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Micro Metadata
Best Practices
Cover Images
Cover Images
•
•
•
•
•

•

•
•
•
•

This data element is mandatory for every product.
The image file should be named by the ISBN-10, ISBN-13, EAN-13, or item-specific UPC-12.
TIFF or JPEG file formats are preferred. GIF files may be supplied if no other format is available,
but their use is discouraged.
The longest side of the digital image should be 750 pixels or more, with the shorter side
proportional.
The image should be scanned at a resolution no less than 100 DPI, but it is recommended that the
resolution be 150 DPI. Extremely high resolution scans (i.e. greater than 400 DPI) are discouraged
for general distribution.
Book images should be a flat front cover scan cropped tight to the sides of the product. In cases
where the front cover image is of little merchandising value, publishers should also supply a back
cover image and/or an image of the title page of the book.
Flat, rectilinear-packaged products such as calendars, audio CDs, audio cassettes, DVDs, VHS
tapes, video game cartridges, etc. should follow the guidelines for books detailed above.
Digital photographs should be supplied for multi-volume book sets, music or video boxed sets, and
non-rectilinear products such as teddy bears and bookends.
Images must be in RGB; CMYK images are not acceptable.
The bit depth should be set no lower than 8 bits.
Subject Codes
Subject Codes
•
•

•
•
•

The most specific subject(s) applicable to a product should be provided.
The practice of supplying both a specific and a general subject code on a given product is
discouraged except in the rare cases where both a specific and a general subject may apply to a
given product.
Up to three subjects may be supplied for each product, however, one of those subjects should be
considered the “main subject” of the product.
The use of the BISAC Subject Heading Non-classifiable (code = NON000000) is discouraged.
This data element should be supplied for every product.
Edition
Edition Type
•

This data is mandatory for every product released in multiple editions. Its use should generally be
limited to describing an edition whose content is materially different from that of a previous or
parallel edition.
Trading partners and end consumers need to understand what edition of a given work they are
purchasing. Visually-impaired consumers need accurate information on large print and audio
books. General consumers of audio books need to know if a given audio book is abridged or
unabridged.

•

•

The standard edition types are:
ABR
ANN
BRL
ILL
LTE
MDT

Abridged
Annotated
Braille
Illustrated
Large print
Media tie-in

REV
SCH
SPE
STU
TCH

Revised
School edition
Special edition
Student edition
Teacher’s edition
Edition Number
•

•
•

An edition number should be supplied for every product that is a numbered update of a previous
publication.
It should not be supplied on first editions.
The edition number is a critical piece of data. Course adoptions on college campuses often require
a specific edition of a given textbook and other editions will not acceptable.
Series
Series
•
•
•
•
•

The series name should be supplied for every product that is published as a part of a series.
The series number should be supplied for every product that is published as a part of a numbered
series.
Series data (when applicable) should be supplied 180 days prior to the on-sale date for a product.
A series generally does not have an ISBN, EAN.UCC-13, or UPC, and it is usually not traded as a
single item,
A product may occasionally belong to two or more series.
Contributor

<b037>Mcgraw, ph.d., Phillip C.</b037>
Contributor
•

•

•
•

Every product record must include data elements describing the contributors to the product or an
indication that the product has no named contributors.
A contributor who plays more than one role in the creation of a product (e.g. Maurice Sendak might
be both the author and the illustrator of a book) should have each role they played in the creation of
the product indicated separately, however, they should not have their name repeated for each role
they played in the creation of the product.
A corporate contributor is any group of persons that is named as a contributor to a product.
– Examples: Cambridge University Press Editors, Staff of The Orlando Sentinel
A personal contributor name consists of several distinct data elements:
– Titles before names or prefix to entire name
– Names before key name (includes given names as appropriate)
– Prefixes to key name(s)
– Key name(s) (usually the family name)
– Names after key name(s) (including given names where appropriate)
– Suffix after key name(s)
– Qualifications and honors after name(s)
– Titles after name(s)
Product Description
Product Description
•

•
•
•

Detailed text describing the product appropriate for public display, such as what would be printed
on the flap of a dust jacket or on the back cover of a book or DVD package.
A single sentence is almost never adequate to describe a book , at least one paragraph should be
supplied.
Non-book products such as plush toys, calendars, or stationery should have at least a sentence or
two of text describing the product.
It is, of course, imperative for online consumers to have some information on a product before they
purchase it and a textual description is part of the information they need. Buyers for libraries,
wholesalers, distributors, and retailers all need to understand what they are being asked to
purchase and they can make good use of textual descriptions of products. Branch librarians and instore booksellers can also use this information to help their patrons.
Audience and Age Range

<b073>01</b073> (General/Trade)

<audiencerange> (Ages 8-12)
<b074>18</b074>
<b075>03</b075><b076>8</b076
>
<b075>04</b075><b076>12</b07
6>
</audiencerange>
Audience
•

•
•
•
•

An ONIX code, derived from BISAC and BIC lists, which identifies the broad audience or
readership for whom a product is intended.
This data element should be supplied for every product.
Only one audience code should be supplied for a product.
In cases where a product may appeal to more than one audience, the audience for whom the
product is primarily intended should be supplied.
Examples of Audience codes:
– General/trade
– Children/juvenile
– Young adult
Age Range
•
•
•
•

•

This data should be supplied for all trade products aimed at children and young adults
The precise age range in years or school grades of the intended audience of products aimed at
children and young adults.
Publishers are strongly encouraged to supply a specific age or grade range for every product. Age
ranges such as “up to age 5” are also discouraged.
Every product record that carries one of the following Audience Code values must also supply data
on the age appropriateness of that product:
– Children/Juvenile (ONIX Audience Code value = 02)
– Young Adult (ONIX Audience Code value = 03)
It is recommended that each product record that carries the following Audience Code value supply
data on age or school grade appropriateness of that product:
– Primary & secondary/elementary & high school (ONIX Audience Code value = 04)
Product Form
Product Form
•

•

•

The physical or digital qualities that distinguish a given product manifestation from other product
manifestations of the same intellectual work.
The Product Form is often the primary means of distinguishing between two different product
manifestations of the same intellectual work. It is key data for both trading partners and consumers
to use in making their purchasing decisions.
Examples (using ONIX codes):
– Trade paperback book: Product form code = BC (Paperback) AND Product form detail =
B102 (Trade paperback [US])
– Mass-market paperback book: Product form code = BC (Paperback) AND Product form detail
= B101 (Mass market [rack] paperback)
– Hardcover book: Product form code = BB (Hardback)
– Audio book on cassette: Product form code = AB (Audio cassette [analogue])
Additional Fields
•
•
•
•

Publication date p. 147
Publication status p. 141
Reviews in ONIX—B&N slide
Character encoding p. 7
Resources
BISG Best Practices
http://www.bisg.org/docs/Best_Practices_Document.pdf
ONIX for Books 2.1
http://www.editeur.org/83/Overview/
Rebecca.Albani@Bowker.com

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Metadata Best Practices by Data Field

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 5. Cover Images • • • • • • • • • • This data element is mandatory for every product. The image file should be named by the ISBN-10, ISBN-13, EAN-13, or item-specific UPC-12. TIFF or JPEG file formats are preferred. GIF files may be supplied if no other format is available, but their use is discouraged. The longest side of the digital image should be 750 pixels or more, with the shorter side proportional. The image should be scanned at a resolution no less than 100 DPI, but it is recommended that the resolution be 150 DPI. Extremely high resolution scans (i.e. greater than 400 DPI) are discouraged for general distribution. Book images should be a flat front cover scan cropped tight to the sides of the product. In cases where the front cover image is of little merchandising value, publishers should also supply a back cover image and/or an image of the title page of the book. Flat, rectilinear-packaged products such as calendars, audio CDs, audio cassettes, DVDs, VHS tapes, video game cartridges, etc. should follow the guidelines for books detailed above. Digital photographs should be supplied for multi-volume book sets, music or video boxed sets, and non-rectilinear products such as teddy bears and bookends. Images must be in RGB; CMYK images are not acceptable. The bit depth should be set no lower than 8 bits.
  • 7. Subject Codes • • • • • The most specific subject(s) applicable to a product should be provided. The practice of supplying both a specific and a general subject code on a given product is discouraged except in the rare cases where both a specific and a general subject may apply to a given product. Up to three subjects may be supplied for each product, however, one of those subjects should be considered the “main subject” of the product. The use of the BISAC Subject Heading Non-classifiable (code = NON000000) is discouraged. This data element should be supplied for every product.
  • 9. Edition Type • This data is mandatory for every product released in multiple editions. Its use should generally be limited to describing an edition whose content is materially different from that of a previous or parallel edition. Trading partners and end consumers need to understand what edition of a given work they are purchasing. Visually-impaired consumers need accurate information on large print and audio books. General consumers of audio books need to know if a given audio book is abridged or unabridged. • • The standard edition types are: ABR ANN BRL ILL LTE MDT Abridged Annotated Braille Illustrated Large print Media tie-in REV SCH SPE STU TCH Revised School edition Special edition Student edition Teacher’s edition
  • 10. Edition Number • • • An edition number should be supplied for every product that is a numbered update of a previous publication. It should not be supplied on first editions. The edition number is a critical piece of data. Course adoptions on college campuses often require a specific edition of a given textbook and other editions will not acceptable.
  • 12. Series • • • • • The series name should be supplied for every product that is published as a part of a series. The series number should be supplied for every product that is published as a part of a numbered series. Series data (when applicable) should be supplied 180 days prior to the on-sale date for a product. A series generally does not have an ISBN, EAN.UCC-13, or UPC, and it is usually not traded as a single item, A product may occasionally belong to two or more series.
  • 14. Contributor • • • • Every product record must include data elements describing the contributors to the product or an indication that the product has no named contributors. A contributor who plays more than one role in the creation of a product (e.g. Maurice Sendak might be both the author and the illustrator of a book) should have each role they played in the creation of the product indicated separately, however, they should not have their name repeated for each role they played in the creation of the product. A corporate contributor is any group of persons that is named as a contributor to a product. – Examples: Cambridge University Press Editors, Staff of The Orlando Sentinel A personal contributor name consists of several distinct data elements: – Titles before names or prefix to entire name – Names before key name (includes given names as appropriate) – Prefixes to key name(s) – Key name(s) (usually the family name) – Names after key name(s) (including given names where appropriate) – Suffix after key name(s) – Qualifications and honors after name(s) – Titles after name(s)
  • 16. Product Description • • • • Detailed text describing the product appropriate for public display, such as what would be printed on the flap of a dust jacket or on the back cover of a book or DVD package. A single sentence is almost never adequate to describe a book , at least one paragraph should be supplied. Non-book products such as plush toys, calendars, or stationery should have at least a sentence or two of text describing the product. It is, of course, imperative for online consumers to have some information on a product before they purchase it and a textual description is part of the information they need. Buyers for libraries, wholesalers, distributors, and retailers all need to understand what they are being asked to purchase and they can make good use of textual descriptions of products. Branch librarians and instore booksellers can also use this information to help their patrons.
  • 17. Audience and Age Range <b073>01</b073> (General/Trade) <audiencerange> (Ages 8-12) <b074>18</b074> <b075>03</b075><b076>8</b076 > <b075>04</b075><b076>12</b07 6> </audiencerange>
  • 18. Audience • • • • • An ONIX code, derived from BISAC and BIC lists, which identifies the broad audience or readership for whom a product is intended. This data element should be supplied for every product. Only one audience code should be supplied for a product. In cases where a product may appeal to more than one audience, the audience for whom the product is primarily intended should be supplied. Examples of Audience codes: – General/trade – Children/juvenile – Young adult
  • 19. Age Range • • • • • This data should be supplied for all trade products aimed at children and young adults The precise age range in years or school grades of the intended audience of products aimed at children and young adults. Publishers are strongly encouraged to supply a specific age or grade range for every product. Age ranges such as “up to age 5” are also discouraged. Every product record that carries one of the following Audience Code values must also supply data on the age appropriateness of that product: – Children/Juvenile (ONIX Audience Code value = 02) – Young Adult (ONIX Audience Code value = 03) It is recommended that each product record that carries the following Audience Code value supply data on age or school grade appropriateness of that product: – Primary & secondary/elementary & high school (ONIX Audience Code value = 04)
  • 21. Product Form • • • The physical or digital qualities that distinguish a given product manifestation from other product manifestations of the same intellectual work. The Product Form is often the primary means of distinguishing between two different product manifestations of the same intellectual work. It is key data for both trading partners and consumers to use in making their purchasing decisions. Examples (using ONIX codes): – Trade paperback book: Product form code = BC (Paperback) AND Product form detail = B102 (Trade paperback [US]) – Mass-market paperback book: Product form code = BC (Paperback) AND Product form detail = B101 (Mass market [rack] paperback) – Hardcover book: Product form code = BB (Hardback) – Audio book on cassette: Product form code = AB (Audio cassette [analogue])
  • 22. Additional Fields • • • • Publication date p. 147 Publication status p. 141 Reviews in ONIX—B&N slide Character encoding p. 7
  • 23. Resources BISG Best Practices http://www.bisg.org/docs/Best_Practices_Document.pdf ONIX for Books 2.1 http://www.editeur.org/83/Overview/ Rebecca.Albani@Bowker.com