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  1. 1. Minimalism
  2. 2. What is Minimalism?• Never clearly defined movement• Artists within the movement opposed each other• “Much has been written about minimal art, but I have not discovered anyone who admits to doing this kind of thing” -LeWitt
  3. 3. How it began• Against abstract expressionism• Turn away from inner psychological expression toward observation and referencing everyday life• Wanted a more American art form• “Getting rid of the things that people used to think were essential to art” - Judd
  4. 4. Abstract Expressionism Number 28, 1950 Jackson Pollock (1950) MinimalismTomlinson Court Park (from Black Series I) Frank Stella (1967)
  5. 5. Physical Characteristics• Clean, bare, simple• Monochromatic colors• Geometric shapes, and clean lines• Repitition• Industrial materials (pre-made)• Installations• Gallery scale
  6. 6. Symbolic Characteristics• Void of emotional meaning• Void of political intent• Void of associations and symbolism• Some artists drew inspiration from things, but it wasn‟t meant to be hidden.• “What you see, is what you see”-Stella
  7. 7. Main Artists• Frank Stella-1936 to Present• Sol LeWitt-1928 to 2007• Dan Flavin-1933 to1996• Donald Judd-1928 to 1994• Carl Andre-1935 to Present• Robert Morris- 1931 to Present
  8. 8. Frank Stella• Painter/printmaker/sculptor/architect• Influenced by Abstract Expressionism – Wanted to divert from it• Emphasize flatness of canvas• Worked with basic elements of art• Black geometric Color Curve 3D Painting Printing Sculpture Architecture
  9. 9. Frank Stella Zambezi (1959)
  10. 10. Frank StellaFlin Flon VIII(1970)
  11. 11. Frank StellaJarama II(1982)
  12. 12. Sol LeWitt• Sculptor/painter/drawings• Wall Drawings• Both color and grayscale• Require massive teams• LeWitt was a director• Months to make• Interested in ideas not objects.
  13. 13. Sol LeWittDrawing 880 (1998)
  14. 14. Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing Timelapse• php?id=1 (Rainbow Swirl)
  15. 15. Sol LeWitt cont.• Structures – Modular Structures• Skeletal Framework• Focused on texture• Later moved on to complex forms
  16. 16. Wall Structure (1963)
  17. 17. Wall Structure (Side View)
  18. 18. Five Modular Structures (1972)
  19. 19. Complex Form (1978-1980)
  20. 20. Dan Flavin• Light Propositions• Inhabits entire space with light• Wash walls with color• Makes the most with least material• Mixes light together like paint• Not meant to be permanent• Corners, barriers, corridors
  21. 21. Dan Flavin Untitled (in honor of HaroldJoachim) 3 (1977)
  22. 22. Monument 4 for those who have beenkilled in ambush (to P.K. who reminded me about death) (1966)
  23. 23. Donald Judd• Started off with paintings• “Specific Objects”• Forms included „stacks‟, „boxes‟, and „progressions‟• Industrial materials• Designed for specific locations• Critic of art
  24. 24. Untitled(1962)
  25. 25. Untitled (1964)
  26. 26. Untitled(1965)
  27. 27. Carl Andre• Sculptor• Raw materials• Sculpture-as-place• Designed for specific locations• Gallery scale
  28. 28. Pyramid (1959)
  29. 29. Andre Stella
  30. 30. Spill(1966)
  31. 31. Steel Square (1967)
  32. 32. Minimalist Music• Repition• Short phrases• Long periods of time• Stasis• Steady, constant harmony and pulse• Hypnotic Effect• Composers – Phillip Glass, La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich
  33. 33. Minimalist Music• Phillip Glass – 600 Lines – Repetitive – Quick switches in rhythm – Long period of time (player stamina)• La Monte Young – The Well Tuned Piano – Monotonous – Deals with the physics of sound – How it sounds – Influenced by mathematical compositions
  34. 34. Robert Morris• Not always a Minimalist• Theatre -stage props• “Blank Forms”• Unstructured forms• Gallery scale• Mirrors
  35. 35. Untitled(1964)
  36. 36. Mirrored Cubes (1965)
  37. 37. Untitled (1965-67)
  38. 38. Criticisms• Lack of complexity• Incoherent movement• Simple, no skill required• Only difference between this art and everyday life, is the setting of the gallery
  39. 39. Afterwards• Lead to a contemporary form of minimalism• Headed toward land art• Influenced Architecture and Interior Design