Broadband and Universal Access Challenges for regulators Martha Garcia-Murillo Syracuse University School of Information S...
Objectives <ul><li>In this class we will learn about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service and broadband access </li></...
Agenda <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Universal Service Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Basic questions to co...
Some questions <ul><li>Do you think that it is the obligation of the government to make sure that the population has acces...
The definition of broadband <ul><li>The FCC official definition of broadband is &quot;data transmission speeds exceeding 2...
Universal Service Policies  <ul><li>Cross subsidies : or within service provided by incumbent operators </li></ul><ul><li>...
Why?
Bangladesh/Nigeria: Private Sector  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crHS9YEx4lg
<ul><li>Grameen Phone introduced village pay phones through the cellular network in the rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay...
Why? <ul><li>A relatively developed business sector needs advanced telecommunications to reassert itself in the national a...
Questions to answer for a USP <ul><li>What services? Scope </li></ul><ul><li>To whom? Segments of the population </li></ul...
What services?
1. Changing  scope  of USP <ul><li>Basic service has become insufficient in the movement towards information societies </l...
Scholars’ opinions <ul><li>The focus should thus be changed to consider, for example, basic computer literacy and end user...
2. Access for whom? Source:   http://www.idrc.ca/IMAGES/books/809/figure1.gif
Urban and Rural ICT conditions Rural Urban One or no providers Multiple providers One platforms Multiple platforms Sparse ...
How about? <ul><li>Blindness/low vision </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness/hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis, one-han...
3. Who should do it? <ul><li>State monopoly vs. Private Sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An impressive level of universality w...
Some opinions about the private sector <ul><li>Speed Internet access by private industry alone is leaving behind most of t...
Case studies <ul><li>&quot;Hole in the Wall“ (India)  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Information Age Town“ (Ireland) </li></ul><u...
4. What instruments? <ul><li>Wireless networks are dropping in price and are getting greater reach </li></ul><ul><li>But: ...
Technologies used Source: http://www.network-research.org/projects.html
<ul><li>This framework considers socioeconomic, cultural and technological factors </li></ul>Patchwork Adoption
WiFi - Cellular 3G Cellular WiFi
5. Universal service mechanisms (policy) <ul><li>Supply policy mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Demand policy mechanism </li></ul>
Univ. Serv. Policies (Supply) <ul><li>Direct government investment </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting private sector supply  </li...
Some reality check <ul><li>Government problems that affect supply </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in issuing regulation and appro...
Impact of regulation on supply
Universal service fund: Peru <ul><li>In 1994, a new legal framework for telecommunications was adopted in Peru. The operat...
Should the USP be eliminate (US)? <ul><li>A universal service program should not longer include only basic telephony. This...
VoIP and USP
Univ. Serv. Policies: Demand <ul><li>Government can support demand by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being early adopters </li></u...
Govt. internal funding: South Korea <ul><li>Teledensity has increased from 7% in 1982 to almost 40%  </li></ul><ul><li>Exp...
6. How to pay for it? <ul><li>Sector-internal sources: ( profit reinvestment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications-sec...
Circumstances matter <ul><li>Countries with very poorly developed networks may find it especially hard to muster public an...
ICTs Infrastructures
Community based initiatives: Brazil
Local vs Federal Government Entities <ul><li>Are local and federal government agencies complements or substitutes in relat...
Rural solutions <ul><li>Solar or fuel based power installations (Gulati09) </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant content </li></ul><u...
Rural solutions <ul><li>Tata Teleservices (TTSL) tie up with Impetus technologies called MandiBhav18 which will enable far...
Cooperatives for rural access <ul><li>Cooperatives have allowed rural Argentina to have access to services such as:  </li>...
Urban connectivity <ul><li>Done by local governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 600 municipalities offered such service as...
Other incentives  <ul><li>Mobile applications of relevance to the community. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government awards for d...
Benefits of Regional Policies <ul><li>Enlargement of the market which makes investment more attractive </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Conclusions <ul><li>The definition of Universal Service/Access expands as economic circumstances improve. Poorer countries...
Conclusions <ul><li>International funding comes with restrictions that can limit creativity of mechanisms </li></ul><ul><l...
Preguntas? Empecemos el dialogo Syracuse University School of Information Studies Hinds Hall 245 Syarcuse NY 13244 Teléfon...
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Broadband and universal access: challenges for regulators - Martha García-Murillo

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Presentación de Martha García-Murillo en el taller "El rol del Estado en la promoción de la banda ancha" para DIRSI. Lima, 19 de mayo de 2011.

Martha García-Murillo's presentation at the workshop "The role of the state in the promotion of the broadband" for DIRSI. Lima, May 19th 2011.

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  • The objective of this presentation is not to provide specific recommendations for the implementation of a universal service program. This is because the political, economic and technological circumstances of each country will greatly affect the mechanisms that could be used to best accomplish any connectivity related goals. The purpose of this presentation is thus three fold: To highlight the different elements that need to be considered in any universal service program To highlight some of the challenges that countries have encounter in the implementation of their universal service programs To highlight the issues that have contributed to success
  • The idea of a mobile phone for rural areas of Bangladesh was originally conceived by Iqbal Quadir (person in the video). He was inspired by the Grameen Bank microcredit model and envisioned a business model where a cell phone can serve as a source of income. After leaving his job as an investment banker in the United States, Quadir travelled back to Bangladesh and worked for three years gaining support from various organizations that would lead to a consortium with Telenor and GrameenBank to establish GrameenPhone. Quadir remained a shareholder of GrameenPhone until 2004.
  • It is not surprising that governments around the world recognized that connectivity is becoming increasingly more important. Even in poor nations the need to a basic phone and now to the internet is opening economic, political, and educational opportunities. Connectivity nonetheless is closely related to development. It is thus not surprising that LCDs have lower teledensity and Internet access than rich nations. The governments of these poorer countires will thus need greater efforts, political commitment, and creativity to overcome their economic limitations to offer these services to their populations.
  • Given the transition towards a converging world and the new possibilities that technology can bring, policy makers need to ask these questions when trying to formulate a universal service. program. According a recently published report* of universal service programs in Latin America “…new generation of universal access programs will be more complex and should focus on infrastructure and services that use converged Internet-protocol (IP) platforms” This presentation will highlight some of the innovations that have been proposed for each of the questions posed in this slide * Stern, P. A., Townsend, D. N., &amp; Stephens, R. (2006). New Models for Universal Access to Telecommunications Services in Latin America . Montreal/Boston/Madrid: Regulatel/World Bank (PPIAF and GPOBA)/ECLAC.
  • This simple diagram shows how, over time, the services included in a universal service program are progressing from basic fixed telephony to broadband connectivity and from cross subsidies that did not have specific developmental goals to more focused and economically relevant objectives. Two countries that exemplify this movement beyond basic telephony are England where the “Functional” Internet Access (FIA) dial up was implemented and in Australia where the government established Digital Data Service obligations.
  • Users can be divided broadly into four groups: 1. Commercially feasible, which are those users currently supplied with service; 2. Commercially feasible potential users, who for various reasons are not yet supplied with service; 3. A number of currently subsidized customers, some in urban areas on very low incomes with low usage levels and others in isolated rural areas that are very costly to provide with service (although these rural users perhaps have relatively high incomes); and 4. Commercially non-feasible potential users currently lacking service.
  • There has been much debate on the relative merits of state monopoly and private-sector competition for the provision of universal service. Each can muster extensive evidence to support its cause. In both cases the level of success is closely related to the commitment from the government to prioritize these initiatives. When this is done the legal, regulatory framework is defined to facilitate investment and to allocate resources to the program. Similarly any institutional constraints related to procedures is also streamline and made more transparent. A general period of economic crisis exerts extreme pressure on government expenditure, especially in developing countries struggling with large external debts, so that direct state-capital injections become difficult. This is exacerbated by the high proportion of hard currency required for network development. In a competitive environment telecom operators do not extend services to customers or areas where revenues generated (at prevailing averaged tariffs) are lower than the costs of providing service. Such uneconomic customers and areas are mainly found in rural, peripheral, and less favored regions. The experience of liberalized countries in terms of new investment in enhanced or new services have uneven geographic distribution.
  • For the most part, regulators should not specify any particular technology. Service providers should be given the freedom to choose any technology they wish to deploy so long as it meets quality of service, interference and type approval requirements. The government can nonetheless provide some incentives for innovation through experimental grants for example.
  • There is a great variety of technologies that achieve connectivity. Among them are fixed wires, digital subscriber line (DSL) over a copper local loop and coaxial cables, power line communications (PLC), second and third generation cellular mobile (radio-in-the-loop) systems, broadband wireless access (BWA) systems, WiFi hotspots, VSAT links, VoIP etc. The choice of technology will, to a great extent, be determined by geographic, economic and demographic characteristics. Something that is clear from this presentation is that more often than not a universal service program will involve the combination of multiple technologies including hybrid versions
  • Network extension requirements were common with the privatization process. Where the newly privatized operator was given a number or years under monopoly but this came with expansion requirements Twinning For operators seeking lucrative international-service and mobile-service licenses they are also asked to take a license in the poorer, more remote rural areas Issuing competing licenses is done with the objective of fostering innovation through competition Issuing licenses for additional non-telecommunications services. This is more a possibility now with convergence given that companies from other industries such as power generators or cable companies can enter the market Sharing revenue has two modalities BOT scheme and BTO scheme. A private operator (perhaps a foreign or local consortium) builds the network with its own funds, passing ownership to the government and getting a return on its investment through sharing revenue with the government for a set period that is often linked to an exclusive license. Although one advantage of such schemes is that control eventually reverts to government, effective control for a significant period must be with the investor because the main attraction is a steady stream of income Lowest-subsidy license auction This is a common instrument around the world where a project is given to the bidder that asks for the lowest subsidy.
  • Peru, was perhaps the most successful in the implementation of reverse bid auctions for universal service projects. Prior to liberalization with the privatization of the state operator they granted a monopoly. Telefónica, as a condition of its concession, had to provide at least one public telephone in 1 500 of the 2 900 population centres of between 500 and 3 000 inhabitants (and in all towns with more than 3 000 inhabitants). With competition Peru introduced its Telecommunications Fund (FITEL) in 1994 and it was financed with a 1% tax of gross annual billings of all telecommunications providers (including CATV). The projects were carefully designed after they have made market studies of their rural communities. Once they analyze this data the government established priorities for places considered preferential social interest. This projects have significantly increased the teledensity of rural Peru.
  • In 1993 the South Korean government developed an ambitious plan to bring the Information Society to all users by 2015. This was a remarkable objective given that they just recently had one of the lowest teledensities in the region. The liberalization process was gradual and it started in the 1980s. The rural areas were given priority. In 1993 they launched the KII that will investment of 60 billion USD in constructing the &amp;quot;New Korea Net-Government&amp;quot; (G-NET) and the &amp;quot;New Korea Net-Public&amp;quot; (P-NET). Paid for by the government, G-NET will by 2010 link all public institutions, research institutes, and universities with the most advanced services at affordable costs. In the 1990s they allowed competition for long distance services and later on for other services. In addition schools were required to take the Internet into their curriculum and housewives were trained to help their kids with their school work.
  • There are two major sources of funding: 1) internal and 2) external Internal sources of funding can come from the telecommunications and information sector (notice that the information sector is now being included given that cable TV companies in many countries are now offering these services). The External sources can come from entities outside of the ICT sector. These can be funds from the privatization of the telecommunications operator, loans from international organizations or from the national treasury. External sources have their own inherent risks given that they come with a series of conditions.
  • Regulatory issues to take into consideration Spectrum use policies related to license free spectrum especially for rural applications to facilitate the deployment of technologies that use these frequencies for universal access projects Burdensome restrictions or prohibitions on technologies like VoIP-based networks can limit the implementation of cost-effective means to expand affordable access especially for rural and underserved areas. Asymmetrical rules and regulations can create negative incentives of certain industries to invest in networks more so now when fixed lines are becoming more attractive due to their broadband capabilities. Complex licensing regime can discourage the establishment of smaller, independent telephone operations in rural communities and underserved areas, especially where incumbent operators may have chosen not to build networks and provide services Lack of transparency and uncertain requirements for universal service projects can undermine the credibility of the regulatory entity
  • Take advantage of grassroots efforts from partnerships with NGOs, the private sector, and governments. This can be done through close relationships with community organizations and NGOs to be rolled out quickly and without bureaucratic hindrances. Similarly governments could support small community based projects by giving them independent technical and management advice and legal support for during project design, construction and especially during contract negotiations with service suppliers. Similarly local entrepreneurs can be encouraged to adopt innovative business, administrative, marketing, service delivery, and procurement practices for their universal access projects
  • Governments in small markets often find it difficult to attract investment. This is the case for example of the Central American region where each country has small low income populations. In an effort to make their market more attractive they have engaged in a series of efforts that try to harmonized their policies and regulations. The process has not been easy given that there is a strong sense of sovereignty in Latin America but slowly they have implemented regional institutions and developed regional initiatives such as the regional electric network which will also lay the Information Mesoamerican Highway. International cooperative initiatives can facilitate private satellite bandwidth aggregation and integration initiatives.
  • Broadband and universal access: challenges for regulators - Martha García-Murillo

    1. 1. Broadband and Universal Access Challenges for regulators Martha Garcia-Murillo Syracuse University School of Information Studies [email_address] DIRSI Workshop (Lima, Peru) 19 de Mayo de 2011
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>In this class we will learn about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service and broadband access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justification of the implementation of universal service fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements to consider for a universal service program and policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New alternatives to traditional Universal Service/Access programs </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Universal Service Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Basic questions to consider for Universal Service Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segments of the population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul>
    4. 4. Some questions <ul><li>Do you think that it is the obligation of the government to make sure that the population has access at affordable prices to an information infrastructure? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by universal service? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we want to achieve universality? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we do it? </li></ul>
    5. 5. The definition of broadband <ul><li>The FCC official definition of broadband is &quot;data transmission speeds exceeding 200 kilobits per second&quot; (or 200 Kbps) in at least one direction, typically downstream. </li></ul><ul><li>The theoretical limit of dial up is 56 Kbps but more realistically the maximum speed is closer to 48 Kbps </li></ul><ul><li>Another major difference between broadband and dial up Internet is that broadband is usually &quot;Always On” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Universal Service Policies <ul><li>Cross subsidies : or within service provided by incumbent operators </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory service obligations : imposed by license conditions or other regulatory measures </li></ul><ul><li>Market reforms : based on simply privatization and competition </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Service Funds : independently administered funds that collect revenues from various sources and provide targeted subsidies </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why?
    8. 8. Bangladesh/Nigeria: Private Sector http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=crHS9YEx4lg
    9. 9. <ul><li>Grameen Phone introduced village pay phones through the cellular network in the rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay phones substituted the costs involved in physical travel to accomplish the same information-related task. </li></ul><ul><li>It helped improve communication in the villages within Bangladesh. </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable and easily accessible services delivered over the village pay phone brought about a radical change in the business and socio-economic way of life </li></ul><ul><li>These initiatives by Grameen Phone helped improve the lifestyle of the lower strata of the society and addressed problems that they faced. </li></ul>Bangladesh: Grameen Phone
    10. 10. Why? <ul><li>A relatively developed business sector needs advanced telecommunications to reassert itself in the national and world economy and society as a whole can access abundant information on a wide variety of issue </li></ul><ul><li>There is a dual causality: economic development leads to greater connectivity but also greater connectivity leads to greater development </li></ul><ul><li>10% increase in speed leads to 1.3% increase in economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>With limited road infrastructure information access to rural areas can connect with the rest of the world and be </li></ul>
    11. 11. Questions to answer for a USP <ul><li>What services? Scope </li></ul><ul><li>To whom? Segments of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Who should do it? Entities </li></ul><ul><li>What instruments? Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>How to finance it? Resources </li></ul><ul><li>What mechanisms? Policy </li></ul>
    12. 12. What services?
    13. 13. 1. Changing scope of USP <ul><li>Basic service has become insufficient in the movement towards information societies </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DMdRZ39vZGM </li></ul>
    14. 14. Scholars’ opinions <ul><li>The focus should thus be changed to consider, for example, basic computer literacy and end user equipment (Gillett, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal service Lievrow argues that it should include training and education to cultivate human capacity (Lievrouw, 2000) </li></ul>
    15. 15. 2. Access for whom? Source: http://www.idrc.ca/IMAGES/books/809/figure1.gif
    16. 16. Urban and Rural ICT conditions Rural Urban One or no providers Multiple providers One platforms Multiple platforms Sparse population Abundant population Rural poor Urban poor Low teledensity High teledensity Rural content needs Urban content needs High cost connectivity Lower cost connectivity Low digital literacy Higher digital literacy Limited power grid Near universal power grid
    17. 17. How about? <ul><li>Blindness/low vision </li></ul><ul><li>Deafness/hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis, one-handed use </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome or upper extremity repetitive stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Tremors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities, cognitive disabilites </li></ul><ul><li>Back problems. </li></ul>
    18. 18. 3. Who should do it? <ul><li>State monopoly vs. Private Sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An impressive level of universality was achieved under monopoly conditions in Europe, in many developing countries, and elsewhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much private-sector-inspired research has drawn attention to changes in the fundamental structure of the industry and to strong growth rates under some more liberalized conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o4s4cyNJUdc&feature=related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other parties (who?) </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-30851-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
    19. 19. Some opinions about the private sector <ul><li>Speed Internet access by private industry alone is leaving behind most of the poor, vast numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and many residents of rural and urban poor (Travis 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly fees and surcharges for broadband, at up to five times the cost of a dialup Internet connection (Travis 2006) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Case studies <ul><li>&quot;Hole in the Wall“ (India) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Information Age Town“ (Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a1B-CWeZWRA </li></ul>
    21. 21. 4. What instruments? <ul><li>Wireless networks are dropping in price and are getting greater reach </li></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer, wireless alternatives like WiMax are generally not included </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV is also not included </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Technologies used Source: http://www.network-research.org/projects.html
    23. 23. <ul><li>This framework considers socioeconomic, cultural and technological factors </li></ul>Patchwork Adoption
    24. 24. WiFi - Cellular 3G Cellular WiFi
    25. 25. 5. Universal service mechanisms (policy) <ul><li>Supply policy mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Demand policy mechanism </li></ul>
    26. 26. Univ. Serv. Policies (Supply) <ul><li>Direct government investment </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting private sector supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to licenses (including non conventional parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal service programs </li></ul>
    27. 27. Some reality check <ul><li>Government problems that affect supply </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in issuing regulation and approval of licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictability </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair enforcement </li></ul>
    28. 28. Impact of regulation on supply
    29. 29. Universal service fund: Peru <ul><li>In 1994, a new legal framework for telecommunications was adopted in Peru. The operator (local, long distance, international) was privatized and was given 5 years (to June 1999) to make the transition from monopoly to competitive supplier. Peru created a fund, FITEL, which is paid for by a tax on the industry and is aimed at supporting universal service in rural areas. </li></ul>Source: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-30858-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
    30. 30. Should the USP be eliminate (US)? <ul><li>A universal service program should not longer include only basic telephony. This is particularly true when 95% of the population has access to basic telephony (Belinfante, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Goggin (Goggin & Newell, 2000) proposed to look at universal service with the concept of disability in mind. Taking this into consideration, a universal service definition should thus take into consideration the special needs of certain people </li></ul>
    31. 31. VoIP and USP
    32. 32. Univ. Serv. Policies: Demand <ul><li>Government can support demand by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being early adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivering more services and information online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team up with community institutions such as broadcasters, newspapers, museums, clinics, training agencies, libraries, schools, airports, tourism to develop content Frieden 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate taxes for consumption (Crandall, Hahn, Litan, & Wallsten) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Govt. internal funding: South Korea <ul><li>Teledensity has increased from 7% in 1982 to almost 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion was driven by the Immediate Telephone Installation System (ITIS) policies, aimed at rapid extension of the network </li></ul><ul><li>Central to the Korean information infrastructure, however, is the extension of Korea's emphasis on education to cover the information and informatics domain </li></ul>Source: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-30849-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
    34. 34. 6. How to pay for it? <ul><li>Sector-internal sources: ( profit reinvestment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications-sector taxation, License fees, Interconnection fees , o bligatory, contributions (universal service fund), spectrum auctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caveat…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sector-external sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct government investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loans and development assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Circumstances matter <ul><li>Countries with very poorly developed networks may find it especially hard to muster public and policy support, for reasons rooted in political realities. </li></ul><ul><li>The regulatory regime can also limit the success of these programs if they are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum is poorly managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If certain technologies are prohibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the licensing regime is complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the institutions are not credible </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-30849-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
    36. 36. ICTs Infrastructures
    37. 37. Community based initiatives: Brazil
    38. 38. Local vs Federal Government Entities <ul><li>Are local and federal government agencies complements or substitutes in relation to broadband policies? </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Telecommunications Agency? (Richman) </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of government infrastructure with schools or any other type of community access centers </li></ul>
    39. 39. Rural solutions <ul><li>Solar or fuel based power installations (Gulati09) </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant content </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive equipment to access the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bharti-Iffco’s joint venture offer cheap mobile handsets (less than $40) bundled with mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAS such as free daily voice messages on market prices for their produce, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming techniques, weather forecasts, dairy framing, animal husbandry, rural health, initiatives and fertilizer availability (Gulati09) </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Rural solutions <ul><li>Tata Teleservices (TTSL) tie up with Impetus technologies called MandiBhav18 which will enable farmers and commodity traders get spot prices from all markets for commodities of their interest in real time in the local language. Gulati09 </li></ul><ul><li>companies such as Reuters and Connect are already providing weather forecasts, market prices and expert advisory services to farmers.19 </li></ul>
    41. 41. Cooperatives for rural access <ul><li>Cooperatives have allowed rural Argentina to have access to services such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public, local, national and international phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transport </li></ul></ul>© 2010 Espinoza-Vasquez, Garcia-Murillo
    42. 42. Urban connectivity <ul><li>Done by local governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 600 municipalities offered such service as of 2005, a small but rapidly growing percentage of the over 18,000 municipalities in the U.S. (Travis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lease to own of equipment </li></ul>
    43. 43. Other incentives <ul><li>Mobile applications of relevance to the community. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government awards for development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships with schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students to rural villages for digital literacy projects </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Benefits of Regional Policies <ul><li>Enlargement of the market which makes investment more attractive </li></ul><ul><li>More entry means more competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction of “forum shopping” </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of aggregation (satellite for example) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to attract external capital for the region </li></ul>
    45. 45. Conclusions <ul><li>The definition of Universal Service/Access expands as economic circumstances improve. Poorer countries need a strong commitment on the part of the government to support universalization. </li></ul><ul><li>The scope/reach of the program will depend on the economic and geographic characteristics of the population as well as the benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>The state (partnerships), the private sector and NGOs can improve connectivity if the policies and commitment are in place to support these initiatives </li></ul>
    46. 46. Conclusions <ul><li>International funding comes with restrictions that can limit creativity of mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>There are numerous internal mechanisms to expand connectivity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decision will depend on the circumstances of the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In addition to the traditional universal service funds there are other innovative ideas that should be explored </li></ul>
    47. 47. Preguntas? Empecemos el dialogo Syracuse University School of Information Studies Hinds Hall 245 Syarcuse NY 13244 Teléfonos: (315) 443-1829 [email_address] www.ischool.syr.edu

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