A Simple Guide to
Hazardous Materials Response
Let’s start with the
basics…
Our Incident Priorities


   Life Safety first

   Incident Stabilization second

   Property Conservation third
Eight easy steps to HM
Incident Management
 Isolation         SpillControl
 Notification      Leak Control

 Identifi...
What do you call an
Engine with 3 HM Techs
initially arriving on an
incident?

An Engine with three HM
Operations level pe...
Until you get the right
level of CPE and decon on
the scene…

You’re stuck at the Operations
level!
But that’s OK…
You can do a lot of good at the
Operations level!
Defensive Response
Operations (HM Operations)
   Isolation
   Notification
   Identification
   Protection
    – Level...
Offensive Response
Operations (HM Techs)
   Identification
    – Sampling
    – Categorization
   Protection
    – Level...
Life Safety
   Isolation
    – Deny entry
    – Don’t expose anyone else
    – Keep the dirty people in the hot zone
    ...
Isolation
   Deny entry by public and other responders
    – Stay 300 feet away – uphill and upwind
    – Block access wi...
Evacuation
   Takes a lot of time…consider it early!
   Be proactive…get ahead of the power
    curve!
   But, stick wi...
Life Safety
   Identification
    – Based on:
          Occupancy and location
          Container shapes and sizes
   ...
Life Safety

   Protection
    – Isolation zones (hot, warm, cold)
    – CPE (Level A, B, C or D)
    – Decontamination (...
Protection

   Four levels of CPE
    – Level A – vapor tight with SCBA
    – Level B – splash protection with SCBA
    –...
CPE vs. Incident Types
   9 Hazard Classes
   Each hazard class typically has a level of
    CPE associated with it
   ...
Hazard Classes and CPE
   Class 1 – Explosives      Class 5 – Oxidizers
    – Level D                  – Level D
   Cla...
Level A CPE
   High level of protection
   Vapor tight CPE
   Highest level of respiratory protection
    with SCBA
  ...
Level B CPE
   Second highest level of protection
   Splash protection coupled with highest level
    of respiratory pro...
Level C CPE

   Lowest level of chemical protection
   Splash protection with lowest level of
    respiratory protection...
Level D CPE
   The ultimate in standoff protective attitude
   Provides sub-minimal splash protection
   SCBA provides ...
Incident Stabilization
   Notification
    – Who you gonna call? Call early and often!
   Identification
    – Operation...
Incident Stabilization

   Leak Control
    – Technician level activity
   Fire Control
    – Operations level activity
...
Decision Making

   Use the DECIDE model
    – Detect the problem
    – Estimate the likely harm w/wo
      intervention
...
Detect the problem

   Occupancy and location
   Container shapes and sizes
   Markings and colors
   Placards and lab...
Estimate likely harm
   Stress – event begins w/stress to container
   Breach – stress leads to container failing
   Re...
Choose response
objectives
   Offensive – requires HM techs to come
    into close or physical contact with the
    mater...
Identify action options

   Notification
    – Mutual aid
    – Specialized personnel
    – Specialized equipment
    – C...
Do the best option

   According to Callan, Hierarchy of
    Decisions
    – Quickest – usually the first and deadliest
 ...
Do the best option
   Also consider:
   According to Callan, two types of danger –
   Matter
    – Gases, vapors, liqui...
Evaluate your progress

   Did it work?
   Do you need more help?
   Do you need to revise your incident
    management...
Property Conservation
   Spill Control
    – Confine the spill to the smallest possible area
   Leak Control
    – Conta...
Questions?
References
   Callan, Michael. Street Smart
    Hazardous Materials Response. 2004.
   Noll, Greg; Hildebrand, Michael;
...
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An introduction to HM Response for Fire Service personnel

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A Simple Guide To Hm Response

  1. 1. A Simple Guide to Hazardous Materials Response
  2. 2. Let’s start with the basics…
  3. 3. Our Incident Priorities  Life Safety first  Incident Stabilization second  Property Conservation third
  4. 4. Eight easy steps to HM Incident Management  Isolation  SpillControl  Notification  Leak Control  Identification  Fire Control  Protection  Recovery and Termination
  5. 5. What do you call an Engine with 3 HM Techs initially arriving on an incident? An Engine with three HM Operations level personnel…
  6. 6. Until you get the right level of CPE and decon on the scene… You’re stuck at the Operations level!
  7. 7. But that’s OK… You can do a lot of good at the Operations level!
  8. 8. Defensive Response Operations (HM Operations)  Isolation  Notification  Identification  Protection – Level B and D  Spill Control – Product Confinement  Fire Control  Recovery and Termination
  9. 9. Offensive Response Operations (HM Techs)  Identification – Sampling – Categorization  Protection – Level A  Leak Control – Product Containment
  10. 10. Life Safety  Isolation – Deny entry – Don’t expose anyone else – Keep the dirty people in the hot zone  Set up an Area of Safe Refuge then decon  Notification – BFD HazMat Team – Williamson County HazMat Response Group – Williamson County EMA and EMS – Nashville Fire Department HazMat
  11. 11. Isolation  Deny entry by public and other responders – Stay 300 feet away – uphill and upwind – Block access with apparatus – Use PD to block other avenues – Exercise extreme caution with downwind and downstream access – Establish Area of Safe Refuge for contaminated persons (uphill/upwind but still in Hot Zone)
  12. 12. Evacuation  Takes a lot of time…consider it early!  Be proactive…get ahead of the power curve!  But, stick with the NAERG initial isolation distances and protective action distances…they are defensible in court.  The higher the vapor pressure…or lower the IDLH - the greater the likelihood of evacuation.
  13. 13. Life Safety  Identification – Based on:  Occupancy and location  Container shapes and sizes  Markings and colors  Placards and labels  Documents and papers  Senses – Distance from incident decreases and risk increases as you go down the list
  14. 14. Life Safety  Protection – Isolation zones (hot, warm, cold) – CPE (Level A, B, C or D) – Decontamination (mass, emergency and technical) – Air monitoring – Medical monitoring – Rehabilitation
  15. 15. Protection  Four levels of CPE – Level A – vapor tight with SCBA – Level B – splash protection with SCBA – Level C – splash protection with APR – Level D – turnouts/work clothes
  16. 16. CPE vs. Incident Types  9 Hazard Classes  Each hazard class typically has a level of CPE associated with it  We are only concerned with three of them (Level A, B, and D) – 75%  Initial responders are only concerned with one (Level D) – makes it easy!  Caveat is that you are sufficient distance away – out of the hot zone!
  17. 17. Hazard Classes and CPE  Class 1 – Explosives  Class 5 – Oxidizers – Level D – Level D  Class 2 – Gases  Class 6 – Poisons – Poison – Level A – Gases – Level A – Others – Level D – Others – Level B  Class 3 – Liquids  Class 7 – Rads – Level D – Level D  Class 4 – Solids  Class 8 – Corrosives – Level D – Level A or B  Class 9 – ORM’s – ?
  18. 18. Level A CPE  High level of protection  Vapor tight CPE  Highest level of respiratory protection with SCBA  Technician level activity  Requires: – Two in – Two Out – Technical and Emergency Decon
  19. 19. Level B CPE  Second highest level of protection  Splash protection coupled with highest level of respiratory protection with SCBA  Operations level activity in defensive mode  Requires – Two In – Two Out – Technical and Emergency Decontamination
  20. 20. Level C CPE  Lowest level of chemical protection  Splash protection with lowest level of respiratory protection with air purifying respirator  APR’s require known identification and concentration of contaminant  Not practical for initial response
  21. 21. Level D CPE  The ultimate in standoff protective attitude  Provides sub-minimal splash protection  SCBA provides highest level of respiratory protection  Suitable protection for explosives, flammable gases and liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, and radioactive  Works best when added with DISTANCE!
  22. 22. Incident Stabilization  Notification – Who you gonna call? Call early and often!  Identification – Operations level activity at a distance (binocs) – Technician level activity hands on (HazCat)  Spill Control – Operations level activity
  23. 23. Incident Stabilization  Leak Control – Technician level activity  Fire Control – Operations level activity  Recovery – Will be handled by HM clean-up company
  24. 24. Decision Making  Use the DECIDE model – Detect the problem – Estimate the likely harm w/wo intervention – Choose response objectives – Identify action options – Do the best option – Evaluate progress
  25. 25. Detect the problem  Occupancy and location  Container shapes and sizes  Markings and colors  Placards and labels  Information sources  Senses
  26. 26. Estimate likely harm  Stress – event begins w/stress to container  Breach – stress leads to container failing  Release – breach releases matter or energy  Engulf – matter or energy creates a zone of danger  Impinge – matter or energy impinges on exposures  Harm – impinged exposures will be harmed based on chemical properties
  27. 27. Choose response objectives  Offensive – requires HM techs to come into close or physical contact with the material  Defensive – requires HM ops to act to prevent the material from spreading  Non-intervention – taking no action – absolute defensiveness.
  28. 28. Identify action options  Notification – Mutual aid – Specialized personnel – Specialized equipment – Command, control, communication, computers, and information (C4I) – Incident management (NIMS) – Incident Action Plans (IAP’s)
  29. 29. Do the best option  According to Callan, Hierarchy of Decisions – Quickest – usually the first and deadliest – Easiest – usually the second – least resource or labor intensive – Best – 30 second rule – take your time.
  30. 30. Do the best option  Also consider:  According to Callan, two types of danger –  Matter – Gases, vapors, liquids, and solids  Energy – Radioactive, explosive, reactive, flammable, thermal extremes, and mechanical hazards  Materials are toxic before they are flammable – all flammables should be considered toxic.
  31. 31. Evaluate your progress  Did it work?  Do you need more help?  Do you need to revise your incident management system?  Do you need to revise your Incident Action Plan?
  32. 32. Property Conservation  Spill Control – Confine the spill to the smallest possible area  Leak Control – Contain the spill to the container – reduce or discontinue the spill  Recovery – Recover spilled materials and return environment to pre-spill condition  Terminate – Paperwork and lessons learned
  33. 33. Questions?
  34. 34. References  Callan, Michael. Street Smart Hazardous Materials Response. 2004.  Noll, Greg; Hildebrand, Michael; Yvorra, James. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents. 2005.  US Department of Transportation. North American Emergency Response Guide. 2004.

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