Climate changes and its impact in the environment


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Work done for the COMENIUS Project Living by the sea

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Climate changes and its impact in the environment

  2. 2. 30 Average Air Temperature in Faro (ºC) 25 20 1990 15 2000 2009 10 5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecFrom 1990 to 2009 there were no significant changes in average air temperature inthe city of Faro. In these three years the average annual temperature is 18. º C.June and December 2000 and 2009 were warmer months, when compared withthe year 1990.October and November 2009 were also warmer months compared to 1990 and 2000.Instead, February 2009 was quite cold compared with the other two years understudy .
  3. 3. TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGES What are the implications that climate change will have on tourism? The climate changes can have implications on the Portuguese tourism, it might lower the number of visitants in summer, due to July and August being hot months, mainly in the Algarve, but it could create new opportunities for tourism in winter.
  4. 4. TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGES In the District of Faro, climate change might further decreasethe number of months with any degree of "heat stress" by cold,being the largest reduction felt in January, the month withmore "stress" extreme cold days. It may therefore be reinforcedthe growing trend of winter tourism in the Algarve, particularlyamong the elderly population.
  5. 5. CONSEQUENCES OF THE INCREASED AIR TEMPERATURE Formation of Tropospheric Ozone In Portugal the deaths related to the "heat waves "and the increase in respiratory illnesses due to increases in tropospheric ozone levels will be worse in the end of the century.
  6. 6. CONSEQUENCES OF THE INCREASED AIR TEMPERATURE Risk of diseaseThe potential risks ofdevelopment of infectiousdiseases transmitted bymosquitoes or rodents are alsoincreased due to changes inecological systems. Amongthese diseases, currently with avery low risk of transmission,are malaria and West Nile fever.
  7. 7. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE RAISING TEMPERATURES ON THE OCEANFisherman and scientists havefound in the Algarve, namely inthe Formosa estuary, fishspecies that usually have theirhabitat in waters withtemperatures of 20ºC, whichmay indicate that watertemperatures in the Algarvehave been increasing.
  8. 8. THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE RAISING TEMPERATURES ON THE OCEANThe raising temperature in the oceans is making the fishes look for colder anddeeper waters migrating to the north, while tropical fishes are starting to come toPortugal.But these changes will probably bring better value to fishing than harm it, thoughit will surely make species more vulnerable.In the meanwhile if we keep eating too much fish it could endanger them toextinction like the tuna fish, the bass fish, the sardines, the mackerel, etc.
  9. 9. Marine Fauna The scabbard fish is generally caught in the summer due to the water temperature. With its increase, it will be possible to fish it for a longer period thus leading to a growth ofThe fish Veja, that is usually only this species in the Algarve,seen in the Azores, Madeira and becoming a good businessthe Mediterranean, is the opportunity.example of a species that usuallyhas its habitat in waters withtemperatures of 20 º C. With the increase in watertemperature it begins to benormal the appearance of thisand other species in the Algarve.
  10. 10. Marine FaunaThe snapper, which is atropical fish, has been seenmore often in the Formosaestuary and close to RiverTejo also because thetemperature of water isindreasing,
  11. 11. Marine Flora The Marine Flora is increasingly disappearing beneath the River Tejo and more specifically in the Algarve.•The seascape algae are very important to the marine ecosystems, because theycontribute to raise its biodiversity. They are photosynthetic algae (they consumecarbon dioxide and they produce oxygen).• Most of the seascape algae can be found fixed to the rocks and they can growassociated to other plants. They often get associated together, protecting the coast,acting as “wave-breakers”.
  12. 12. Marine FloraEach time more, the luminaries are disappearingfrom the south of Portugal, being only found in thenorthern part of the River Tejo. •Some students from the Algarve University indicate that some flora that normally appears in the Algarves waters as the luminaries (brown algae), are disappearing. The luminaries are species that are localized on colder waters.
  13. 13. THE DECREASE OF THE RAIN DURING THE SUMMERAfter a study coordinated by Filipe Duarte Santos, it has beenconcluded that there has been a deterioration in water quality in theAlgarve. This degradation is due to increased temperatures andreduced runoff in the summer months.
  14. 14. The consequences…It doesn’t rain much, so there is adecrease on the levels of theaquifers, turning them morevulnerable to agricultural pollutionand the increase of the salinepollution. This happens because acoastal aquifer that has sweetwater doesn’t let the salt waterpass, but because it doesn’t rainmuch and the earth filters less Coastal aquiferwater there is less sweet water, sothe salt water starts turning sweetwater into brackish water which isimpropriate for consumption.
  15. 15. RAINFALL & FLOODING Rain in the winterIn the future the rain will becomeirregular and violent, with somefeatures of the tropical rainfall.The risk of floods will alsoincrease by the end of the 21stcentury.
  16. 16. RAINFALL & FLOODING SeaIt is expected that the averagesea level will rise in a nearfuture.That fact will contribute toincrease the floods becausethe flow capacity of themouths of the major rivers willdecrease.
  17. 17. EBI/JI José Carlos da MaiaWe hope that you have enjoyed this presentation as much as we enjoyed doingit, and that you understand what is happening in the Algarve NOW.
  18. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY• Temperature data provided by Instituto de Meteorologia, I.P.•••“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of theinformation contained therein.”