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Linguistic reorganization of Indian States - Climax of Integration of States

India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary traditions. This gave rise to the demand for reorganizing the states based on languages. Here we have discussed the various linguistic movements and the history of reorganizing India.

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Linguistic reorganization of Indian States - Climax of Integration of States

  1. 1. Reorganization into Linguistic States Reference: India after Gandhi by Ramcharndra Guha
  2. 2. Background  1917: Congress committed to creation of linguistic states  Encouraged by Gandhiji  1937: Nehru appreciated linguistic diversity  1947: Nehru’s view changed, supported by Sardar Patel and Rajaji  Gandhiji supported postponing linguistic reorganization  JVP Committee: revoked Congress approval to linguistic provinces
  3. 3. Punjab Movement  Sikh demanded separate state in West Punjab  Akali Dal: Organized the movement under Master Tara Singh  Deliberately used the term independence  Supported by Jats, opposed by low-caste Sikhs  Biggest blow in first general election  1966: Punjab and Haryana created out of Punjab province
  4. 4. Telugu Movement  Rich literary history with Andhra glory as Vijayanagar Empire  Started pressurizing Congress for separate Andhra state  1952: Potti Sriramulu began fast-unto-death  Nehru ignored for 5 weeks, finally wrote to Rajaji  15 Dec 1952: Potti Sriramulu passed away  Violence commenced  1 Oct 1953: Andhra State was inaugurated
  5. 5. State Reorganization Committee  Members: Fazal Ali, K. M. Pannikar, H. N. Kunzru  1954-55: 104 towns, 9000 interviews, 152250 written submissions  Oct 1955: Submitted the report  North India: Bihar, U.P., Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh  South India: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka  East India: Existing provinces  Bombay: Bilingual state, no united Maharashtra, suggested separate Vidarbh  1 Nov 1956: New states based on language came into existence
  6. 6. Samyukt(United) Maharashtra Movement  Roots in Samyukt Maharashtra Parishad established in 1946  Bombay Citizens Committee: Wanted city of Bombay out of Maharashtra  15 Nov 1955: SRC report debated in Loksabha  Famous personalities backed the movement  16 Jan 1956: Police swooped down leaders, strike commenced on 18th  1 Nov 1956: Bilingual Bombay State with Y. B. Chavan as Chief Minister  After 1957 elections, Y. B. Chavan presented Maharashtra’s case  1 May 1960: Creation of Gujarat and Maharashtra (with city of Bombay)
  7. 7. Miscellaneous States  1963: Nagaland was granted statehood  1972: Meghalay and Mizoram carved out of Assam  1975: Sikkim becomes part of India  1987: Formation of Arunachal Pradesh  2000: Formation of Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand  2014: Formation of Telangana
  8. 8. Effects of Linguistic Movements  Revealed extraordinary depth of popular feeling  Regional literature was flourished  New structure were erected as a symbol of pride  Deep apprehension among nationalist elite
  9. 9. Timeline of Creating States
  10. 10. Next in this series  First general election © Discussion is Solution Comment For more discussions

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  • manishkumar3244

    Aug. 14, 2018
  • KeerthivasanSrinivas

    Jul. 15, 2019

India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary traditions. This gave rise to the demand for reorganizing the states based on languages. Here we have discussed the various linguistic movements and the history of reorganizing India.

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