Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

BioKnowledgy 2.4 Proteins

108,970 views

Published on

Helpful information to develop understanding and notes for

Published in: Education
  • Chris Paine - Thank you for your notes! They are so helpful... I see that the powerpoints are now downloading as PDFs. Is there anyway to go back to downloading as Powerpoints which we can then add to or edit easier?
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

BioKnowledgy 2.4 Proteins

  1. 1. 2.4 Proteins Essential idea: Proteins have a very wide range of functions in living organisms. One of the central ideas in Biology is that structure dictates function. Above you can see insulin in its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Polypeptides vary hugely in the combination and number of amino acids that they are composed from. Even if we consider a single polypeptide it's properties, and hence it's function, would vary greatly depending on it's level of structure. Insulin can exist in all these forms, but the active form, which controls blood glucose levels, is a the tertiary structure. http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/insulinproteinstructure.html By Chris Paine http://www.bioknowledgy.info/
  2. 2. Understandings, Applications and Skills Statement Guidance 2.4.U1 Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides. 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. Students should know that most organisms use the same 20 amino acids in the same genetic code although there are some exceptions. Specific examples could be used for illustration. 2.4.U3 Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides. 2.4.U4 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes. 2.4.U5 A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together. 2.4.U6 The amino acid sequence determines the three- dimensional conformation of a protein. 2.4.U7 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions. 2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. The detailed structure of the six proteins selected to illustrate the functions of proteins is not needed. 2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Egg white or albumin solutions can be used in denaturation experiments. 2.4.S1 Drawing molecular diagrams to show the formation of a peptide bond.
  3. 3. 2.1.U5 Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions. A ribosome condenses two amino acids into a dipeptide forming a peptide bond Example of anabolism by condensation http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peptidformationball.svg The bonds formed are types of covalent bonds. Bonding monomers together creates a polymer (mono = one, poly = many) This is also key to understanding: • 2.4.U1 Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides. • 2.4.S1 Drawing molecular diagrams to show the formation of a peptide bond.
  4. 4. 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peptide_syn.png http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/education_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images/2wdk_2wdl_front.jpg Ribosomes are the molecules within cells that facilitate the formation of peptide bonds and hence where polypeptides are synthesized peptide bond
  5. 5. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amino_Acids.svg 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. n.b. there are 22 amino acids, but only 20 amino acids are encoded by the universal genetic code.
  6. 6. 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. Hydroxyproline is an example of an amino acid created not by the genetic code, but modification, after polypeptide formation, of proline (by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase). http://chempolymerproject.wikispaces.com/file/view/collagen_%28alpha_chain%29.jpg/34235269/collagen_%28alpha_chain%29.jpg • This modification of proline increases the stability of the collagen triple helix. • Collagen is a a structural protein used to provide tensile strength in tendons, ligaments, skin and blood vessel walls. prolylhydroxylase
  7. 7. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amino_Acids.svg “OMG I HAVE TO LEARN THE NAMES OF ALL 20 !?!?” “Relax, no you don’t, you just need an awareness of the concepts as outlined.” 2.4.U2 There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes.
  8. 8. 2.4.U3 Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.
  9. 9. 2.4.U3 Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.
  10. 10. If a polypeptide contains just 7 amino acids there can be 207 = 1,280,000,000 possible polypeptides generated. Given that polypeptides can contain up to 30,000 amino acids (e.g. Titin) the different possible combinations of polypeptides are effectively infinite. 2.4.U3 Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.
  11. 11. 2.4.U4 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peptide_syn.png Ribosomes are the site of polypeptide synthesis, but ribosomes need a template – the messenger RNA, which, in turn, is translated by transfer RNA molecules which, in turn, carry specific amino acids. peptide bond Q – Where does the messenger RNA come from?
  12. 12. 2.4.U4 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes.
  13. 13. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amino_Acids.svg Nature of science: Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies - most but not all organisms assemble proteins from the same amino acids. (3.1) n.b. there are 22 amino acids, but only 20 amino acids are encoded by the universal genetic code. Almost all organisms use their genetic code to produce the same 20 amino acids*. What can you deduce from this pattern? *What varies between organisms is how the amino acids are combined into different polypeptides and proteins.
  14. 14. 2.4.U6 The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein. AND 2.4.U5 A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together. Proteins may consist of a single polypeptide or multiple polypeptides that fold together.
  15. 15. 7.3.U7 The sequence and number of amino acids in the polypeptide is the primary structure. AND 7.3.U8 The secondary structure is the formation of alpha helices and beta pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonding. AND 7.3.U9 The tertiary structure is the further folding of the polypeptide stabilized by interactions between R groups. AND 7.3.U10 The quaternary structure exists in proteins with more than one polypeptide chain. The level a protein conforms to is determined by it’s amino acid sequence. (Polypeptide) • The order / sequence of the amino acids of which the protein is composed • Formed by covalent peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids • Controls all subsequent levels of structure • The chains of amino acids fold or turn upon themselves • Held together by hydrogen bonds between (non-adjacent) amine (N-H) and carboxylic (C-O) groups • H-bonds provide a level of structural stability • Fibrous proteins • The polypeptide folds and coils to form a complex 3D shape • Caused by interactions between R groups (H- bonds, disulphide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrophilic / hydrophobic interactions) • Tertiary structure may be important for the function (e.g. specificity of active site in enzymes) • Globular proteins • The interaction between multiple polypeptides or prosthetic groups • A prosthetic group is an inorganic compound involved in a protein (e.g. the heme group in haemoglobin) • Fibrous and Globular proteins n.b. although you don’t need to be able to outline the different levels of structure for knowing of them helps to understand the difference between globular and fibrous proteins. This is though required knowledge for AHL (7.3.U7 to 7.3.U10) The four levels of protein structure.
  16. 16. In globular proteins the hydrophobic R groups are folded into the core of the molecule, away from the surrounding water molecules, this makes them soluble. In fibrous proteins the hydrophobic R groups are exposed and therefore the molecule is insoluble. Proteins are commonly described as either being fibrous or globular in nature. Fibrous proteins have structural roles whereas globular proteins are functional (active in a cell’s metabolism). 2.4.U6 The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein.
  17. 17. 2.4.U7 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions. Function Description Key examples Catalysis There are thousands of different enzymes to catalyse specific chemical reactions within the cell or outside it. Rubisco Muscle contraction Actin and myosin together cause the muscle contractions used in locomotion and transport around the body. Cytoskeletons Tubulin is the subunit of microtubules that give animals cells their shape and pull on chromosomes during mitosis. Tensile strengthening Fibrous proteins give tensile strength needed in skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessel walls. collagen Blood clotting Plasma proteins act as clotting factors that cause blood to turn from a liquid to a gel in wounds. Transport of nutrients and gases Proteins in blood help transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, iron and lipids. Nothing can compare with the versatility of proteins. Their functionality and usage in organisms is unrivalled. • Key examples are outlined in more detail. • Although a key example spider silk is not mentioned above as the table refers to uses within the organism Usage of proteins
  18. 18. 2.4.U7 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions. Function Description Key examples Cell adhesion Membrane proteins cause adjacent animal cells to stick to each other within tissues. Membrane transport Membrane proteins are used for facilitated diffusion and active transport, and also for electron transport during cell respiration and photosynthesis. Hormones Some such as insulin, FSH and LH are proteins, but hormones are chemically very diverse. Insulin Receptors Binding sites in membranes and cytoplasm for hormones, neurotransmitters, tastes and smells, and also receptors for light in the eye and in plants. rhodopsin Packing of DNA Histones are associated with DNA in eukaryotes and help chromosomes to condense during mitosis. Immunity This is the most diverse group of proteins, as cells can make huge numbers of different antibodies. immunoglobulins Biotechnologically has allowed us to use proteins in industry examples are: • enzymes for removing stains in clothing detergent • monoclonal antibodies for pregnancy tests • insulin for treating diabetics • Disease treatments Genetically modified organisms are often used as to produce proteins. This however is still a technically difficult and expensive process. Nothing can compare with the versatility of proteins. Their functionality and usage in organisms is unrivalled. Usage of proteins
  19. 19. Rubisco 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. • Full name ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase • Enzyme - catalyses the reaction that fixes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere • Provides the source of carbon from which all carbon compounds, required by living organisms, are produced. • Found in high concentrations in leaves and algal cells http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/74/Rubisco.png/220px-Rubisco.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Mint-leaves-2007.jpg
  20. 20. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. • A hormone – signals many cells (e.g. liver cells) to absorb glucose and help reduce the glucose concentration of the blood. • Affected cells have receptor (proteins) on their surface to which insulin can (reversibly) bind to. • Secreted by β cells in the pancreas and transported by the blood. http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/insulinproteinstructure.html The pancreas of type I diabetics don’t produce sufficient insulin therefore they must periodically inject synthetically produced insulin to correct their blood sugar concentration. Insulin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inzul%C3%ADn.jpg
  21. 21. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. immunoglobulins https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a9/Antibody_IgG2.png/320px-Antibody_IgG2.png • Also known as antibodies. • Two antigen (a molecule on the pathogen which provokes an immune response) binding sites - one on each ‘arm’ • Binding sites vary greatly between immunoglobulins (hypervariable) to enable them to respond a huge range of pathogens. • Other parts of the immunoglobulin molecule cause a response, e.g. acting as a marker to phagocytes (which engulf the pathogen)
  22. 22. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. rhodopsin • A pigment that absorbs light • Membrane protein of rod cells of the retina (light sensitive region at the back of the eye) • Rhodopsin consists of the opsin polypeptide surrounding a retinal prosthetic group • retinal molecule absorbs a single photon of light -> changes shape -> change to the opsin -> the rod cell sends a nerve impulse to the brain • Even very low light intensities can be detected. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina#mediaviewer/File:Fundus_photograph_of_normal_left_eye.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rhodopsin.jpg
  23. 23. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. collagen • A number of different forms • All are rope-like proteins made of three polypeptides wound together. • About a quarter of all protein in the human body is collagen • Forms a mesh of fibres in skin and in blood vessel walls that resists tearing. • Gives strength to tendons, ligaments, skin and blood vessel walls. • Forms part of teeth and bones, helps to prevent cracks and fractures to bones and teeth http://chempolymerproject.wikispaces.com/file/view/collagen_%28alpha_chain%29.jpg/34235269/collagen_%28alpha_chain%29.jpg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tooth_(human)#mediaviewer/File:Teeth_by_David_Shankbone.jpg
  24. 24. 2.4.A1 Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions. spider silk • Different types of silk with different functions • Dragline silk is stronger than steel and tougher than Kevlar • When first made it contains regions where the polypeptide forms parallel arrays (bottom) • Some regions seem like a disordered tangle (middle) • When the stretched the polypeptide gradually extends, making the silk extensible and very resistant to breaking. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_silk#mediaviewer/File:Structure_of_spider_silk_thread_Modified.svg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_silk#mediaviewer/File:Araneus_diadematus_underside_1.jpg
  25. 25. 2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome. To analyze a proteome mixtures of proteins are extracted from a sample and are then separated by gel electrophoresis. The background shows a stained example of gel electrophoresis. Genome: all of the genes of a cell, a tissue or an organism The genome determines what proteins an organism can possibly produce. A genome is unique to most individuals (identical twins and clones share a genome) Proteome: all of the proteins produced by a cell, a tissue or an organism. • Being a function of both the genome and the environment to which the organism is exposed the proteome is both variable (over time) and unique to every individual (including identical twins and clones). • It reveals what is happening in an organism at a particular time Environmental factors The environment influences what proteins an organism needs to produce and in what quantity. Example factors would be nutrition, temperature, activity levels and anything else that affects a cell’s activities. http://proteomics.arizona.edu/sites/proteomics.arizona.edu/files/1D_Gel_CD_4.png Q – Genome or proteome, which is larger? Explain the reasons for your answer. The proteome
  26. 26. 2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome. To analyze a proteome mixtures of proteins are extracted from a sample and are then separated by gel electrophoresis. The background shows a stained example of gel electrophoresis. http://proteomics.arizona.edu/sites/proteomics.arizona.edu/files/1D_Gel_CD_4.png Q – Genome or proteome, which is larger? Explain the reasons for your answer. The proteome
  27. 27. 2.4.U8 Every individual has a unique proteome. To analyze a proteome mixtures of proteins are extracted from a sample and are then separated by gel electrophoresis. The background shows a stained example of gel electrophoresis. http://proteomics.arizona.edu/sites/proteomics.arizona.edu/files/1D_Gel_CD_4.png Q – Genome or proteome, which is larger? Explain the reasons for your answer. A – Proteome: • Not all genes produce polypeptides • Multiple polypeptides and prosthetic groups can interact • Amino acids can be modified (e.g. Collagen) • A polypeptide can fold into different levels of structure (e.g. insulin) The proteome
  28. 28. 2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Extremes of pH can cause denaturation: charges on R groups are changed, breaking ionic bonds within the protein or causing new ionic bonds to form. A denatured protein does not normally return to its former structure – the denaturation is permanent. Soluble proteins often become insoluble and form a precipitate. The three-dimensional conformation of proteins is stabilized by bonds or interactions between R groups of amino acids within the molecule. Most of these bonds and interactions are relatively weak and they can be disrupted or broken. This results in a change to the conformation of the protein, which is called denaturation. Heat can cause denaturation: vibrations within the molecule breaks intramolecular bonds or interactions. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Fried_egg%2C_sunny_side_up_%28black_background%29.PNG Denaturation of proteins
  29. 29. 2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Thermophiles are organisms (often archea or eubacteria) that live in relatively hot conditions (45 to122 °C). In order that they can survive their proteins are stable at the higher than normal temperatures they experience. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Champagne_vent_white_smokers.jpg The background image shows white smokers, a particular kind of hydrothermal vent which produces very hot carbon dioxide gas. These vents can be found deep in oceans and produce temperatures in excess of 100 °C, but life can still be found around them. Denaturation of proteins
  30. 30. 2.4.A2 Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Your task: determine the temperature stability of albumen Available equipment: • Waterbaths • Albumen otherwise known as egg white • Thermometers • Colorimeters (optional) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Fried_egg%2C_sunny_side_up_%28black_background%29.PNG Investigating the denaturation of proteins
  31. 31. Bibliography / Acknowledgments Jason de Nys

×