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A1 summary qs


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A1 summary qs

  1. 1. A1  -­‐  components  of  the  human   diet   Summary  ques7ons  
  2. 2. A1.1  Define  nutrient  =  a  chemical  substance  found  in  foods  that  is  used  in  the  human  body.   Nutrients   •  Nutrients  are  chemicals  found  in  food  that  the   body  needs  to  func7on.   •  Given  the  right  raw  materials,  the  human   body  can  manufacture  many  useful  chemicals   from  breaking  down  and  reassembling  other   chemicals.   •  Essen7al  nutrients  are  ones  that  the  body   cannot  manufacture.    Therefore  we  have  to   eat  them  regularly.  
  3. 3. A1.2  List  the  type  of  nutrients  that  are  essen<al  in  the  human  diet  A1.3  State  that  non-­‐essen<al  amino  acids  can  be  synthesized  in  the  body  from  other  nutrients.   Ques7ons   Research  and  answer  these  ques7ons  in  full  sentences:   •  What  are  nutrients?   •  What  are  essen7al  nutrients?   •  Give  2  examples  of  essen7al  amino  acids   •  Give  2  examples  of  essen7al  faKy  acids   •  Give  2  examples  of  essen7al  minerals   •  Give  2  examples  of  essen7al  Vitamins   •  Why  is  water  so  important  in  the  diet?   •  What  are  non-­‐essen7al  amino  acids?    Give  2  examples.    
  4. 4. A1.4  Outline  the  consequences  of  protein  deficiency  malnutri<on.     Malnutri7on   •  There  are  3  main  kinds  of  malnutri7on  all  can   lead  to  health  problems:   –  Not  enough  food   –  Too  much  food   –  Not  the  right  type  of  food  
  5. 5. A1.4  Outline  the  consequences  of  protein  deficiency  malnutri<on.     Kwashiorkor   •  These  children  are   suffering  from   Kwashiorkor  –  protein   deficiency.   •  Explain  why  they  have   swollen  abdomens.  
  6. 6. A1.5  Explain  the  causes  and  consequences  of  phenylketonuria  (PKU)  and  how  early  diagnosis  and  special  diet  can  reduce  the  consequences.   PKU   Research  and  answer  the  following  ques7ons  in   detail  and  in  full  sentences:   1. What  causes  PKU?   2. What  enzyme  are  sufferers  of  PKU  unable  to   produce?    What  are  the  consequences  of  this   (explain  in  full)?   3. How  can  PKU  be  controlled  by  early  diagnosis?   4. How  can  PKU  be  controlled  by  diet?  
  7. 7. A1.6  Outline  the  varia<on  in  the  molecular  structure  of  faQy  acids.   FaKy  Acids   Copy  and  complete  this  table  to  outline  the  differences  between   the  different  structures  of  faKy  acids:   Name   Diagram  of   Descrip7on  of   Foods  that   Health   structure   structure   contain  them     implica7ons     Saturated  faKy   acids   Cis  unsaturated   faKy  acids   Trans  unsaturated   faKy  acids   Mono  unsaturated   faKy  acids   Poly  unsaturated   faKy  acids  
  8. 8. A1.7  Evaluate  the  health  consequences  of  diets  rich  in  the  different  types  of  faQy  acid.   Fat  diets  across  the  world   •  What  is  hydrogena7on?    Why  is  it  done?   •  HDL  stands  for  High  Density  Lipoproteins  (o^en  called   good  cholesterol).    LDL  stands  for  Low  Density   Lipoproteins  ( bad  cholesterol).    Using  this   informa7on,  explain  why  hydrogena7on  is  thought  to   be  bad  for  health.   •  How  does  ea7ng  a  diet  rich  in  olive  oil  help  reduce   the  levels  of  Coronary  Heart  Disease  (CHD)  in   Mediterranean  popula7ons?   •  Give  3  examples  of  faKy,  cold-­‐water  fish.  What   useful  substances  do  they  contain?   •  What  health  benefits  might  this  account  for?  
  9. 9. A1.7  Evaluate  the  health  consequences  of  diets  rich  in  the  different  types  of  faQy  acid.   Fat  diets  across  the  world:  Addi7onal   Informa7on   •  Using  the  food  insight  resource  add  to  your  notes  by   answering:   •  What  other  than  olive  oil  in  the  Mediterranean  diet   that  might  help  reduce  CHD?    How  does  this  protect   cells  from  damage?   •  List  the  other  benefits  of  monounsaturated  fats   •  Omega-­‐3  and  Omega-­‐6  FaKy  Acids  also  help  reduce   CHD,  what  addi7onal  benefits  might  they  have?   •  How  can  you  tell  that  it  is  not  just  Japanese  gene7cs   that  gives  them  these  health  benefits?  
  10. 10. A1.8  Dis<nguish  between  minerals  and  vitamins  in  terms  of  their  chemical  nature.  A1.9  Outline  two  of  the  methods  that  have  been  used  to  determine  the  recommended  daily  intake  of  vitamin  C   Vitamins  and  Minerals   •  Dis7nguish  between  the  chemical  structure  of   Vitamins  and  Minerals   •  What  does  RDI  stand  for?   •  What  is  the  older  method  for  calcula7ng  RDI?   •  What  is  the  more  modern  method?  
  11. 11. A1.10  Discuss  the  amount  of  Vit.  C  that  an  adult  should  consume  per  day   Vitamin  C   •  What  is  the  Vitamin  C  deficiency  disease?  Discuss  how  to   cure  it.   •  What  is  the  difference  between  RDI,  RDA  and  DRI?   •  How  much  Vitamin  C  is  required  daily  by  the  body?  What   happens  to  any  excess?   •  The  RDA  of  Vitamin  C  has  changed  over  the  years.  Suggest   reasons  why.   •  What  are  the  benefits  and  dangers  /  adverse  effects  of   taking  more  than  the  RDI  of  Vitamin  C?  
  12. 12. A1.11  List  the  sources  of  vit.  D  in  human  diets.   Vitamin  D   •  List  3  sources  of  vitamin  D  in  the  human  diet   •  Apart  from  the  source  how  else  can  humans   gain  sufficient  vitamin  D?  
  13. 13. A1.12  Discuss  how  the  risk  of  vit.  D  deficiency  from  insufficient  exposure  to  sunlight  can  be  balanced  against  the  risk  of  contrac<ng  malignant  melanoma.   Vitamin  D  deficiency   •  Suggest  how  environmental  condi<ons  cause   malnutri<on  [2]  (past  paper  ques<on)  
  14. 14. A1.13  Explain  the  benefits  of  ar<ficial  dietary  supplementa<on  as  a  means  of  preven<ng  malnutri<on,  using  iodine  as  an  example.   Dietary  supplements   •  Iodine  is  an  essen7al  mineral  in  the  diet.    In  many  parts  of   the  world  children  show  symptoms  of  iodine  deficiency.     Find  out  the  answers  to  these  ques7ons:   1.  How  is  iodine  used  in  the  human  body?   2.  What  are  the  symptoms  of  iodine  deficiency?   3.  What  would  be  the  benefits  of  dietary  supplementa7on   with  iodine?   4.  Would  it  be  feasible  to  develop  a  world  wide  programme  of   dietary  iodine  supplementa7on?   5.  Are  there  other  mineral  deficiencies  that  are  widespread   causes  of  malnutri7on?  
  15. 15. A1.14  Outline  the  importance  of  fibre  as  a  component  of  a  balanced  diet.   Fibre   •  Discuss  the  importance  of  fibre  in  the  diet.  [3]  (IB  ques<on)