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BioKnowledgy 2.6 Structure of DNA and RNA

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BioKnowledgy 2.6 Structure of DNA and RNA

  1. 1. By Chris Paine https://bioknowledgy.weebly.com/ 2.6 Structure of DNA and RNA Essential idea: The structure of DNA allows efficient storage of genetic information. There is 2m of DNA in each human cell, however the most cells in the human body have a diameter of 10 μm. This DNA is divided in chromosomes and coiled around proteins called histones so that it can be efficiently stored in each cell's nucleus. The human genome project which has decoded the case sequence for the whole 2m of the human genome requires a data warehouse (pictured) to store the information electronically. This should give a good idea of just how efficient DNA is at storing information and why it needs to be so. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2013/11/big-data-meets-tiny-storage/
  2. 2. Understandings, Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. 2.6.U2 DNA differs from RNA in the number of strands present, the base composition and the type of pentose. 2.6.U3 DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs. 2.6.A1 Crick and Watson’s elucidation of the structure of DNA using model making. 2.6.S1 Drawing simple diagrams of the structure of single nucleotides of DNA and RNA, using circles, pentagons and rectangles to represent phosphates, pentoses and bases. In diagrams of DNA structure, the helical shape does not need to be shown, but the two strands should be shown antiparallel. Adenine should be shown paired with thymine and guanine with cytosine, but the relative lengths of the purine and pyrimidine bases do not need to be recalled, nor the numbers of hydrogen bonds between the base pairs.
  3. 3. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. http://youtu.be/qy8dk5iS1f0
  4. 4. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. A nucelotide: a single unit of a nucleic acid There are two types of nucleic acid: DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids are very large molecules that are constructed by linking together nucleotides to form a polymer.
  5. 5. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. covalent bond covalent bond A nucelotide: a single unit of a nucleic acid • five carbon atoms = a pentose sugar • If the sugar is Deoxyribose the polymer is Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) • If the sugar Ribose the polymer is Ribose Nucleic Acid (RNA) • acidic • negatively charged • contains nitrogen • has one or two rings in it’s structure
  6. 6. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. http://lucasmind.tumblr.com What is the relevance of this coffee cup to this topic?
  7. 7. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA: Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) RNA Shares the same bases except that Uracil (U) replaces Thymine n.b. when talking about bases always use the full name on the first instance
  8. 8. 2.6.U1 The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides. • Nucleotides a linked into a single strand via a condensation reaction • bonds are formed between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the pentose sugar of the next • The phosphate group (attached to the 5'-C of the sugar) joins with the hydroxyl (OH) group attached to the 3'-C of the sugar • This results in a phosphodiester bond between the two nucleotides and the formation of a water molecule • Successive condensation reactions between nucleotides results in the formation of a long single strand
  9. 9. RNA DNA Bases Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Uracil (U) Cytosine (C) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Sugar Ribose Deoxyribose Number of strands Single stranded, and often, but not always, linear in shape Two anti-parallel, complementary strands form a double helix 2.6.U2 DNA differs from RNA in the number of strands present, the base composition and the type of pentose. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RiboseAndDeoxy.gif
  10. 10. 2.6.U3 DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs.
  11. 11. 2.6.U3 DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs.
  12. 12. 2.6.U3 DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs.
  13. 13. 2.6.U3 DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs. • Each polynucleotide chain (strand) consists of a chain of nucleotides bonded covalently. • Two polynucleotide chains of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs: Adenine pairs with thymine (A=T) via two hydrogen bonds Guanine pairs with cytosine (G=C) via three hydrogen bonds • In order for bases to be facing each other and thus able to pair, the two strands must run in opposite directions (i.e. they are anti-parallel) • As the polynucleotide chain lengthens, the atoms that make up the molecule will arrange themselves in an optimal energy configuration. This position of least resistance results in the double-stranded DNA twisting to form a double helix with approximately 10 - 15 bases per twist. In Summary:
  14. 14. 2.6.S1 Drawing simple diagrams of the structure of single nucleotides of DNA and RNA, using circles, pentagons and rectangles to represent phosphates, pentoses and bases. Use this simple, but very effective You Tube video to learn how to draw the nucleotides making up a short section of a DNA molecule. To make sure you have learn this skill you need to practice it repeatedly. n.b. ideally label lines should be drawn with and rule and should not have arrow heads. http://youtu.be/kTH13oI8BSI
  15. 15. 2.6.A1 Crick and Watson’s elucidation of the structure of DNA using model making. http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/coll/nonspcoll/catalog ue/picture-dnamodel-900w.jpg Whilst others worked using an experimental basis Watson and Crick used stick-and-ball models to test their ideas on the possible structure of DNA. Building models allowed them to visualize the molecule and to quickly see how well it fitted the available evidence. It was not all easy going however. Their first model, a triple helix, was rejected for several reasons: • The ratio of Adenine to Thymine was not 1:1 (as discovered by Chargaff) • It required too much magnesium (identified by Franklin) From their setbacks they realized: • DNA must be a double helix. • The relationship between the bases and base pairing • The strands must be anti-parallel to allow base pairing to happen Because of the visual nature of their work the second and the correct model quickly suggested: • Possible mechanisms for replication • Information was encoded in triplets of bases
  16. 16. 2.6.A1 Crick and Watson’s elucidation of the structure of DNA using model making. http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu/coll/nonspcoll/catalog ue/picture-dnamodel-900w.jpg http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/dna_double_helix/readmore.html http://youtu.be/sf0YXnAFBs8 Find out more about the discovery of DNA: Watson and Crick gained Nobel prizes for their discovery. It should be remembered that their success was based on the evidence they gained from the work of others. In particular the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, who were using X-ray diffraction was critical to their success.
  17. 17. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Jason de Nys

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