Reactive attachment disorder_presentation_psych_dr.martinez

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Reactive attachment disorder_presentation_psych_dr.martinez

  1. 1. Reactive Attachment Disorder Gina Dessources Windsor University School Of Medicine Psychiatric Presentation Dr. Daniel Martinez
  2. 2. Child of Rage http://psychodocs.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/the-failure-to-bond-with-mommy-can-trigger- psychopathy/
  3. 3. Fury as U.S. woman adopts Russian boy, 7, then sends him back alone with note saying: 'I don't want him anymore'
  4. 4. So, what is Reactive Attachment Disorders ? “Reactive attachment disorder is a mental health disorder in which infants and young children (usually before the age of 5) are unable to form healthy social relationships [attachments], particularly with a primary caregiver”.
  5. 5. Attachment Theory Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969).
  6. 6. Importance of Attachment Harlow’s Monkeys (1958)
  7. 7. Link between Attachment and RAD  To feel safe and develop trust, infants and young children need a stable, caring environment. Their basic emotional and physical needs must be consistently met.  A child whose needs are ignored or met with emotionally or physically abusive responses from caregivers comes to expect rejection or hostility. The child then becomes distrustful and learns to avoid social contact.  This may in some cases affect the brain development which may lead to to attachment problems and personality and relationships problems throughout life
  8. 8. Causes of RAD  A baby cries and no one responds or offers comfort.  A baby is hungry or wet, and they aren’t attended to for hours.  No one looks at, talks to, or smiles at the baby, so the baby feels alone.  A young child gets attention only by acting out or displaying other extreme behaviors.  Sometimes the child’s needs are met and sometimes they aren’t. The child never knows what to expect.  The infant or young child is hospitalized or separated from his or her parents
  9. 9. Risk Factors for Reactive Attachment Disorder  Living in an orphanage  Institutional care / Prolonged hospitalization  Frequent changes in foster care or caregivers  Inexperienced parents  Extreme neglect or poverty  Physical, sexual or emotional abuse  Postpartum depression in the baby's mother  Parents who have a mental illness, anger management problems, or drug or alcohol abuse
  10. 10. Signs and Symptoms in Babies  Withdrawn, sad and listless appearance  Failure to smile  Lack of the normal tendency to follow others in the room with the eyes  Failure to reach out when picked up  No interest in playing peekaboo or other interactive games  No interest in playing with toys  Engaging in self-soothing behavior, such as rocking or self- stroking  Calm when left alone
  11. 11. Signs and Symptoms in Toddler or Older Children  Withdrawing from others  Avoiding or dismissing comforting comments or gestures  Acting aggressively toward peers  Watching others closely but not engaging in social interaction  Failing to ask for support or assistance  Obvious and consistent awkwardness or discomfort  Masking feelings of anger or distress  Alcohol or drug abuse in adolescents
  12. 12. Criteria That Must be Meet for Diagnosing Reactive Attachment Disorder
  13. 13. Misdiagnosis of RAD  Bipolar disorder  Attention Deficit Disorder  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Anti-Social Personality Disorder  Conduct Disorder.
  14. 14. Treatment of RAD  Individual psychological counseling  Education of parents and caregivers about the condition  Parenting skills classes  Family therapy  Medication for other conditions that may be present, such as depression, anxiety or hyperactivity in a child or a parent  Special education services  Residential or inpatient treatment for children with more-serious problems or who put themselves or others at risk of harm
  15. 15. “If a child is not attached–does not form a loving bond with the mother–he does not develop an attachment to the rest of mankind. The unattached child literally does not have a stake in humanity” (Magid & McKelvey 1988).
  16. 16. References  Reactive Attachment Disorder. Retrieved on 7/10/2013 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/reactive-attachment-disorder/DS00988  Harry F. Harlow. Retrieved on 7/10/2013 from http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/harlow.htm (Image on slide 5)  Scott, Jenesis. (2004).The Importance of Touch to Your Child's Mental Health. Retrieved on 7/10/2013 from http://lisajeannejenesis.pbworks.com/w/page/17803926/The%20Importance%2 (Image on slide 5)  McLeod, Saul. (2009). Attachment Theory. Retrieved on 7/10/2013 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/attachment.html  Steward, Will.(2010). Fury as U.S. woman adopts Russian boy, 7, then sends him back alone with note saying: 'I don't want him anymore'.Retrieved on 7/14/2013 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1264744/American-sends-adopted-Rus  Attachment & Reactive Attachment Disorders. Retrieved on 7/17/2013 from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/parenting_bonding_reactive_attachment_dis order.htm
  17. 17. References  “ Diagnostic Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood”. Retrieved on 7/14/2013 from http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/5097/5219346/tools/diag_crit_reac  Reactive Attachment Disorder. Retrieved on 7/14/2013 from http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/inmdict/html/reactive_attachment_disorder  McGeown, Kate. (2005).Romanian Adoptees Struggle to Adapt. Retrieved on 7/14/2013 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4649383.stm (Image on slide 1)  “Information aboutReactive Attachment Disorder”. Retrieved on 7/15/2013 from http://www.therapeuticparenting.com/Page_3.html  Knight, Wintery. (2013). Does science support mothers who leave their young children to go to work? Retrieved on 7/17/2013 from http://winteryknight.wordpress.com/2013/03/22/does-science-support-mothers (Image of brain scan)  The Failure to Bond with Mommy can trigger Psychopathy. Retrieved on 7/17/2013 fromhttp://psychodocs.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/the-failure- to-bond-with-mommy-can-trigger-psychopathy/ (Video Clip)
  18. 18. References  Reactive Attachment Disorder. Retrieved on 7/17/2013 from http://www.attachment.org/parents/reactive-attachment-disorder/

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