Lasers in dentistry


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Lasers in dentistry

  1. 1. CONTENTS Introduction History Fundamentals of lasers Commonly used lasers in dentistry Application of lasers Protection Conclusion
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Laser is an acronym, which stands for Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission Of Radiation Light shows, disc players Device that converts electrical/chemical energy into light energy
  3. 3. HISTORY 1960-first laser 1993 Nd:YAG Laser 1993 Kinetic Cavity Preparation 1994 CO2 Laser, Argon Laser 1996 Laser welder 1997 Nd:YAP Laser 1998 Er:YAG Laser
  4. 4. Fundamentals of lasers Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation
  5. 5. Light Form of electromagnetic energy Properties of laser  Monochromatic  Collimation  Coherency  Efficiency
  6. 6.  Monochromatic-Characterized by radiation in which all waves are of same frequency and wavelength. Collimated: all the emitted waves are parallel and the beam divergence is very low. This property is important for good transmission through delivery systems.
  7. 7. A laser is a device that creates and amplifies a narrow, intense beam of coherent light. COHERENT INCOHERENT •Radiates light in random directionsSingle or just a few frequencies at random times. going in one •A jumble of photons going precise direction in all directions. LASER NEON LIGHT
  8. 8.  A- Amplification means that a very bright intense beam of light can be created. The laser may be activated by a few photons which then act to produce many more, and the initial light generated is computed to make a very bright compact beam
  9. 9. S – Stimulated : ME-Emissionn If an atom in the excited state is struck by a photon of identical energy as the photon to be emitted, the emission could be stimulated to occur earlier than would occur spontaneously. This stimulated interaction causes two photons that are identical in frequency and wavelength to leave the atom.
  10. 10. Laser Design A laser medium or active medium- solid, liquid or gas Housing tube or optical cavity External power source-pumps
  11. 11.  Process of supplying energy for amplification- pumping
  12. 12. Laser Light Delivery Articulated arms-CO2 laser Waveguide delivery system Fiber optic delivery system
  13. 13. Laser Types Based on wavelength-Soft lasers-Hard lasers Based on the type of active / lasing medium used ArF excimer, KrF excimer, XeCl excimer, Argon ion, Nd: YAG,Er: YAG, CO2
  14. 14. Nd: YAG laser
  15. 15. DIAODE LASER SEMICONDUCTOR LASER Gallium Arsenide chip No mirror to clean and align No gas tube, flashlamps, laser rod, water cooling Portable No special power No cooling connection No heat Quiet Affordable More powerful, less traumatic 250microsecond-10sec 0.05 Hz - 200 Hz* Sulcular debridement Expand Practice* Root canal treatment
  16. 16. Laser interaction with biologic tissues Four different interaction  Reflection  Scatter  Absorption  Transmission
  17. 17. Processes Incision Excision Ablation
  18. 18. Advantages No anesthesia, no drill Less blood loss, Less pain Reduce post –operative edema Early healing, rapid regeneration, reduce post sensitivity in restorations Less chances of metastasis Sterilization of treatment site-no infection
  19. 19. Disadvantages  Lasers cant be used : - fill cavities located between teeth - cavities around old fillings and large cavities (crown) - remove defective crowns or silver fillings - prepare teeth for bridges  Laser - more expensive
  20. 20. APPLICATIONS-GENERAL Eye surgery NO PAIN Cancer treatment Removal of tattoos Cosmetic surgery Hair removal• Cold Sores• Nerve Regeneration
  21. 21. Future Trends in Dentistry
  22. 22. HARD TISSUES Prevention of caries Detection of incipient caries Cavity preparation Enamel etching Desensitization
  23. 23.  Bleaching/ fluorosis t/t of fractured tooth Pulpotomy Removal of old restoration-gold, ceramic Root canal therapy Temporomandibular Joint Treatment: reduce pain and inflammation
  25. 25. Crown lengthening
  26. 26. Soft tissuesFrenectomy Tongue tie Incisional and excisional biopsiesInflammatory papillary hyperplasia
  27. 27.  Aphthous ulcer Operculectomy Removal of hyperkeratotic lesions Removal of malignant lesions Soft tissue crown lengthening Vestibuloplasty Removal of granulation tissue Removal of vascular lesions-Hemangioma Pyogenic granuloma Implants – Stage II – at the time of recovery
  28. 28. Laser Gingivectomy A Gingivectomy is a periodontal surgery that removes and reforms diseased gum tissue or other gingival buildup Performed in a dentists office, the surgery is primarily done one quadrant of the mouth at a time under local anesthetic. CO2 laser with wavelength of 10,600nm
  30. 30. FRENECTOMY
  31. 31. Removal of inflammatoryhyperplasia
  32. 32. Why Fiberoptic is important? 1. Light weight 2. Easy to approach 3. Easy sterilization 4. Tactile sensation
  33. 33. LASER HAZARD CONTROL MEASURESThe small flexible fiber optic , hand pieces or tipmust be steam sterilized in sterilizing pouchesUse of protective wearUse of screen & curtains should be promoted
  34. 34. Use of proper clothingUse of anti-fire explosiveProper training and courses
  35. 35. LASER FILTRATION MASKS prevents air borne contaminationFOOT PEDAL CONTROL SWITCH WITH PROTECTIVE HOOD prevents accidental depression by surgical staff.
  36. 36.  Lasers - alternative to conventional surgical systems Lasers are a “new and different scalpel” (optical knife, light scalpel)