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Chapter 30


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Chapter 30

  1. 1. Chapter 30 Earth’s Diverse Ecosystems
  2. 2. What Factors Influence Earth’s Climate? <ul><li>Climate and Weather Are Driven by Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1/2 solar energy that reaches the earth actually strikes the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most is reflected or absorbed </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sunlight strikes Earth at various angles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s curvature and tilt helps produce seasons and climate </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Solar energy drives ocean currents, wind and the water cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale movements of air and water produce different climates </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Mountains complicate weather and climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation effects temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains modify rainfall patterns </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What Conditions Does Life Require? <ul><li>4 Resources necessary for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate temperature </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How Is Life on Land Distributed? <ul><li>Distribution of terrestrial biomes is determined by rainfall and temperature </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Biomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Near equator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation up to 160 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temp averages 77-86 0 with little seasonal variation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Highest biodiversity of any ecosystem on Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of the species on Earth but it only covers 6% of the surface </li></ul></ul>Human Impact – Deforestation
  11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>Savanna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation up to 12 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct wet and dry seasons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Grasses are dominant vegetation Most diversity of large land mammals Human Impact- Poaching
  13. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>Deserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation less than 10 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temp varies dramatically </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Cacti have adaptations for </li></ul><ul><li>water conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Desert plants secrete chemicals to prevent growth of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Most desert animals are nocturnal </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>Chaparral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal regions that boarder deserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation up to 30 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fog in dry season retains moisture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Maintained by frequent fires set by summer lightning </li></ul><ul><li>The tops of the plants may be burned off, but the roots send up new shoots </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><ul><li>Grasslands (prairie) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally centrally located </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation up to 30 inches </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Tallgrass prairie Shortgrass Prairie
  19. 19. Human Impact- Overgrazing
  20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual precipitation up to 60 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold dry winters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees drop their leaves during dry season </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous Forest (taiga) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long cold winters with a short growing season </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity is lower than any most other biomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Human Impact- Clear Cutting
  23. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boarders the Artic Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter temp can reach -40 0 with 60 mph winds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost – permanently frozen layer of soil </li></ul></ul></ul>