Pukhraj DB Control presentation- by Dipankar Dey


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Diabetes Mellitus - Defination, Symptoms, Types, Insulin Evolution, Insulin Side effects, Diabetes oral medication & side effects, The concept of Ayurveda, Pukhraj DB Control consists, Effect of Aloe vera, Karela, Amla, Giloy & Jamun on Diabetes, Non-medical management, Diet, Cholesterol, Exercise.

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Pukhraj DB Control presentation- by Dipankar Dey

  2. 2. Pancreas The bulk of the pancreas is an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic fluid into the duodenum after a meal.
  3. 3. Diabetes Mellitus a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Symptoms
  4. 4. Consists of 3 types: 1) Type-1 diabetes (IDDM) 2) Type-2 diabetes (NIDDM) 3) Gestational diabetes Complications: - Stroke - Heart attack - Kidney disease - Eye Disease - Nerve Damage Diabetes Mellitus
  5. 5. - Pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin are destroyed. - Results in insulin dependence -This form of diabetes usually strikes children and young adults, although disease onset can occur at any age. Type-1 Diabetes
  6. 6. Type-2 Diabetes - Blood glucose levels rise due to 1) Lack of sufficient insulin production, 2) Body cells do not react to insulin (insulin resistant). - Associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes - Can be controlled by losing weight, following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise and monitoring blood glucose levels. - Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. - eventually leads to β-cell failure (resulting in insulin dependence)
  7. 7. Type-2 Diabetes
  8. 8. Gestational Diabetes - A form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. -Undiagnosed gestational diabetes can raise the risk of complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be. -Women whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher risk for gestational diabetes
  9. 9. Stage 1 Insulin was extracted from the glands of cows and pigs. (1920s) Stage 2 Convert pig insulin into human insulin by removing the one amino acid that distinguishes them and replacing it with the human version. Stage 3 Insert the human insulin gene into E. coli and culture the recombinant E.coli to produce insulin (trade name = Humulin®). Yeast is also used to produce insulin (trade name is Novolin®) (1987). Insulin Drug Evolution
  10. 10. Insulin Side Effects: ♦ rash, ♦ itching, ♦ swelling, ♦ dizziness, ♦ trouble breathing Too much insulin can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia). The symptoms include: cold sweat, shaking, rapid heart rate.
  11. 11. 1. Metformin: improves insulin’s ability to move glucose into cells (esp. muscles). Side effects: Disturbance to the gut, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Abdominal pain, Loss of appetite Diabetes – Oral Medications 3. Glipizide: Stimulate more insulin production. Side effects: Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhoea. 2. Pioglitazone: make cells more sensitive to insulin (esp. fatty cells). Side effects: Stomach pain, Blood in your urine, Painful urination, Headache Gradual weight gain, Muscle pain, Back pain, Tooth problems.
  12. 12. The universe is made up of five elements: Air, Fire, Water, Earth and Space. These elements are represented in humans by : —Vata (Air & Space): responsible for force, circulation, respiration and elimination, —Pitta (Fire & Water) : responsible for digestion and metabolism. —Kapha (Water & Earth): responsible for growth and protection. The Concept of Ayurveda
  13. 13. Pukhraj DB Control
  14. 14. Effect of Aloe Vera on Diabetes: Research shows that Aloe Vera leaf pulps lower the blood glucose level of IDDM and NIDDM, but not of Non- Diabetics. Aloe Vera reduces blood glucose level by enhancing glucose metabolism, which could be by an anti- oxidant mechanism. Research indicated the presence of several hypoglycemic-activity-possessing elements in the Aloe Vera gel. Other Actions of Aloe Vera: Healing properties, Effects on immune system, Antioxidant properties, Cardiovascular effects, Antineoplastic effects, Anti-inflammatory effects.
  15. 15. Effect of Karela on Diabetes: Research shows that Karela is not like most medicinal drugs, which are effective only in one target organ or tissue; rather, it influences glucose metabolism all over the body. Karela reduces the amount of glucose that is released into the blood. Karela has been shown to be effective in treating Type I diabetes by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion.
  16. 16. Action of Amla: i. Hypoglycemic, ii. Antioxidant, iii. Antihepatotoxic, iv. Hypotensive, etc. Action of Giloy: i. Useful in Diabetes, ii. Improves digestion power, iii. Relieves excessive thirst, iv. Improves strength, etc. Action of Jamun: Jamun contain a type of carbohydrate called Jamboline, which lower the conversion of starch into glucose in cases of increased production of glucose.
  17. 17. Non-Medical Management of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Healthy Diet 2. Regular Exercise 3. Avoidance of Tobacco
  18. 18. Diet Total Calorie Distribution: Carbohydrate: (55-60% of total calorie) i. Avoid sugar, honey and sweets, ii. Restrict Mayda based products, iii. Main source should be Mixed coarse grains, Pulses, Cereals, Salads, Soybean. Protein: (10-15% of total calorie) i. Protein from vegetable sources, ii. Low fat milk, iii. Fish and lean meat.
  19. 19. Fat: (20-25% of total calorie) Unhealthy Fats: Saturated Fats are found in animal products such as- Red meat, Milk diary products and Eggs. Trans fats are found in liquid vegetable oils which get solid. Healthy Fats: Unsaturated fats which come from plant and fish and which remain liquid at room temperature. -- Use more than one edible oil, such as- (Sunflower oil / Rice bran oil ) with (Soybean oil / Mustard oil ) -- Cholesterol should not exceed 300mg per day. Fibers: Whole grains (oats, barley, etc.), Whole pulse, Soybean, Green leafy vegetables.
  20. 20. Common Salt: i. Up to 6 g per day. ii. Pickle, Papad, Chatni, should be restricted. Fruits and Sweets: i. Whole fruits are recommended, however, very sweet fruits or fruit juices should be avoided. ii. Soft drinks, soda and juice should be reduced. iii. The amount of sugar in recipe should be reduced. Alcohol: Alcohol intake is best avoided. It causes obesity and worsen the control of diabetes. Tobacco: Smoking and use of tobacco in any form should be prohibited.
  21. 21. Check your Cholesterol Several kinds of blood fats: •LDL (bad) cholesterol - can narrow or block blood vessels. •HDL (good) cholesterol - helps remove cholesterol deposits •Triglycerides - can raise your risk for heart attacks.
  22. 22. Exercise Physical activity promotes weight reduction and improves insulin sensitivity, thus lowering blood glucose levels. Together with dietary treatment, a programme of regular physical activity and exercise should be considered for each person.
  23. 23. मधुमेह मुक जीवन का राज