A1 -‐ components of the human diet Summary ques7ons
A1.1 Deﬁne nutrient = a chemical substance found in foods that is used in the human body. Nutrients • Nutrients are chemicals found in food that the body needs to func7on. • Given the right raw materials, the human body can manufacture many useful chemicals from breaking down and reassembling other chemicals. • Essen7al nutrients are ones that the body cannot manufacture. Therefore we have to eat them regularly.
A1.2 List the type of nutrients that are essen<al in the human diet A1.3 State that non-‐essen<al amino acids can be synthesized in the body from other nutrients. Ques7ons Research and answer these ques7ons in full sentences: • What are nutrients? • What are essen7al nutrients? • Give 2 examples of essen7al amino acids • Give 2 examples of essen7al faKy acids • Give 2 examples of essen7al minerals • Give 2 examples of essen7al Vitamins • Why is water so important in the diet? • What are non-‐essen7al amino acids? Give 2 examples.
A1.4 Outline the consequences of protein deﬁciency malnutri<on. Malnutri7on • There are 3 main kinds of malnutri7on all can lead to health problems: – Not enough food – Too much food – Not the right type of food
A1.4 Outline the consequences of protein deﬁciency malnutri<on. Kwashiorkor • These children are suﬀering from Kwashiorkor – protein deﬁciency. • Explain why they have swollen abdomens.
A1.5 Explain the causes and consequences of phenylketonuria (PKU) and how early diagnosis and special diet can reduce the consequences. PKU Research and answer the following ques7ons in detail and in full sentences: 1. What causes PKU? 2. What enzyme are suﬀerers of PKU unable to produce? What are the consequences of this (explain in full)? 3. How can PKU be controlled by early diagnosis? 4. How can PKU be controlled by diet?
A1.6 Outline the varia<on in the molecular structure of faQy acids. FaKy Acids Copy and complete this table to outline the diﬀerences between the diﬀerent structures of faKy acids: Name Diagram of Descrip7on of Foods that Health structure structure contain them implica7ons Saturated faKy acids Cis unsaturated faKy acids Trans unsaturated faKy acids Mono unsaturated faKy acids Poly unsaturated faKy acids
A1.7 Evaluate the health consequences of diets rich in the diﬀerent types of faQy acid. Fat diets across the world • What is hydrogena7on? Why is it done? • HDL stands for High Density Lipoproteins (o^en called good cholesterol). LDL stands for Low Density Lipoproteins ( bad cholesterol). Using this informa7on, explain why hydrogena7on is thought to be bad for health. • How does ea7ng a diet rich in olive oil help reduce the levels of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in Mediterranean popula7ons? • Give 3 examples of faKy, cold-‐water ﬁsh. What useful substances do they contain? • What health beneﬁts might this account for?
A1.7 Evaluate the health consequences of diets rich in the diﬀerent types of faQy acid. Fat diets across the world: Addi7onal Informa7on • Using the food insight resource add to your notes by answering: • What other than olive oil in the Mediterranean diet that might help reduce CHD? How does this protect cells from damage? • List the other beneﬁts of monounsaturated fats • Omega-‐3 and Omega-‐6 FaKy Acids also help reduce CHD, what addi7onal beneﬁts might they have? • How can you tell that it is not just Japanese gene7cs that gives them these health beneﬁts?
A1.8 Dis<nguish between minerals and vitamins in terms of their chemical nature. A1.9 Outline two of the methods that have been used to determine the recommended daily intake of vitamin C Vitamins and Minerals • Dis7nguish between the chemical structure of Vitamins and Minerals • What does RDI stand for? • What is the older method for calcula7ng RDI? • What is the more modern method?
A1.10 Discuss the amount of Vit. C that an adult should consume per day Vitamin C • What is the Vitamin C deﬁciency disease? Discuss how to cure it. • What is the diﬀerence between RDI, RDA and DRI? • How much Vitamin C is required daily by the body? What happens to any excess? • The RDA of Vitamin C has changed over the years. Suggest reasons why. • What are the beneﬁts and dangers / adverse eﬀects of taking more than the RDI of Vitamin C?
A1.11 List the sources of vit. D in human diets. Vitamin D • List 3 sources of vitamin D in the human diet • Apart from the source how else can humans gain suﬃcient vitamin D?
A1.12 Discuss how the risk of vit. D deﬁciency from insuﬃcient exposure to sunlight can be balanced against the risk of contrac<ng malignant melanoma. Vitamin D deﬁciency • Suggest how environmental condi<ons cause malnutri<on  (past paper ques<on)
A1.13 Explain the beneﬁts of ar<ﬁcial dietary supplementa<on as a means of preven<ng malnutri<on, using iodine as an example. Dietary supplements • Iodine is an essen7al mineral in the diet. In many parts of the world children show symptoms of iodine deﬁciency. Find out the answers to these ques7ons: 1. How is iodine used in the human body? 2. What are the symptoms of iodine deﬁciency? 3. What would be the beneﬁts of dietary supplementa7on with iodine? 4. Would it be feasible to develop a world wide programme of dietary iodine supplementa7on? 5. Are there other mineral deﬁciencies that are widespread causes of malnutri7on?
A1.14 Outline the importance of ﬁbre as a component of a balanced diet. Fibre • Discuss the importance of ﬁbre in the diet.  (IB ques<on)