Feminism- The concept and literature


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Feminism- The concept and literature

  1. 1. By: Deepika Tripathi
  2. 2. What is “FEMINISM”?? The doctrine — and the political movement based on it — that women should have the same economic, social, and political rights as men. Examines ways in which literature reinforces or undermines the oppression of women.
  3. 3. TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLESTRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES:: • Emotional (irrational)Emotional (irrational) • WeakWeak • NurturingNurturing • SubmissiveSubmissive Any culture that privileges men by promoting traditional gender roles. ““PatriarchyPatriarchy”” • RationalRational • StrongStrong • ProtectiveProtective • DecisiveDecisive
  4. 4. •Men have oppressed women •De-voiced, devalued, and trivialized the women •Nonsignificant “Other”
  5. 5. Aristotle: “The man is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules and the other is ruled.” Darwin (The Descent of Man – 1871) •“Women are of a characteristic of … a past and lower state of civilization.” •Are inferior to men, who are physically, intellectually, and artistically superior Religious leaders: Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine •women were merely “imperfect men” •Spiritually weak creatures •Possessed a sensual nature that lures men away from spiritual truths, thereby preventing males from attaining their spiritual potential.
  6. 6. 1900 •Women gained the right to vote •Women became prominent activists in the social issues of the day Health care Education Politics Literature 1700 Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) •Women must stand up for their rights and not allow their male-dominated society to define what it means to be a woman. •Women must take the lead and articulate who they are and what role they will play in society. •Women must reject patriarchal assumption that women are inferior to men.
  7. 7.  VIRGINIA WOOLF: A Room of one’s Own (1929) Hypothesizes the existence of Shakespeare’s sister, equally as gifted a writer as he. Gender prevents her from having “a room of her own” She cannot obtain an education or find profitable employment because she is a “woman” Her innate artistic talents will therefore never flourish, for she cannot afford a room of her own.
  8. 8. Simone de Beauvior The Second Sex (1949) “Foundational work of 20th century feminism” •Declares that French society (and Western societies in general) are PATRIARCHAL, controlled by males. •Like Woolf, believed that the male defines what it means to be human •Since the female is not the male, she becomes the Other Kate Millet Sexual Politics (1970) •Women and men (consciously and unconsciously) conform to the cultural ideas established for them by society. •Cultural norms and expectations are transmitted through media: television, movies, songs, and literature. •Boys must be aggressive, self-assertive •Girls must be passive, meek
  9. 9. Elaine Showalter A Literature of Their Own (1977) Chronicles three historical or evolutionary phases of female writing:  Feminine phase (1840-1880) (Wrote in an effort to equalize their intellectual achievements with male culture- Imitation)  Feminist phase (1880-1920) (Dramatise the ordeals of wronged womanhood- Protest)  Female phase (1970-present) (Uncovering of misogyny in male texts- neither imitation nor protest)
  10. 10. What is needed is a “feminist criticism” that is genuinely women centered. Coined term gynocritics or gynocriticism: “Process of constructing a female framework for analysis of women’s literature to develop new models based on the study of female experience, rather than to adapt to male models and theories.” Subjects it deals with: The history, style, themes, genres, and structures. Asserts that most criticism of novels by women focuses only on a few novelists recognized as major figures: •Jane Austen •The Brontës •George Eliot •Virginia Woolf
  11. 11. GYNOCRITICISM has provided critics with four models that address the nature of women’s writing: •The biological (How the female body marks itself upon the text) •The linguistic (Concerns itself with the need for a female discourse) •The psychoanalytic (Based on an analysis of the female psyche and how such an analysis affects the writing process) •The cultural (Investigates how the society in which female authors work and functions shapes women’s goals, responses, and points of view)
  12. 12. By drawing attention to lesser known writers, Showalter led the way for other feministfeminist critics to contribute to the reshaping of the literary canon. •Zora Neale Hurston •Charlotte Perkins Gilman •Kate Chopin •Susan Glaspell Genres Autobiography / Autography / Autofiction Perreault, Jeanne. Writing Selves: Contemporary Feminist Autography. Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1995. Smith, Sidonie and Julia Watson, ed. De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in Women's Autobiography. Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1992. Detective / Crime Fiction Munt, Sally. Murder By the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel. Routledge, 1994.
  13. 13. Drama (Plays and Screenplays) Bowen, Barbara E. Gender in the Theater of War: Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida. Garland Pub., 1993. Burke, Sally. American Feminist Playwrights: A Critical History. Twayne Pub., 1996 Callaghan, Dympna, Lorraine Helms, and Jyotsna Singh. The Weyward Sisters: Shakespeare and Feminist Politics. Blackwell Pub., 1994. Gervitz, Susan. Narrative's Journey: The Fiction and Film Writing of Dorothy Richardson. 1996. Hodkinson, Yvonne. Female Parts: The Art and Politics of Women Playwrights. Paul and Co. Pub. Consortium, 1991. General Kester-Shelton, Pamela, ed. Feminist Writers. St. James Press, 1996. Lauret, Maria. Liberating Literature: Feminist Fiction in America. Routledge, 1994 . Walker, Barbara G. Feminist Fairy Tales. Harper San Francisco, 1997. Narrative Singley, Carol J. and Susan Elizabeth Sweeney, ed. Anxious Power: Reading, Writing, and Ambivalence in Narrative by Women. SUNY Press, 1993.
  14. 14. Novels Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. Oxford Univ. Press, 1987. Carlin, Deborah. Cather, Canon, and the Politics of Reading. 1992. Castellanos, Gabriela. Laughter, War, and Feminism: Elements of Carnival in Three of Jane Austen's Novels. Peter Lang Pub., 1994. Doherty, Patricia. Marge Piercy: An Annotated Bibliography. 1997. Dorscht, Susan Rudy. Women, Reading, Kroetsch: Telling the Difference. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press, 1991. Greene, Gayle. Changing the Story: Feminist Fiction and the Tradition. Indiana Univ. Press, 1991. Higonnet, Margaret R., ed. The Sense of Sex: Feminist Perspectives on Hardy. Univ. of Illinois Press, 1993. Mandelker, Amy. Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, the Woman Question, and the Victorian Novel. Ohio State Univ. Press, 1993. Michael, Magali Cornier. Feminism and the Postmodern Impulse: Post-World War II Fiction. 1996. Payant, Katherine B. Becoming and Bonding: Contemporary Feminism and Popular Fiction by American Women Writers. 1993. Stern, Madeleine B., ed. The Feminist Alcott: Stories of a Woman's Power. Northeastern Univ. Press, 1996.
  15. 15. Poetry Cameron, Keith. Louise Labé: Renaissance Poet and Feminist. Berg Pub. Ltd., 1990. Fountain, Gay and Peter Brazeau. Remembering Elizabeth Bishop: An Oral Biography. Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1996. Freedman, Diane P. An Alchemy of Genres: Cross-Genre Writing by American Feminist Poet-Critics. 1992. Hogue, Cynthia. Scheming Women: Poetry, Privilege, and the Politics of Subjectivity. SUNY Press, 1998. Markey, Janice. A New Tradition? The Poetry of Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, and Adrienne Rich: A Study of Feminism and Poetry. 1988. Montefiore, Jan. Feminism and Poetry: Language, Experience, Identity in Women's Writing. 1994. Sakelliou-Schultz, Liana. Feminist Criticism of American Women Poets: An Annotated Bibliography, 1975-1993. Garland Pub., 1994. Templeton, Alice. The Dream and the Dialogue: Adrienne Rich's Feminist Poetics. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1995. Zwarg, Christina. Feminist Conversations: Fuller, Emerson, and the Play of Reading. Cornell Univ. Press, 1995
  16. 16. Rhetoric Campbell, JoAnn, ed. Toward a Feminist Rhetoric: The Writing of Gertrude Buck. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1996. Falco, Maria J., ed. Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft. Penn State Univ. Press, 1996. Science Fiction Burwell, Jennifer. Notes on Nowhere: Feminism, Utopian Logic, and Social Transformation. Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1997. Short Stories Dyman, Jenni. Lurking Feminism: The Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton. Peter Lang Pub., 1996. Utopian Literature Bammer, Angelika. Partial Visions: Feminism and Utopianism in the 1970s. Routledge, 1991. Sargisson, Lucy. Contemporary Feminist Utopianism. Routledge, 1996.
  17. 17. Historical PeriodsHistorical Periods Classical Cohen, Beth, ed. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer's 'Odyssey'. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. Doherty, Lillian Eileen. Siren Songs: Gender, Audiences, and Narrators in the Odyssey. Univ. of Michigan Press, 1995. McManus, Barbara F. Classics and Feminism: Gendering the Classics. Twayne Pub., 1997. Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkin. Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Cornell Univ. Press, 1993. Rabinowitz, Nancy Sorkmin and Amy Richlin, ed. Feminist Theory and the Classics. Routledge, 1993. Wilson, Lyn Hatherly. Sappho's Sweetbitter Songs: Configurations of Female and Male in Ancient Greek Lyric. Routledge, 1996. Medieval Evans, Ruth and Lesley Johnson. Feminist Readings in Middle English Literature: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. Routledge, 1994. Lomperis, Linda and Sarah Stanbury, ed. Feminist Approaches to the Body in Medieval Literature. 1993.
  18. 18. Modern: Castellanos, Gabriela. Laughter, War, and Feminism: Elements of Carnival in Three of Jane Austen's Novels. Peter Lang Pub., 1994. Harman, Barbara Leah and Susan Meyer, ed. The New Nineteenth Century: Feminist Readings of Underread Victorian Fiction. Garland Pub., 1996. Hoeveler, Diane Long. Gothic Feminism: The Professionalization of Gender from Charlotte Smith to the Brontes. Penn State University Press, 1998. Kranidis, Rita S. Subversive Discourse: The Cultural Production of Late Victorian Feminist Novels. St. Martins Press, 1995. Bammer, Angelika. Partial Visions: Feminism and Utopianism in the 1970s. Routledge, 1991. Birkett, Jennifer and Elizabeth Harvey, ed. Determined Women: Studies in the Construction of the Female Subject, 1900-90. 1991. Bowlby, Rachel. Feminist Destinations and Further Essays on Virginia Woolf. Edinburgh Univ. Press, 1997. Burke, Sally. American Feminist Playwrights: A Critical History. Twayne Pub., 1996. Freedman, Diane P. An Alchemy of Genres: Cross-Genre Writing by American Feminist Poet-Critics. Univ. Press of Virginia, 1992. Gervitz, Susan. Narrative's Journey: The Fiction and Film Writing of Dorothy Richardson. 1996.
  19. 19. AIMS OF A FEMINIST CRITIC:AIMS OF A FEMINIST CRITIC:  Attempts to show the ignorance of women in the traditional literature.  Stimulates the creation of a critical environment.  Expansion of the literary canon of women writers.  Urges language transformation.