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Chapter 28


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Chapter 28

  1. 1. Chapter 28 Community Interactions
  2. 2. Why Are Interactions in Communities Important? <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions limit population size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between resources and # of individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic species may upset balance </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Interactions influence evolutionary change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Interspecific Competition <ul><li>Each species has a unique place in its ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological niche </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niches of species never overlap completely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Competitive exclusion may help determine population distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental niche vs. Realized niche </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Species may evolve to reduce competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource partitioning </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What are the Effects of Predator-Prey Interactions <ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul><ul><li>Predators consume prey </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites feeding off host but may not kill the host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Camouflage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiding in plain site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending in </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. resemble specific objects
  10. 10. Camouflage assists predators Camouflage can be beneficial to predators as well
  11. 11. <ul><li>Bright colors or chemical defenses may warn off predators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning coloration </li></ul></ul>Startle coloration
  12. 12. Warning mimicry
  13. 13. Visual and behavioral mimicry Chemical Warfare
  14. 14. <ul><li>Plants have defenses against herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough outer parts </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communalistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ / neutral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ / + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ / - </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mutualism
  17. 17. Keystone species
  18. 18. How do Communities Change Over Time <ul><li>Succession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax community </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Primary Succession
  20. 20. Secondary Succession