Evolution of Marketing & Customer
• Concept of Marketing is essentially a
Customer Orientation concept.
• ‘Customer is King’- customer/services are
bought not because of their quality, packaging
or brand name, but because they satisfy a
specific need of the customer.
• Marketing is ‘understanding’ & ‘responding’ to
the customer’s needs.
1. Customer Orientation
2. Competitive Orientation
3. Ability to respond to Environmental changes.
(a) Consumer Orientation: continuously monitoring
customer needs, wants and preferences. E.g.,
(b) Integrated approach to Exploiting Market
Opportunities: integrate all elements of
Marketing Mix, not merely advertising and
selling, into a sound business plan. E.g., Maggi
(c) Futuristic Approach: money spent on above
mentioned tasks are not as expenditure but as
investments, to reap profits later. Investment in
Market Share development.
(d) Highly Developed Marketing Systems: all
major marketing decisions are taken on the
basis of market information emerging from
the developed marketing systems.
(e) Marketing Culture: the customer is given key
importance and, accordingly, his interests
override organizational interests. E.g.,
Windsor Manor- Hospitality Industry.
(f) Speed: speed at which the customer’s
problems are solved.
• Selling approach is more
• Selling approach
generally, undermines the
• E.g., Hindustan Motors
and Premier Automobiles
are the classic cases of
• Marketing is emphasized
• Customer is the focal
point of the marketing
• Ultimate aim here is to
maximize profits through
• E.g., Maruti in 1984.
• Relationship Marketing emphasizes aspects of
• use of interactive technologies,
• retail stores,
• human interactions and thereby work on
dependability issues among salespersons,
service personnel, intermediaries and so forth.
• The underpinning of Relationship Marketing is
R & D
• The concept of Marketing Mix involves a
deliberate and careful choice of strategies and
policies for org's, product, price, place and
• The Task of Marketing Manager is to develop
the most appropriate and creative marketing
mix for his organization.
• E.g., HMV loosing its share to T-series.
Taxes & Tariffs
• Entrepreneurial Marketing- often characterized
by high risk taking and innovative way to reach out to
the customers. E.g., Reliance in its textile fabrics
under the brand Vimal.
• Formulated Marketing- is research centric and
well planned. Firms spend money on advertising,
sales persons, marketing research, and product
• Intrapreneurial Marketing- firms pushing their
managers to understand the consumers and improve
their lifestyle, or add value to their lives. E.g., HUL.
• Non Profit Marketing- propagating non profit
causes like- family planning, child care,
immunization, abolition of child marriages,
• Cause Marketing- implies marketing skills to
effect social changes which would benefit the
individual and the society. E.g., Tata Tea’s
‘Jaago Re’, P & G’s Project Drishti (supported
by Brand Whisper), save Tiger campaign, etc.
• You have been hired by
a Five Star deluxe hotel
in Goa. This hotel has
uneven demand for its
management has asked
you to develop a
marketing plan to even
out this demand.