Let us see this…….• One day, a very scholarly English gentleman, while travelling in India, decided to go across big river, so he asked one of the village people who owned a small boat, if he would take him, to this request the boatman agreed.
• As they started, the sun became obscured by dark clouds, and as the river was large, the gentleman realized, that the crossing would take some time. So he started a conversation with the boatman.
“Did you know that the sun isapproximately 93,000,000milesaway, and yet it has provided heatand light, throughout the universesince time immemorial, baring that,if it was to shift, even a fraction ofan inch out of its orbit, there wouldbe total devastation?”
The boatman replied; “My dearsir, I am just a simple man whohas had no education, there isno way I could know suchinformation”
“Its occurrence is due to theexpansion of rapidly heatedair,” the gentleman exclaimed,“ You are 50% fool!!
• About ¾ of the way the weather completely changed. It became dark and started to rain heavily and started filling up the little boat with water clearly making it difficult for the boatman. But the foolish gentleman insisted in questioning.
“Do you know how we getrain”,“No sir,” was the reply.”
“ The sun evaporates waterfrom the sea, this gets storedin the clouds which thentravel by be wind power, thenwhen they become full, it letsall the water go, over theland. That’s how we get rain.”“You are 75% fool.” Said thegentleman, now feeling verysmug.
• The gentleman was suddenly interrupted from his banqueting by a loud cry from the boatman, “Oh no! I have lost my oar and now the water is about capsize the boat, we have no alternative but to swim the remainder of the way, luckily for us it is not very far.”
“But I can’t swim,” criedthe gentleman now seeinghis own imminent death.
“Then my dear sir, you are100% fool” said the boatman!!!
But bhaiya ji, the question still remains- What is Knowledge?
Questions in mind • What is knowledge? • How is it different from information? • And how is information different from mere data? By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 21
Let us see what is knowledge? When information is further processed, it has the potential for becoming knowledge. Information is further processed when one finds a pattern relation existing among data and information. And when one is able to realize and understand the patterns and their implications, then this collection of data and information becomes knowledge. By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 23
Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledgeTacit knowledge is personal. Explicit knowledge is It is stored in the heads of codified. It is stored in people. It is accumulated documents, databases, through study and websites, emails and the experience. It is developed like. It is knowledge that through the process of can be readily made interaction with other available to others and people. Tacit knowledge transmitted or shared in grows through the practice the form of systematic of trial and error and the and formal languages. experience of success and failure. By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 26
Interaction between types of knowledge Personal knowledge can become organizational knowledge through the dynamic interaction between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. This dynamic process is the essence of knowledge creation in an organization. This interaction between the two types of knowledge brings about what is called the four modes of knowledge conversion By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 27
four modes of knowledge conversionNONAKA AND TAKEUCHIMODEL OF KNOWLEDGECONVERSION By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 28
The process of knowledge creation is based ona double spiral movement between tacit andexplicit knowledge By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 29
Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation socialization (from individual tacit knowledge to group tacit knowledge), externalization (from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge), combination (from separate explicit knowledge to systemic explicit knowledge), and internalization (from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge). By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 30
• Socialization –From Tacit to Tacit comes from shared experience with others, networking to share experiences. It can also come from “direct interactions with suppliers and customers and walking around inside the organization.” eg. Honda’s Brainstorming camps• Externalization - From Tacit to Explicit information or knowledge becomes “crystalized.” People within the organization start sharing what they’ve learned (sort of like how I’m sharing it here) in the form of “concepts, hypothesis, diagrams, models, or prototypes.” eg. Canon’s industrial copier was converted into the Mini- Copier
• Combination –From Explicit to Explicit knowledge takes the pace of shared presentations, meetings. The knowledge items become categorized. The knowledge items start to undergo classification and are morphed by people in a format that the organization can use and apply. Eg. POS (point of sales system) by Craft general foods.
• Internalization - From Explicit to Implicit the process of understanding and absorbing explicit knowledge in to tacit knowledge held by the individual. Internalization is largely experiential, in order to actualize concepts and methods, either through the actual doing or through simulations. The internalization process transfers organization and group explicit knowledge to the individual. Eg. GE’s “re-experience” By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 33
Burlton’s Knowledge LifecycleModel By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 34
Primary repositories of anorganization’s knowledge By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 35
Importance of knowledgemanagement• Organizations contain vast reservoirs of untapped core knowledge and enabling expertise.• Who have what knowledge?• When is it useful?• How can it be retrieved?• How can it be converted to explicit knowledge? Knowledge management addresses this problem directly and pointedly. By: Prof. Dipti Purohit 36