Role of the state in NGN deployment in Europe Review of European Digital Agendas Miquel Oliver , Albert Domingo NeTS Resea...
Agenda <ul><li>European context </li></ul><ul><li>Europe 2020 digital agenda </li></ul><ul><li>NGN in Europe </li></ul><ul...
European framework <ul><li>The economic crisis resulted in a large loss in economic activity: millions of lost jobs and GD...
Internet Usage in EU <ul><li>The share of households with broadband internet access has doubled since 2006 </li></ul>
Highlights in Internet Usage –EU- <ul><li>More than  half of individuals  in the EU27  used the internet daily </li></ul><...
European markets share Incumbents still dominate around one half of the market
Europe 2020 <ul><li>Approved in May 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective:  exiting the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul...
Europe 2020 <ul><li>How will the EU boost smart growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Through 3  flagship initiatives : </li></ul><ul>...
Digital Agenda for Europe <ul><li>Digital Single Market </li></ul><ul><li>EU  Single Market  rules for the digital era </l...
EU as a fragmented market <ul><li>Legal downloads are not landing off in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Different content platfo...
Trust is important in e-Shopping
Fast and ultrafast Internet access <ul><li>We need very fast Internet for the economy to grow strongly and to create jobs ...
Action Areas in EU2020 <ul><li>2. The  action areas  of the Digital Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1. A vibrant digital si...
EU2020: Fast & Ultrafast Internet Access <ul><li>We need very fast Internet for the economy to grow strongly and to create...
NGN in Europe today
NGN in Europe today <ul><li>3.9 M of fiber access subscribers  (8.1 M if Russia is included) </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic coun...
Bucharest –Romania-, relax in telecom regulation
NGN Plans for Europe
NGN Plans for Europe <ul><li>Most European Countries have defined their Digital Agendas according the EU2020 framework </l...
Portugal Case
Portugal Case <ul><li>Under Resolution of the Council of Ministers no.  120/2008  of 30 July, the Portuguese government ha...
Portugal Case <ul><li>Under Resolution of the Council of Ministers no.  120/2008  of 30 July, the Portuguese government ha...
Portugal Case <ul><li>A commitment between operators and government was signed in January 2009. In this protocol, the gove...
Portugal Case <ul><li>Special plans for rural areas:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government launched 5 Public Tenders for t...
Barcelona Case
<ul><li>1999   Barcelona authorities recognized the importance of NGAN and received a well accepted commitment by all oper...
<ul><li>2006  Ducts shared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Ducts For Telefónica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Ducts for Barcelona ...
<ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Barcelona 22@ Source: Barcelona 22@ presentation <ul><li>Operators in 22@ : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-...
<ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Barcelona 22@ <ul><li>-  100 Mbps  / 20 Mbps  ( Adamo ) </li></ul><ul><li>1000 minutes phone calls ...
Amsterdam Case
<ul><li>2001  Amsterdam authorities recognized the importance of NGAN ->  estimations to have a deployed network in 2010 <...
<ul><li>2007  European Comission allows Amsterdam city to invest in the network as it met  the terms of the Market Economy...
<ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Amsterdam Citynet City of Amsterdam Housing Associations Reggeborgh  & KPN R...
Amsterdam Citynet <ul><li>2011 </li></ul><ul><li>2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Close Future </li></ul>Source: KPN Investor Day: C...
Xarxa Oberta -Catalonia Case-
Xarxa Oberta in Catalonia (Spain) <ul><li>Spain  arena in NGN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low broadband penetration and high pr...
Xarxa Oberta in Catalonia (Spain) <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-provision  and  Wholesale access  on the ...
New models for NGN: cooperative deployment <ul><li>Güifi.net </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well known  case for Catalonia -> aim t...
New models for NGN: cooperative deployment <ul><li>They don’t sell fibre </li></ul><ul><li>They all  sell broadband , and ...
Role of Public Administration in Europe <ul><li>At  European  level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultations on NGN </li></ul>...
Conclusions <ul><li>Regulation is a key issue to facilitate NGN roll out: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enforce new actors comi...
References <ul><li>European Commission Docs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU2020. EC. Brussels, 26.8.2010. COM(2010) 245 final/2....
Role of the public administration in NGN deployment in Europe Universitat Pompeu Fabra Tànger 122-140 08018 Barcelona -ESP...
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Role of the state in NGN deployment in Europe - Miquel Oliver

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Presentación de Miquel Oliver en el taller "El rol del estado en la promición de la banda ancha" DIRSI en Lima (Perú) el 19 de mayo de 2011.

Miquel Oliver's presentation a the DIRSI Workshop "The role of the state in the promotion of the broadband". Lima (Peru) May 19th 2011.

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Role of the state in NGN deployment in Europe - Miquel Oliver

  1. 1. Role of the state in NGN deployment in Europe Review of European Digital Agendas Miquel Oliver , Albert Domingo NeTS Research Group Universitat Pompeu Fabra “ El papel del Estado en la promoción de la banda ancha” (Lima) 18 de Mayo de 2011
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>European context </li></ul><ul><li>Europe 2020 digital agenda </li></ul><ul><li>NGN in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Some case studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal, Catalonia, Barcelona and Amsterdam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of the public administration in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>New NGN deployment models? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. European framework <ul><li>The economic crisis resulted in a large loss in economic activity: millions of lost jobs and GDP reduction </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internet Usage in EU <ul><li>The share of households with broadband internet access has doubled since 2006 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Highlights in Internet Usage –EU- <ul><li>More than half of individuals in the EU27 used the internet daily </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest share of regular internet users was in the age group 55-74 years </li></ul><ul><li>About four in ten unemployed internet users consulted the internet for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 60 % of internet users in the EU27 shopped online; </li></ul>
  6. 6. European markets share Incumbents still dominate around one half of the market
  7. 7. Europe 2020 <ul><li>Approved in May 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: exiting the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart-Sustainable-Inclusive growth </li></ul></ul>EU targets for smart growth include: 1. PP investment levels to reach 3% of EU's GDP as well as better conditions for R&D and Innovation 2. 75% employment rate for women and men aged 20-64 by 2020– 3. Better educational reducing  school drop-out rates below 10% and at least 40% of 30-34–year-olds with third level education
  8. 8. Europe 2020 <ul><li>How will the EU boost smart growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Through 3 flagship initiatives : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Digital agenda for Europe Creating a single digital market based on fast/ultrafast internet and interoperable applications : </li></ul><ul><li>2. Innovation Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refocusing R&D and innovation policy on major challenges for our society   strengthening every link in the innovation chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Youth on the move </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study abroad, equipping young people better for the job market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improving all levels of education and training </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Digital Agenda for Europe <ul><li>Digital Single Market </li></ul><ul><li>EU Single Market rules for the digital era </li></ul><ul><li>Single area for online payments , and protection for EU consumers in cyberspace. </li></ul>Fig. from A Digital Agenda for Europe
  10. 10. EU as a fragmented market <ul><li>Legal downloads are not landing off in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Different content platforms in each country </li></ul><ul><li>Complex copyright clearance, management and cross-border licensing </li></ul>x4
  11. 11. Trust is important in e-Shopping
  12. 12. Fast and ultrafast Internet access <ul><li>We need very fast Internet for the economy to grow strongly and to create jobs and prosperity, and to ensure citizens can access the content and services they want. </li></ul>Still some work ahead to build FTTH infrastructures
  13. 13. Action Areas in EU2020 <ul><li>2. The action areas of the Digital Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1. A vibrant digital single market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2. Interoperability and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.3. Trust and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4. Fast and ultra fast internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5. Research and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.6. Enhancing digital literacy, skills and inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.7. ICT-enabled benefits for EU society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.8. International aspects of the Digital Agenda </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. EU2020: Fast & Ultrafast Internet Access <ul><li>We need very fast Internet for the economy to grow strongly and to create jobs and prosperity, and to ensure citizens can access the content and services they want. </li></ul><ul><li>(by 2013) (i) all Europeans have access to much higher internet speeds of above 30 Mbps and, </li></ul><ul><li>(by 2020) (ii) 50% or more of European households subscribe to internet connections above 100 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>How? Developing a comprehensive policy focusing on two goals: </li></ul><ul><li>to guarantee universal broadband coverage (fixed & wireless) with internet speeds gradually increasing up to 30 Mbps and above </li></ul><ul><li>to foster the deployment and NGA in a large part of the EU territory, allowing ultra fast internet connections above 100 Mbps . </li></ul>The implication of the different governments is crucial
  15. 15. NGN in Europe today
  16. 16. NGN in Europe today <ul><li>3.9 M of fiber access subscribers (8.1 M if Russia is included) </li></ul><ul><li>Baltic countries (Lithuania, Sweden, Norway, Slovenia, Slovakia) are leading the fiber deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal is moving fast in fiber roll out leaving the Netherlands, Finland or France behind </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries with long incumbent tradition does not appear or are in the lower part (Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, UK) </li></ul><ul><li>A relax in the regulatory frameworks incentives the FTTH roll out </li></ul>“ (…) Europe has still a long way to go” Chris Holden, President of FTTH Council Europe
  17. 17. Bucharest –Romania-, relax in telecom regulation
  18. 18. NGN Plans for Europe
  19. 19. NGN Plans for Europe <ul><li>Most European Countries have defined their Digital Agendas according the EU2020 framework </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious goals in terms of high-speed broadband and coverage are set for 2015-2020 period </li></ul><ul><li>Focus in rural and underserved areas: 100% of population coverage with basic broadband </li></ul><ul><li>A huge amount of resources ( 1.8 Billion€ ) are allocated to commit the EU2020 agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Public funding is available in many countries with special focus on rural areas </li></ul>&quot; Smart investments into high and very high speed broadband infrastructures are crucial to create jobs, increase economic performance and to unlock the competitive potential of the EU in the long term. The Commission is committed to help EU countries to accelerate private and public investments in this sector.&quot; Joaquín Almunia , Vice-President in charge of competition policy European Commission
  20. 20. Portugal Case
  21. 21. Portugal Case <ul><li>Under Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 120/2008 of 30 July, the Portuguese government has adopted investment in NGA as a strategic priority for the country , establishing as key targets the connection to NGA of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) One million users by 2010; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) All primary and secondary schools and all public justice services by 2010351; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) All public hospitals, health centres, museums and libraries and all public institutions of higher and polytechnic education by 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced to ensure open access to infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate civil works </li></ul>These objectives are in line with the approach adopted in the European Union, following the EC Communication &quot; A European Economic Recovery Plan &quot; , Com (2008)
  22. 22. Portugal Case <ul><li>Under Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 120/2008 of 30 July, the Portuguese government has adopted investment in NGA as a strategic priority for the country , establishing as key targets the connection to NGA of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) One million users by 2010; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) All primary and secondary schools and all public justice services by 2010351; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) All public hospitals, health centers, museums and libraries and all public institutions of higher and polytechnic education by 2009. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Portugal Case <ul><li>A commitment between operators and government was signed in January 2009. In this protocol, the government committed itself to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Promoting the formulation of appropriate legislative measures in order to open ducts, regulate networks inside and outside of buildings and develop a centralized information system, enabling operators to obtain information about the location of ducts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Creating a line of credit, available to all investors in NGA, with a minimum value of 800 million euros; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Generating incentives for investment in NGA. </li></ul></ul>Operators have committed to invest about 1 billion € and to bring forward, to 2009, the allocation of resources that make it possible for 1.5 million users to be connected to an optical fiber network.
  24. 24. Portugal Case <ul><li>Special plans for rural areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The government launched 5 Public Tenders for the installation and operation of &quot; High-Speed Networks in Rural Areas &quot;, covering 140 municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tender specifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum coverage of 50% of the population of the geographic area within 24 months, and guarantee a minimum speed 40 Mbps per end-user. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Barcelona Case
  26. 26. <ul><li>1999 Barcelona authorities recognized the importance of NGAN and received a well accepted commitment by all operators </li></ul><ul><li>2003 The incumbent is the only operator that is able to deploy network after the technological bubble got bust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipality decide to Deploy Telecommunications Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2004 Barcelona municipality decides a PPP model joint with incumbent </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Barcelona Municipality : 5M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Telefonica de España: 5M€ </li></ul><ul><li>2006 22@ Telecommunications investment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Works-> 7.5 M€ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Fibre -> 1.8 M€ </li></ul></ul>Barcelona 22@ 10 M€ budget Population: 1.619.337 Homes: 757.928 Passed Homes: 84.000 Deployment: ducts and dark fibre
  27. 27. <ul><li>2006 Ducts shared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Ducts For Telefónica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Ducts for Barcelona Municipality: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 For new operators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 For Municipal us e </li></ul></ul></ul>Barcelona 22@ Core Network 2.975 m. -> 12 ducts (6 Telefónica) 11.962 m. -> 9 ducts (4 Telefónica) 12.624 m. -> 6 ducts (3 Telefónica) Acces Network 12.209 m. -> 6 ducts (3 Telefónica) 12.209 m. -> 4 ducts (1 Telefónica) Public private partnership in FTTX passive infrastructure deployment: the 22@BCN case . Infante, Jorge; Sagarra, Ramon; Macian, Carlos; Oliver, Miquel. International Journal of Management and Network Economics, Volume 1, Number 3, 24 December 2009 , pp. 327-342(16). Inderscience Publishers.
  28. 28. <ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Barcelona 22@ Source: Barcelona 22@ presentation <ul><li>Operators in 22@ : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Adamo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Orange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Telefónica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Vodafone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Price for renting dark fibre inside 22@ around 6.000€/year </li></ul><ul><li>Any Point to point inside 22@ district </li></ul>50% Discount . Number of blocks covered _ Number of blocks with fibre connection available Encouraging operators deployment
  29. 29. <ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Barcelona 22@ <ul><li>- 100 Mbps / 20 Mbps ( Adamo ) </li></ul><ul><li>1000 minutes phone calls within country </li></ul>41,4 €/month <ul><li>50 Mbps / 5 Mbps (Telefónica) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited calls </li></ul>54,8 €/month <ul><li>50 Mbps / 5 Mbps (Telefónica) </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited calls </li></ul><ul><li>Imagenio HD TV ( 70 channels + 42 TDT channels + Gol TV included) </li></ul>75,8 €/month
  30. 30. Amsterdam Case
  31. 31. <ul><li>2001 Amsterdam authorities recognized the importance of NGAN -> estimations to have a deployed network in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>2003 KPN is interested and no cable operators are interested so the plan was dropped </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Amsterdam municipality decides a PPP model </li></ul><ul><li>2005 BBned won the contract to operate the electronic equipment </li></ul><ul><li>2006 Glasvezelnet Amsterdam (GNA): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The municipality -> 6 M€ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The housing associations -> 6 M€ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The private sector -> 6 M€ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt financing -> 12 M€ </li></ul></ul>Amsterdam Citynet 30 M€ budget Population: 762,000 Size of network: 43,000 homes passed in 2.5 years Connected homes: 10,000 Activated: 4000 at the end 2009 Deployment: Point to Point Deployment method: direct buried cables and 96-fibre
  32. 32. <ul><li>2007 European Comission allows Amsterdam city to invest in the network as it met the terms of the Market Economy Investor Principle (considering NO STATE AID) </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>KPN and Reggefiber group formed a joint venture in 2009 </li></ul>Amsterdam Citynet Fiber to the Home: > 40,000 addresses 2007/2008: to 10% of homes Fiber to the Theater: 1 symm Gb/s 2007: to 10 major theaters Fiber to the School: 1 symm Gb/s 2009: to 500 schools and non-profits Source: Dirk van der Woude, Towards a smarter Amsterdam
  33. 33. <ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul>Amsterdam Citynet City of Amsterdam Housing Associations Reggeborgh & KPN Reggefiber <ul><li>- 20 Mbps symmetric ( Alice Comfort Plus ) </li></ul><ul><li>unlimited phone calls within country </li></ul><ul><li>39 TV channels </li></ul><ul><li>25 radio channels </li></ul>44,5 €/month - 100 Mbps symmetric (InterNLnet) 119,5 €/month
  34. 34. Amsterdam Citynet <ul><li>2011 </li></ul><ul><li>2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Close Future </li></ul>Source: KPN Investor Day: Consumer wireline, London, 10 May 2011 Amsterdam target-> 100.000 new homes to be covered in 2012 Source: KPN Investor Day: Consumer wireline, London, 10 May 2011
  35. 35. Xarxa Oberta -Catalonia Case-
  36. 36. Xarxa Oberta in Catalonia (Spain) <ul><li>Spain arena in NGN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low broadband penetration and high prices (11% higher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best offer of the incumbent is 71% higher than in other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telefonica owns 55% of broadband lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ wait and see ” strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No national plans launched </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional governments manage Health and Education expediture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xarxa Oberta, approved by EU, is a model of public intervention to promote NGN access in Catalunya </li></ul></ul>Deployment of High-speed Broadband Infrastructures during the Economic Crisis. The case of Regional Governments in Spain . JJ Ganuza… - Colección estudios económicos, 2010 - crisis09.es
  37. 37. Xarxa Oberta in Catalonia (Spain) <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-provision and Wholesale access on the same networking infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and neutral infrastructure to provide access to current and future operators  promotion of competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding, a realistic PPP model : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional government invests instead of spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map of current public investments on fiber deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid overlapping with private investments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tender process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of the tender: three-step procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New consortium won: 253M€ - 20years – 93 municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU intervention : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid State aid in private competition, Xarxa Oberta is only allowed in “ white areas ” and in “ grey areas ” under certain conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catalonia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7,4M inhab. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>943 municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32.000 km2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% pop. in 63 mun. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. New models for NGN: cooperative deployment <ul><li>Güifi.net </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well known case for Catalonia -> aim to expand all over the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT seems the ONLY non-profit cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: Private Foundation to get the management and staff paid. It is also important to became an operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18.950 nodes and 12500 operative ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BEK Communications Cooperative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.000 homes using it, all users are owners of the company, half with FTTH already in 2010. Six countries in the States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: 9 person board elected by all the users/owners </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. New models for NGN: cooperative deployment <ul><li>They don’t sell fibre </li></ul><ul><li>They all sell broadband , and with that the services of bundled IPTV or the possibilities to expand your company </li></ul><ul><li>They have seminars for their owners and attract more users by this way. </li></ul><ul><li>Deployments done at the minimum cost , no extra charges in any of the services offered or installed </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of community , help comes from your neighbour in first term, then someone from the cooperative that can help, and in the last term both rises found to help some deployments. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Role of Public Administration in Europe <ul><li>At European level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultations on NGN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for broadband roll out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe 2020 and common digital agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for national regulatory bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At national / country level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambitious digital agendas with broadband for all as lemma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional plans are more realistic and pragmatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPP models to stimulate investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City projects more feasible to roll out NGN </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Conclusions <ul><li>Regulation is a key issue to facilitate NGN roll out: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To enforce new actors coming into the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To incentive real competition at all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure a broadband coverage, specially in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Digital Agendas are a good excuse to start working on that </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative PPP models should mobilize current public assets like already deployed fiber </li></ul><ul><li>The role and attitude of incumbents does not see clear returns and the business models are reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>New models for NGN deployment are arising, but its is too early to evaluate them </li></ul>
  42. 42. References <ul><li>European Commission Docs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU2020. EC. Brussels, 26.8.2010. COM(2010) 245 final/2. A Digital Agenda for Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EC, Brussels, COM(2011) 11 - A1/2, Annual Growth Survey: Progress report on Europe 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European Parlament, DG for Internal Policies. Next Generation Networks (NGNs). October 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consultancy reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BEREC. Next Generation Access – Collection of factual information and new issues of NGA roll-out. February 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTTH Council Europe. Annual Report April 2010 – April 2011. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulatory bodies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMT, www.cmt.es </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Evolution of NGA. 01.02.2011. ANACOM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public private partnership in FTTX passive infrastructure deployment: the 22@BCN case . Infante, Jorge; Sagarra, Ramon; Macian, Carlos; Oliver, Miquel. International Journal of Management and Network Economics, Volume 1, Number 3, 24 December 2009 , pp. 327-342(16). Inderscience Publishers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment of High-speed Broadband Infrastructures during the Economic Crisis. The case of Regional Governments in Spain JJ Ganuza. Colección estudios económicos, 2010 - crisis09.es </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral Networks: A real alternative to achieve both effective competition and social benefits? , Infante, J., M. Oliver, and C. Macian, ITS Conference on Regional Economic Development, Beijing, China, 06/2006. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Role of the public administration in NGN deployment in Europe Universitat Pompeu Fabra Tànger 122-140 08018 Barcelona -ESPAÑA Teléfonos: (34) 935422910 m [email_address] www.nets.upf.edu www.upf.edu

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