be discussed and it should be made clear that ozone depletion is not the cause of the enhanced greenhouse effect. 4.4.U3 The impact of a gas depends on its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as on its concentration in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour should be included in discussions. 4.4.U4 The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat). 4.4.U5 Longer wave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that retain the heat in the atmosphere. 4.4.U6 Global temperatures and climate patterns are influenced by concentrations of greenhouse gases. 4.4.U7 There is a correlation between rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide since the start of the industrial revolution 200 years ago and average global temperatures. 4.4.U8 Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are largely due to increases in the combustion of fossilized organic matter. 4.4.A1 Threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide. 4.4.A2 Correlations between global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations on Earth. 4.4.A3 Evaluating claims that human activities are not causing climate change.
  3. 3. 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg The Earth is kept much by gases in the atmosphere that retain heat. These gases are referred to as greenhouses gases. The greenhouse gases that have the largest warming effect on the Earth are: • carbon dioxide (below) • water vapour (e.g. clouds) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/04/climate_change/html/greenhouse.stm Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. nitrogen oxides are released naturally by bacteria in some habitats and also by agriculture and vehicle exhausts. Greenhouse gases together make up less than 1% of the atmosphere.
  4. 4. 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg The Earth is kept much by gases in the atmosphere that retain heat. These gases are referred to as greenhouses gases. Q – why is the surface of the Earth warmer at night if there is cloud cover?
  5. 5. 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg The Earth is kept much by gases in the atmosphere that retain heat. These gases are referred to as greenhouses gases. Q – why is the surface of the Earth warmer at night if there is cloud cover? The water droplets in clouds retain heat during the day and at night re- radiate the heat back to the surface
  6. 6. 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg The Earth is kept much by gases in the atmosphere that retain heat. These gases are referred to as greenhouses gases. Q – why is the surface of the Earth warmer at night if there is cloud cover? Q – why is the surface of the Earth cooler when there is more cloud coverage. The water droplets in clouds retain heat during the day and at night re- radiate the heat back to the surface
  7. 7. 4.4.U1 Carbon dioxide and water vapour are the most significant greenhouse gases. 4.4.U2 Other gases including methane and nitrogen oxides have less impact. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg The Earth is kept much by gases in the atmosphere that retain heat. These gases are referred to as greenhouses gases. Q – why is the surface of the Earth warmer at night if there is cloud cover? Q – why is the surface of the Earth cooler when there is more cloud coverage. The water droplets in clouds retain heat during the day and at night re- radiate the heat back to the surface The water droplets in clouds reflect a range of different wavelengths of radiation in both directions (including radiation coming inward that would have been re-emitted as heat*). *Although clouds make the surface of the Earth cooler in the short term. They do not stop the greenhouse effect, it is just delayed or slowed down.
  8. 8. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg 4.4.U3 The impact of a gas depends on its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as on its concentration in the atmosphere. impact of a greenhouse gas abundance in the atmosphere Ability to absorb long- wave radiation (especially infrared/heat)
  9. 9. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg 4.4.U3 The impact of a gas depends on its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as on its concentration in the atmosphere. impact of a greenhouse gas abundance in the atmosphere rate of release persistence Ability to absorb long- wave radiation (especially infrared/heat)
  10. 10. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GoldenMedows.jpg 4.4.U3 The impact of a gas depends on its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as on its concentration in the atmosphere. impact of a greenhouse gas Ability to absorb long- wave radiation (especially infrared/heat) abundance in the atmosphere rate of release persistence Water vapour enters the atmosphere very rapidly, but only remains for days whereas CO2 persists for years. Methane has 33 times the effect of CO2 (but is not very abundant) CO2 is very abundant making up 400 ppm by volume of the atmosphere (0.04%)
  11. 11. 4.4.U4 The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat). 4.4.U5 Longer wave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that retain the heat in the atmosphere. http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/globalcarboncycle.html The surface of the Earth absorbs short- wave solar energy and re-emits at longer wavelengths (as heat). Approx. 25% of solar radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere. Approx. 75% of solar radiation penetrates the atmosphere and reaches the Earth’s surface. Up to 85%* of re-emitted heat is captured by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. *This value, though variable, is known to be rising; very likely the result of human activities. Heat passes back to the surface of the Earth, causing warming How the greenhouse effect works 1 2 3 4 5
  12. 12. 4.4.U4 The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat). 4.4.U5 Longer wave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that retain the heat in the atmosphere. http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/globalcarboncycle.html The surface of the Earth absorbs short- wave solar energy and re-emits at longer wavelengths (as heat). Approx. 25% of solar radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere. Approx. 75% of solar radiation penetrates the atmosphere and reaches the Earth’s surface. Up to 85%* of re-emitted heat is captured by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. *This value, though variable, is known to be rising; very likely the result of human activities. Heat passes back to the surface of the Earth, causing warming How the greenhouse effect works 1 2 3 4 5
  13. 13. 4.4.U4 The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat). 4.4.U5 Longer wave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that retain the heat in the atmosphere. How the greenhouse effect works http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_green_house_effect.svg (this diagram quantifies the effect in Watts / m2)
  14. 14. 4.4.U4 The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat). 4.4.U5 Longer wave radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases that retain the heat in the atmosphere. Use the animations/tutorials to improve your understanding and find out more. How the greenhouse effect works http://www.damocles- eu.org/education/Animation_about_the_greenhouse_eff ect_182.shtml http://www.sumanasinc.com/web content/animations/content/green house.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/ 04/climate_change/html/greenhouse.stm http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/globalca rboncycle.html
  15. 15. 4.4.U7 There is a correlation between rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide since the start of the industrial revolution 200 years ago and average global temperatures. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/co2problem.htm Key points • global temperatures show large variations (for various reasons) • (despite this) there is strong support for correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperatures Evidence for a correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and average global temperatures
  16. 16. 4.4.A2 Correlations between global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations on Earth. Analysis of the gas content of the bubbles gives both the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the air temperature (from oxygen isotopes) at the time ice was formed. To deduce historic carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures ice cores are drilled in Antarctic ice sheets http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GISP2_team_photo_core37.jpeghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GISP2_1855m_ice_core_layers.png Vostock ice core (pictured) drilled at a Russian monitoring station in East Antarctica is an example of an ice core. A cylinder of ice was collected by drilling from to the bottom of the Antarctic ice sheet. The total length of the core was 2083 meters. The core shows annual layers, which can be used to date the air bubbles trapped in the ice.
  17. 17. 4.4.A2 Correlations between global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations on Earth. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/co2problem.htm Evidence for a correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and average global temperatures Key points • The correlation is supported by ice core data over the last 400,000 years • Temperature shows greater variation than CO2 • Most, but not all rises and falls in CO2 have correlated with temperature rises and falls • The same trend has been found in other ice cores. n.b. Vostock is a Russian monitoring station in East Antarctica
  18. 18. 4.4.A2 Correlations between global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations on Earth. http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/co2problem.htm Evidence for a correlation between atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and average global temperatures Key points • The correlation is supported by ice core data over the last 400,000 years • Temperature shows greater variation than CO2 • Most, but not all rises and falls in CO2 have correlated with temperature rises and falls • The same trend has been found in other ice cores. n.b. Vostock is a Russian monitoring station in East Antarctica
  19. 19. 4.4.U8 Recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are largely due to increases in the combustion of fossilized organic matter. http://radioviceonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/knorr2009_co2_sequestration.pdf Industrial revolution has started Large increases in usage of fossil fuels The link between human emissions and atmospheric levels of CO2 Key points • There is a strong correlation between human emissions and atmospheric levels of CO2 • As atmospheric CO2 levels have increased the amount of CO2 absorbed by carbon sinks has increased (only about 40% of emissions have remained in the atmosphere)
  20. 20. 4.4.U6 Global temperatures and climate patterns are influenced by concentrations of greenhouse gases. Global average temperatures are not directly proportional to greenhouse gas concentrations. Other factors, e.g. sun spot activity, have an impact global average temperatures increases in greenhouse gas concentrations will likely cause: • higher global average temperatures • more frequent and intense heat waves • some areas becoming more prone to droughts • some areas more prone to intense periods of rainfall and flooding • tropical storms to be more frequent and more powerful • Changes to ocean currents, e.g. weakening of the Gulf Stream would mean colder temperatures in north-west Europe http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hurricane_Elena.jpg
  21. 21. 4.4.A1 Threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide. Ocean acidification – the causes and effects http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anim ations/content/acidification.html Research indicates that, by 2100 coral reefs may erode faster than they can be rebuilt. This could compromise the viability of these ecosystems and the (estimated) one million species that depend on coral reef habitat. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/What+is+Ocean+Acidification%3 F http://youtu.be/5cqCvcX7buo http://youtu.be/GL7qJYKzcsk http://youtu.be/Wo-bHt1bOsw
  22. 22. 4.4.A1 Threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide. The ocean absorbs about 25% of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Therefore as atmospheric CO2 increases so do the levels in the ocean. Ocean acidification – the causes and effects http://pmel.noaa.gov/co2/files/hitimeseries2.jpg Since 1800 the pH of seawater* has fallen by 0.1 pH units. Since the pH scale is logarithmic, this represents approx. a 30% increase in acidity. Estimates of future CO2 levels, indicate that by 2100 seawater could be nearly 150% more acidic (a further decrease of 0.5 pH) to a level not seen for more than 20 million years. *seawater refers to the surface of oceans which are affected more than the depths.
  23. 23. 4.4.A1 Threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide. When CO2 dissolves in water it forms a variety of molecules: • dissolved free CO2 • carbonic acid (H2CO3) • bicarbonate (HCO−3) • carbonate (CO3 2−) Ocean acidification – the causes and effects Carbonate ions are not very soluble, therefore the concentration in seawater is low. Dissolved CO2 decreases the carbonate concentration further. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/files/oareaction_med.jpg It is not just the creation of carbonic acid that affects pH; when bicarbonate and carbonate ions are formed H+ ions are released thus decreasing the pH of seawater
  24. 24. 4.4.A1 Threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide. Ocean acidification – the causes and effects At risk Benefit Marine calcifying species, including oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow water corals, deep sea corals, and calcareous plankton.* Photosynthetic algae and sea grasses Need to absorb carbonate ions from seawater to make the calcium carbonate in their skeletons. Low CO2 is a limiting factor for photosynthesis *Shelled organisms are often keystone species and therefore the entire food web may also be at risk. The pteropod is a tiny sea creature about the size of a small pea. Pteropods are a major food source for many animals including North Pacific juvenile salmon. The photos below show what happens to a pteropod’s shell when placed in sea water with pH and carbonate levels projected for the year 2100. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/What+is+Ocean+Acidification%3F
  25. 25. 4.4.A3 Evaluating claims that human activities are not causing climate change. http://www.skepticalscience.com/ Many claims that human activities are not causing climate change have been made in the media, whether it be in newspapers, on television or on the internet. It is important to realise that not all sources are trustworthy and it is important to know the motivation of those publishing claims on either side of the debate. Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Climate Change Debate http://youtu.be/cjuGCJJUGsg
  26. 26. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Jason de Nys

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