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Multicultural health standards around the world

This presentation reviews key standards, performance measures, and laws related to multicultural health and cultural competence from the US, Australia, and Scotland. Presented at the EU COST ADAPT meeting, Amsterdam, October 2012.

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Multicultural health standards around the world

  1. 1. Around themulticultural health policy world in 80 minutes (or less)
  2. 2. Julia Puebla Fortier Executive DirectorDiversityRx – Resources for Cross Cultural Health Care www.diversityRx.org
  3. 3. DiversityRx:Improving health care for a diverse world Policy development Working with: Research Hospitals and health departments Information dissemination Universities Education and training Philanthropic foundations Government agencies International organizations
  4. 4. Migrants Indigenous people Foreign workers RefugeesMinorities Medical tourists Foreign brides International students Expat professionals
  5. 5. Policy tools:Laws and regulations, standards, resolutions,performance measures, accountability frameworks U.S. – CLAS Standards, Joint Commission, health reform State laws and regulations: California Australia: Cultural responsiveness framework Scotland: Policy tools and lessons learned
  6. 6. U.S. CLAS Standards (2001)Categories of interventions Culturally Sensitive Interventions  Cultural competence education  Race, ethnic and linguistic concordance  Community health workers and culturally competent health promotion Language Assistance  Bilingual services, oral interpretation, translated written materials
  7. 7. Categories of interventions (con’t) Organizational Supports for Cultural Competence  Management and policy strategies  Community engagement  Information and data for planning and evaluation  Appropriate ethics and conflict resolution processes
  8. 8. Review and enhancement process(2010-12) Review process: literature review, national public comment period, advisory committee Revised objective of standards:  advance health equity  improve quality  help eliminate health care disparities by providing a blueprint to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate services
  9. 9. Expanded definitions Culture: integrated pattern of thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions associated, wholly or partially, with racial, ethnic, or linguistic groups, as well as with religious, spiritual, biological, geographical, or sociological characteristics. Health: including physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being Targeted audience: health care settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and community health centers, as well as organizations that provide behavioral and mental health, public health, emergency, and community health services
  10. 10. New Standard:Governance and Leadership CLAS should be integrated throughout an organization. Requires a bottom-up and a top-down Organizational governance and leadership are key to ensuring the successful implementation and maintenance of CLAS.
  11. 11. The Joint Commission Required accreditation process Early interest in cultural, linguistic issues Comparison of CLAS standards and JC standards Hospital, Language and Culture study Standards and implementation guide released in 2011
  12. 12. National Committee forQuality Assurance Voluntary standards and accrediting body for managed care plans Test waters with CLAS awards program – highlight best practices Multicultural Health Standards released this year Focus on data collection, staff diversity/ cultural competence, language services
  13. 13. National Quality Forum Comprehensive voluntary framework and preferred practices for measuring and reporting cultural competency 45 preferred practices in 6 domains:  Leadership  Integration into management systems  Patient-provider communication  Care delivery structures  Workforce diversity and training  Community engagement
  14. 14. Performance measures for culturalcompetence and disparities reduction NQF endorsement of 12 performance measures, August 2012  Workforce development  Performance evaluation  Leadership commitment  Individual engagement  Cross cultural communication  Language services  Screening for and receipt of language services  Health literacy  Overall organizational cultural competence  (Race, ethnicity and language data collection toolkit previously endorsed  Disparities reduction measures in late 2012
  15. 15. California state law and regulations:SB 853 (2003)Health plans (insurance schemes) required to:periodically evaluate the linguistic needs of their enrolleepopulationsmaintain policies and procedures on access language assistanceservicesinstruct staff on the use of the language assistance servicesmonitor operations and services to ensure compliancesubmit a one-time "Cultural Appropriateness Report”
  16. 16. Lines of accountabilityState law >> Department of Managed Health Care >> Health Plans (insurance schemes) >> In house or contracted hospitals, clinics, services, group practices, individualproviders
  17. 17. Audit (2011)State Department of Managed Health Care is legallyrequired to audit implementation and report to thelegislature43 health plans, ranging in size from 10,000 enrollees tomore than 1 millionUsed survey audit tools to evaluate complianceReviewed consumer complaints
  18. 18. Findings Ongoing need to educate health plans and their providers about the requirements  Language services meet proficiency standards  Services made available at provider offices and hospitals  Services are offered to all even when friends or family can interpret Educate enrollees about their rights to language services and health plan obligations to provide them
  19. 19. Deficiencies The failure to properly train provider groups and offices on the plan’s language assistance program requirements The failure to arrange for the provision of language assistance at all points of contact The failure to ensure the proficiency of the interpreter services provided to plan enrollees
  20. 20. Small and specialized plans (dentaland vision) Majority of deficiencies Smaller enrollment and fewer resources; proportionately more individual provider offices Need to  educate providers on their obligation to provide language assistance  inform the public of the availability of language assistance  coordinate the arrangement of qualified interpreter services within the plans’ health care delivery system  oversee and ensure the quality and timeliness of those services.
  21. 21. Compliance monitoring Significant improvements needed:  Improve oversight of the proficiency of bilingual office staff  Refine criteria used in audit tools to verify proficiency  Ensure that providers comply with the plan’s language assistance program
  22. 22. Are services getting to the patients? Patients have ability to directly request interpreters when making appointments, but mostly do not Health plan pilot project:  Web based appointment system for providers, direct link to booking interpreter  Of 100 providers, only 6 agreed to try it  2 of these reported positive outcomes and satisfaction  Only 20 came to a luncheon to report results and promote the system
  23. 23. State of Victoria, Australia:Cultural responsiveness framework (2009) Link access & equity and quality & safety Embed cultural responsiveness into core planning Different levels of intervention: systemic, organisational, professional and individualhttp://www.health.vic.gov.au/cald
  24. 24. Six Standards A whole-of-organisation approach Leadership demonstrated Accredited interpreters available Inclusive practice in care planning, eg: dietary, spiritual, family, attitudinal, and other cultural practices Consumer/community involve in the planning, improvement Staff professional development opportunities to enhance their cultural responsiveness
  25. 25. Link to quality and safetyFour domains of quality and safety as per the Victorianclinical governance policy framework (2009)Organisational effectivenessRisk managementConsumer participationEffective workforce
  26. 26. Lessons learned Consultation and testing the draft framework and standards with health services prior to implementation Drawing from an international research and evidence base Setting standards to work towards over time Linking standards to existing reporting requirements Building upon successful practices and integrated with key policy and legislative frameworks Aspiration can foster motivation
  27. 27. Opportunities and challenges Achievements are a foundation to build upon Some standards are aspirational measures and sub- measures used to guide achievement Data: some not currently collected or recorded Coordination with other cultural diversity reporting criteria and requirements across health service Implementing a whole-of-organisation training approach
  28. 28. Achievements and promisingpractices Alignment of cultural responsiveness with quality and safety in health care delivery. Promoted a higher standard of planning for culturally responsive healthcare. Health services have a 3-4 year Cultural Responsiveness Plan linked to strategic plan and other policy and reporting frameworks. Significantly, many health services have exceeded the minimum requirements by additionally addressing all sub measures within the framework.
  29. 29. Achievements and promisingpractices Legitimisation and contextualisation of cultural responsiveness as a core health service activity Monitoring of standards and development of benchmarks over time Adaptation of framework by a variety of health care organisations Development of innovative research activities and service delivery models and resources at a health service level.
  30. 30. Scotland: Policy tools 2000 Race Relations Amendment Act  a duty to demonstrably promote equality by publishing both plans and progress Ethnicity and Health (Fair for All) Policy  Energizing the organization, leadership  Demographics, understanding the populations under consideration.  Access and adaptation of service delivery  Human resources, equality in employment  Community engagement
  31. 31. Scotland: Policy tools (con’t) National Resource for Ethnic Minority Health (2003-08) >>> Directorate of Equalities and Planning  Merged into overall NHS structure  Integrating the issue of ethnic disparity with other equality strands such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation and disability. Checking for Change, Case Studies for Change  Organization-level performance measurement toolkit, progression from basic to advanced level  Model practices collected from around the country Equity Impact Assessment  Performance of NHS regional boards
  32. 32. Successes Challenges Strong and clear policy framework  Implementation with performance measures  Insufficient monitoring Robust data collection, analysis and research  Sparse budgets Free interpretation services  Competing priorities Targets for diversifying workforce  Mainstreaming projects into routine service Staff training opportunities  Maintaining engagement between Patient accommodations: menus, the statutory and voluntary sectors religions spaces, signage  Altering service delivery Community outreach programs, population-specific interventions  Winning hearts and minds.
  33. 33. Observations Transferability across different contexts: paradigms, resources, politics, social attitudes, level of development Find balance between highly specific and streamlined approaches, different tools for different tasks Dangers of the checkbox mentality How to affect the intangibles Does what’s being measured relate to desired outcomes Mainstreaming v. combined approach v. targeted agenda Rules or suggestions: the need for accountability Leadership imperative
  34. 34. Contact: rcchc@aol.com
  • mwvizueta

    May. 31, 2015

This presentation reviews key standards, performance measures, and laws related to multicultural health and cultural competence from the US, Australia, and Scotland. Presented at the EU COST ADAPT meeting, Amsterdam, October 2012.

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