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  • 06/03/09
  • pro/e

    1. 1. <ul><li>MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>ME432 </li></ul><ul><li>MODELING AND PROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>OF EXPANSION JOINT </li></ul><ul><li>USING PRO/E </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARED BY </li></ul><ul><li>DIPESH S. PANCHAL (04ME122) </li></ul><ul><li>ANKUR K. JOSHI (04ME132) </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDED BY </li></ul><ul><li>PROF. Y.D.PATEL </li></ul>06/03/09
    2. 2. <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>To carried out various tasks of design phase like, modeling, designing, drafting, and analysis using PRO/E software. </li></ul>06/03/09
    3. 3. <ul><li>Expansion Joint </li></ul>06/03/09 <ul><li>Metal bellows are an effective tool used to manage movement, heat expansion, and pressure surges in aerospace, boiler valves, and fluid and pressurized gas pipeline systems. An expansion joint allows for some shear, an imprecise gap, or a slight curve at a junction, or in other words, lateral, axial, and angular movement is allowed to occur at the joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion joints are designed to limit vibration, noise, movement from heat expansion and contraction, and pressure undulation in pressurized lines. Proper installation of expansion joints allows to manage where any movement in the system occurs, preventing damage or movement to the rest of the system by forcing it to occur at the joint. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Types of Expansion joints </li></ul>06/03/09 Expansion joint Metal Expansion joint Rectangular expansion joint Fabric Expansion joint single Universal Tied Universal Tied Hinged Universal Hinged Gimbal Universal Gimbal
    5. 5. <ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Petrochemicals And Refining </li></ul><ul><li>Cryogenics </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Metal Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Exchangers </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuel Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding And Repair </li></ul><ul><li>District Heating, Cooling, Steam Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (hvac) </li></ul>06/03/09
    6. 6. <ul><li>Design consideration for bellow </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Thrust </li></ul><ul><li>For the purpose of understanding pressure thrust, a single bellows designed for pure axial motion can be modeled as hydraulic cylinder with a spring inside.  </li></ul><ul><li>The spring represents the axial spring rate of the bellows. The hydraulic piston represents the effect of the pressure thrust which the expansion joint can exert on the piping anchors or pressure thrust restraints (hinges, gimbals, tie rods) which may be part of the expansion joint assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>  The pressure thrust force is typically much higher than the spring force. Expansion joints designed for lateral offset or angular motion are more complicated to model accurately. However, the effect of pressure thrust is the same. </li></ul>06/03/09
    7. 7. <ul><li>  Pressure Stress </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of a bellows to carry pressure is limited by hoop stress or S2 as defined in the standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA). This is a stress that runs circumferentially around the bellows due to the pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the bellows. </li></ul>06/03/09
    8. 8. <ul><li>Bulge stress </li></ul><ul><li>This is a stress that runs longitudinal to the bellows centerline. More specifically, it is located in the bellows sidewall and it is a measure of the tendency of the convolutions to become less U-shaped and more spherical. </li></ul>06/03/09
    9. 9. <ul><li>Cycle Life </li></ul><ul><li>When a bellow deflects, the motion is absorbed by bending of the sidewalls of each convolution. The associated stress caused by this motion is the deflection stress or EJMA stress S6. This stress runs longitudinal to the bellows centerline. The maximum value of S6 is located in the sidewall of each convolution near the crest or root. </li></ul>06/03/09
    10. 10. <ul><li>Design Of </li></ul><ul><li>Unreinforced Bellows </li></ul>06/03/09 Here, all the data are taken as EJMA and ASME standards. The manual design calculation of unreinforced single bellow is presented as below:
    11. 11. <ul><li>considered data are given as below: </li></ul><ul><li>= Pressure = 1.02 kg / </li></ul><ul><li>= Inside dia. of cylindrical tangent and bellows Convolution </li></ul><ul><li>= 71.1 cm </li></ul><ul><li>= No. of bellow material ply = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>= Bellow tangent length= 2.5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>= Mean dia. of bellows reinforcing tangent collar </li></ul><ul><li>= + 2 + = {71.1 + (2× 0.055) + 0.16} = 71.37 cm </li></ul><ul><li>= modulus of elasticity of bellows =1886497 kg / </li></ul><ul><li>= A factor which considers the stiffening effect of the attachment weld and end convolution on the press capacity of bellows tangent </li></ul><ul><li>= = 0.843 </li></ul><ul><li>= bellows tangent reinforcing collar material thickness </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.16 cm </li></ul><ul><li>= bellows tangent collar length = 2.5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>t = bellows nominal material thickness of one ply = 0.055 cm </li></ul>06/03/09
    12. 12. <ul><li>Bellows tangent circumferential membrane stress due to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>=160 kg / </li></ul>06/03/09 <ul><li>Collar circumferential membrane stress due to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>= 162.07 kg / </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Bellows circumferential membrane stress due to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>According to EJMA Barlow equation that takes in to account the effect for the bellows convolution geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>=1.4685 </li></ul><ul><li>0 </li></ul><ul><li>1.062 </li></ul><ul><li>= 1.062 </li></ul><ul><li>w = 3.1 cm </li></ul><ul><li>q = 3.4 cm </li></ul>06/03/09
    14. 14. <ul><li>The equation is defined as: </li></ul>=1029.85 kg / Substantial pressure does result from these convolution geometry effects and the two circumferential pressures and are combined and compared against the allowable stress by: 1189.85 kg / < 2088.60 kg/ So, Design is safe. 06/03/09
    15. 15. <ul><li>Bellows Meridional membrane and Bending stress due to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, Meridional stresses due to internal pressure and deflection is responsible for the bellows life expectancy. </li></ul><ul><li>The membrane Meridional stresses due to pressure appears to be a local hoop stress that includes the effects of any one convolution. The bellows Meridional membrane stress is defined as follows: </li></ul>= 29.277 kg / < 67.76 kg / 06/03/09
    16. 16. <ul><li>These stresses are combined with the Meridional bending stress due to pressure, which is defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>= Bending stress due to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.59 (as per EJMA) </li></ul>= 991.65 kg / The two Meridional pressures and are combined and compared against the allowable stress by: 1020.927 < 3232.91 kg / 06/03/09
    17. 17. <ul><li>Bellows Meridional membrane and Bending stress due to deflection </li></ul><ul><li>The stresses that arise as a result of deflection are so small that they are hardly worth mentioning. </li></ul><ul><li>The Meridional membrane stress due to deflection is defined as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>= 1.531(as per EJMA) </li></ul><ul><li>= 1.062 (as per EJMA) </li></ul>= 64.04 kg / And the Meridional bending stress due to deflection is defined as follows: = 1.95 (as per EJMA) = 9617.06 kg / 06/03/09
    18. 18. <ul><li>Fatigue life </li></ul>EJMA has derived an expression for fatigue life for unreinforced bellows: = 20028 cycles < 54000 cycle Where, a, b , and c are material and manufacturing constants. b = 54000 c = 3.4 For unreinforced , = 10894.095 kg / All the stresses are within the permissible limit so design is safe. 06/03/09
    19. 19. <ul><li>Work Done </li></ul>06/03/09 Universal tied expansion joint Part mode In the part mode there are many tools which are very useful for generating 3-D model. The tools used for making the different parts of the universal tied expansion joint are as follows: Sr. no Component of universal tied Expansion Joint Tool used 1 Bellow Sheet metal>revolve tool 2 Sleeve Revolve 3 Flange Revolve, hole, pattern of hole 4 Lug Extrude, hole 5 Tied rod Revolve, helical cut 6 Bolt Extrude, Revolve cut, helical cut 7 Spherical assembly Revolve
    20. 20. 06/03/09 Assembly mode In the assembly mode there are many constraints which are very useful for generating assembly model. From that some of the constraints are used for making the assembly of the universal tied expansion joint. The constraints are as follows: Sr. no Component of universal tied assembly Tool and constrains used 1 Bellow Fixed 2 Sleeve Align, Mate 3 Flange Align, Mate 4 Lug Mate, Repeat command 5 Tied rod Align, Repeat command 6 Bolt Align, Mate, Repeat command 7 Spherical assembly Align, Mate, Repeat command
    21. 21. <ul><li>Assembly of Universal Tied Expansion joint </li></ul>06/03/09 Lug Spherical assembly Internal sleeve Bolt Tie rod Flange Bellow Figure1: universal tied expansion joint
    22. 22. <ul><li>In Pro/E Drawing mode is used to create drawings of all Pro/E models, or import drawing files from other systems. one can annotate the drawing with notes, manipulate the dimensions, and use layers to manage the display of different items. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 2 & 3 show the drawing and 2-D sectional view of the universal tied assembly. </li></ul>06/03/09 06/03/09 Drawing of Universal Tied Expansion joint Figure3: 2-D sectional View Figure2: Drawing View
    23. 23. <ul><li>Gimbal expansion joint </li></ul>06/03/09 Part mode Sr. no Component of Gimbal Assembly Tool used 1 Bellow Sheet metal> revolve wall 2 Sleeve Revolve 3 Welded end Revolve 4 Protection cover Revolve, Hole , Pattern of hole 5 Pin Revolve 6 Collar Extrude 7 Plate Revolve, Extrude>Cut, Pattern 8 Plate Revolve, Extrude>Cut, Pattern 9 Stiffener Plate Extrude, Extrude rib, Pattern
    24. 24. <ul><li>Assembly mode </li></ul>06/03/09 Sr. no Component of Gimbal Assembly Constrain and Tool used 1 Bellow Fixed 2 Sleeve Align , Mate 3 Welded end Align , Mate 4 Protection cover Align, Mate 5 Pin Align , Repeat command 6 Collar Align, Mate, Repeat command 7 Plate Align, Mate, Repeat command 8 Plate Align, Mate 9 Stiffener Plate Align , Mate
    25. 25. <ul><li>Assembly of Gimbal Expansion joint </li></ul>06/03/09 Figure4: gimbal joint
    26. 26. <ul><li>Drawing of Gimbal Expansion joint </li></ul>06/03/09 Figure6: 2-D sectional View Figure5: Drawing View In Pro/E Drawing mode is used to create drawings of all Pro/E models, or import drawing files from other systems. user can annotate the drawing with notes, manipulate the dimensions, and use layers to manage the display of different items. Fig shows the drawing and 2-D sectional view of the gimbal assembly.
    27. 27. <ul><li>Pro/program </li></ul><ul><li>Family tables are effective when user know the variations of the design or are sure they are not going to change, as in the case with part libraries (standard parts). </li></ul><ul><li>PRO/PROGRAM is useful when users do not know the variations of the design in advance. One can create prompts for different values and parameters to display upon regeneration and build appropriate variations. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro/PROGRAM allows varying design by incorporating user prompts into the regeneration cycle. It use to do the following functions like manually delete, reorder, and suppress features, modify dimensions, and pause the regeneration process to add additional features. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive graphical programming is carried in Pro/E at two different levels. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>At higher level, C++ program are supported through PRO/E application program interface (API) Toolkit . </li></ul><ul><li>At lower level, a micro programming environment, Pro/E PROGRAM Tool is supported. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>06/03/09
    28. 28. <ul><li>Basic structure for Microprogramming </li></ul><ul><li>The Pro/PROGRAM structure is divided into 5 main sections, as shown below: </li></ul><ul><li>Header - First three lines of the program containing model name and program revision information. </li></ul><ul><li>Input - Where user prompts and parameters are stored. This section is initially empty. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations - This section contains all part or assembly relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Model Section - Section in which you actually build the model. Contains series of paragraphs that contain information about each feature or component. You can build variations of your design by manipulating this section. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Props - Use this section to automatically update the mass properties of the model when they change. It is initially empty. </li></ul>06/03/09
    29. 29. <ul><li>Basic structure for Microprogramming </li></ul>06/03/09
    30. 30. <ul><li>Steps for Microprogramming </li></ul>06/03/09
    31. 31. <ul><li>C-Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order program is carried out using c- language interfacing with pro/e. </li></ul><ul><li>This feature available in part mode and sketch mode. by using c programming one can’t drive assembly dimensions or pattern instance numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>For using of this feature in pro/e user must have to set environment variables. </li></ul><ul><li>on windows: </li></ul><ul><li>NT_COMPILER - its value must be the 32-bit incremental C compile </li></ul><ul><li>command. </li></ul><ul><li>LIB – its value must be the dictionary path from the load point of the compiler to </li></ul><ul><li>its libraries(.LIB files) </li></ul><ul><li>Only one user program may be edited or run at a time. However , one can write multiple programs for each part and then run them sequantiallly. </li></ul>06/03/09
    32. 32. <ul><li>Steps for C-programming </li></ul>06/03/09
    33. 33. <ul><li>Finite Element Method </li></ul><ul><li>Finite element method is numerical analysis technique for obtaining approximate solution to a wide Varity of engineering problem. The method is based on dividing a complex shape in to small element in solving equilibrium equation at end for each element, than assembling the element result to obtain the solution of the original problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Various analysis are carried out by pro/mechanica as mention below. </li></ul>06/03/09 Product Analysis Types Structure <ul><li>Static </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Deformation Static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buckling </li></ul><ul><li>Modal </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul>Thermal <ul><li>Steady-State Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Transient Thermal </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Basic Steps For FEM </li></ul>06/03/09
    35. 35. <ul><li>In the pro/mechanica various types of analysis like 3D, 2Daxisymmetric etc. can be carried out. Bellow is an Axisymmetric element so, here we have carried out 2D Axisymmetric analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>2D AXISYMMETRIC STRUCTURE ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>If the geometry of user’s model and the loads and constraints user plan to place on it are symmetric about an axis—for example, cylindrical and conical structures such as tanks, flanges, or certain clamps. 2D Axisymmetric models represent a slice of the actual 3D model that, if revolved around the Y axis of the reference Cartesian coordinate system, would become the original 3D structure. </li></ul>06/03/09
    36. 36. <ul><li>To invoke in mechanica mode Application > Mechanica > 2D Axisymmetric </li></ul><ul><li>After that apply constraints and material properties. In our model we have given the following properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Material - stainless steel </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary condition - fixed at the both the end </li></ul><ul><li>Load - pressure load at the inner surface of the bellow </li></ul><ul><li>Then run mechanica analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>data for following analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure: 0.102 N/mm^2 </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter: 7111 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch: 31.0 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Height: 34.0 mm </li></ul><ul><li>No. of plies: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness of ply: 0.55 mm </li></ul><ul><li>No. of convolution: 5 </li></ul>06/03/09
    37. 37. 06/03/09
    38. 38. <ul><li>Result and Discussion </li></ul>06/03/09 2D Axisymmetric models represents the slide of the 3D model . By performing 2D Axisymmetric analysis for different pressures, the relationship between pressure vs. displacement and pressure vs. stress are presented in the graph below, The result table are as shown below: No Of Convolutions Pressure (N/mm^2) Displacement (mm) Stress (N/mm^2) 5 0.1048 0.19261 171.86 5 0.1962 0.36059 321.76 5 0.49 0.90055 803.54 5 0.981 1.8029 1608.82 5 1.96 3.7815 3217.64
    39. 39. 06/03/09 The graph depicts the relationship as the pressure increases (keeping no of convolution constant) the displacement increases in radial direction and stress acting on the bellows also increases.
    40. 40. <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion joints are used to provide different type deflection of like axial, angular and lateral. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply bellows can be used to withstand higher pressure with axial space constraint. </li></ul><ul><li>More no. of convolution are limited up to certain numbers, otherwise the flexibility will be restrained by using more number of convolution. In this situation, Universal bellows are the preferred solution.  </li></ul><ul><li>Different pro/e modules are very useful at the various design stages of the expansion joint like Part mode is used to create solid model, pro/ program is used to create user defined function, and pro/mechanica is used for the verification of the expansion joint model. </li></ul><ul><li>For iterative design process of expansion joint, interfacing of ‘C’ language with pro/e are used to make it user define which is very useful in the industries. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>06/03/09
    41. 41. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>06/03/09