Researh methodology BY DIPENDRA RAWAL


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Some ideas about research.Please read it.

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  • Researh methodology BY DIPENDRA RAWAL

    3. 3. Meaning of Research  Research is one of the ways to find answers to you questions -Kumar, 20005. p. 6  Three aspects 1. Undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies 2. It uses procedures, methods and technique to create/maintain reliability and validity 3. Unbiased and objective • Research is a systematic process of enquiry consisting of those three elements by Nunan 1992,p. 3. 1. question, problem, hypothesis 2. Data 3. Analysis and interpretation
    4. 4. Characteristics of Research 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Controlled : Time, economic, field, variables and external factors should not affect Rigorous : Do until you get(While collecting) Systematic : Not random, not haphazard Valid and verifiable : Based on real activities Empirical : Need evidences Critical : Out of drawbacks, avoid the possibility and be fact
    5. 5. Theoretical and Applied Research  Research CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO DIFFERENT TYPES on the basis of different criteria. On the basis of application, into two broad types: theoretical and applied Research. Theoretical research is also called basic research, fundamental and pure research, research which is carried out to contribute to theory is known as theoretical research. On the contrary, the research which aim to help in practice is known as applied research. The major differences between these two types of research are pointed out in the following lines; 1 The main aim of theoretical research is to add some new knowledge to the existing body of knowledge. In the contrary, Applied research aims to solve existing problem in real practical field
    6. 6. 2.2 Specific Classification 1) Experimental Research  Experiment refers as intervening the natural order to get or        find some tings Experimental Research provides a systematic and logical method of experiments to manipulate certain treatment One or more control and Experimental groups Treatment is carried out by the researcher Two types of variable; independent variables and dependent variable Independent variables is manipulated by Experimental Researcher The cause variable is an independent variable The result(achievement) variable is dependent variable
    7. 7. Process in Experimental Research Identifying the broader area of research 2. Framing the title or topic ; specifying the broad area of research. It is the first process is based on the broad area where researcher is interested 3. Specifying the objectives 4. Constructing hypothesis; the effectiveness of research materials (independent variables and dependent variable)or it is pre-assumption about research 5. Expanding theoretical knowledge(different sources of related topic) 6. Writing a research proposal and preparing a research materials or tools i.e. tested or piloting the research tools 7. Collecting enough or requirement materials for experiments 8. Going to the field 9. Contacting the authority and getting permission to carry out the research 10. Assigning subject randomly and systematically into two groups 11. Giving a pre test (researcher gives) 1.
    8. 8. 12) Checking the answer sheet or script 13) Listing the raw sources 12. Calculating the means (average) score of both groups 13. Finding out the difference between the means of the both groups than adjusting it 14. Starting the treatment 15. Completing the experiment assigning /giving post test 16. Checking the answer sheet or script
    9. 9. Listing the raw sources Calculating the means (average) score of both groups Subtract score two from score one Subtract the pre test score from post test score for the experiment al groups to have score one Subtract the pre test score from post test period for the controlled groups to score
    10. 10. Characteristics of in Experimental Research It requires rigorous management of in Experimental Research It uses a controlled group as a baseline against which to compare the group receiving the in Experimental treatment Internal validity is the basis of research design and the first objective of in Experimental methodology. It concerned whether in Experimental manipulation in the particular study really made a difference or not External validity is the second objective of in Experimental methodology. It concern with the representative finding and the result be generalize to similar circumstances and subjective
    11. 11. Historical Research “Historical Research involves the investigation of past event for the purpose of understanding past and present and some extant anticipating.” - Chawal “Historical Research is past oriented research which seeks to illuminate a question of current interest by an intensive study of materials that are already exist.” • -Garry Anderson “Historical Research is the systematic collection &objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypothesis concerning cause, effect &trend of those events & anticipate future events”. • -L.R Gray-------------
    12. 12. Purpose of Historical Research The Purpose of Historical Research is to describe particular past event(S),activity(s)trend & situation which were not fully described. Similarly, personality and contribution of well established person can be explore
    13. 13. Characteristics of Historical Research  Types of data; existing data (prepared by somebody else and the researcher utilized the existing data &closed types of data are used I. Source of data ;primary &secondary data a) Primary data people from data is carried out is primary data Primary recourse; eye witness (somebody who gives evidence after seeing or hearing something Microsoft® Encarta® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.) but little because we may not access then cause of time • Documents prepared by eye witness(diary, officials & personal recorded, latter, oral speeches or oral testimony i.e. folk tale ,folk story songs and family stories • Pictorial records; picture , drawing, graphs, painting, coins& sculpture ( a piece of art that made from stone, wood, clay etc
    14. 14. • • Mechanical records; photograph, audio-video records, films, documentaries etc Remains and relies(borrowed by) fossil, skeleton, tools, weapons, clothing, building etc Secondary resources; it refers to the those documents which are prepared by other people than the eyewitness II. Process of data collection; data collected by observation III. Analysis of historical data;  External level; to establish authenticity of information like date, author, place etc  Internal level; goes to the content, observation to find out accuracy, consistency, trustworthiness, writer knowledge, competency, motive of the writing etc IV. Chapter organization; There are minimum number of research is three I.e. methodology, data analysis and finding b)
    15. 15. v. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. The researcher neither can manipulate or controlled by any variables nor can influence events of the past Common problems explore in Historical Research Biography; Life history; major contributions in professional field Institutional history History of particular movements Different issue in education(ELT) Radio training Distance mode of education
    16. 16. Process used in Historical Research Identifying the problems II. Specifying the universe of data required to address the problem adequately looking at possibility of data III. Initial determination that sufficient data are available IV. Data collection through; a) Consideration of known data b) Seeking known data from primary and secondary resources c) Seeking new and previously unknown data V. Initial writing of report and descriptive phase of research VI. Interaction of writing and additional data search and examination completion of interpretative phase VII. Finalize the report VIII. Typing, editing and proof reading I.
    17. 17. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. I. II. III. Action Research Process Of Action Research Initiation – abstract Preliminary investigation-preparation of tools, collection, &analysis of data I.e.. Concrete Hypothesizes Intervention – new material, new types of teaching technique, new action depends upon the research Evaluation Dissemination –sharing the ideas Follow-up continuity the activity which can be modified Characteristics of Action Research It is carried out by practicener Collaborative in nature It’s nature in cyclical
    18. 18. Ethnography Research  Study of culture, people, language and society  Bronislow Malinowski(1992) one of the first condition of acceptable ethnographic words. Certainly, it should deals with the totality of all social, cultural, psychological aspect of the community for they are show intervention(interconnection) the not one can be understand without taking consideration of the others  J. Willet(1987); Observation; participant and non participant • In Ethnography Research observation is used • It requires a lot of time so it is called longitudinal type of research and the data is collected repeatedly
    19. 19.  In language acquisition research Ethnography approach refers   • • • to the in-depth study of the acquisition of different linguistics pattern in relation to socio-cultural behaviors of the participant of a group. The main purpose of Ethnography Research to explore the process of language acquisition in relation to culture It is carried out in natural setting Role of Theory and Literature Review in Ethnography Research Sociolinguistics concepts; Register, dialect, idiolect, speech community, code, bilingualism multilingual etc In Ethnography Research same theory is not use up to the end of research but other types of research theory can be used first and end of research Language acquisition, language teaching method, technologies and materials
    20. 20.  The Nature of Hypothesis  Literature review-formulation hypothesis-testing the     hypothesis are common for all research but in Ethnography Research nature of hypothesis is tentative | dynamic| working| totally discard because the researcher can be modified in research period Hypothetico- inductive is used in Ethnography Research Hypothetico deductive used in experimental research In Ethnography Research data is stronger than hypothesis In experimental research hypothesis Is stronger than data The main purpose of Ethnography Research to find out insider’s view(members of community) or emic view
    21. 21. Feature of Ethnography Research  It is flexible and utilizes multiple sources of information  Case studies are in depth investigation of a given social units resulting in a complete, well organized picture of that unit s  Source of data; Primary data collection; in Ethnography Research primary sources mostly refers to a particular groups of learners, teachers, supervisor or those involved in educational process and either the behavior of one or two participants of that specific group is studies Secondary data collection; apart from books, articles & film the researcher has consult curriculum, textbook, diaries, letters, sample of participants writing, writing report about the participants . Similarly audio recording video recording of participants classroom interaction and another interaction
    22. 22.  Approach to data collection; longitudinal-eloborative process, data is collected at a periodical interval. Clarifying the data collection technique Spinder & Spinder (1987) expresses their view as “observation is prolonged and repetitive chains of events are observed more than once to establish the reliability of observation Traditionally, Ethnography Researcher used unstructured tools even schedule(general list) weren't allowed, so in1981 Gay suggested to use modified Ethnography approach in collecting data. He suggested to use more structured(specific pieces) tools. So that data can be collected systematically  Ethnography Analysis; Analysis is a recursive activity that means in Ethnography Research field work, data analysis report writing are accomplished simultaneously. On the basis on new analysis is either modified, discarded ultimately grounded theory is produced(the theory emerged from data)  In Ethnography Research interpreting analysis is used that means theoretical knowledge is derived from on the basis on cultural exploration. Data is collected as two level i.e. descriptive and interpretation level
    23. 23. Principle in Ethnography Research  Naturalistic Theory; S . Wilson ( 1992) states the fact that objective reality is the key principle in experimental research may not always be adequate in studying human behaviors. So method, procedures and the assumption ongoing the physical science may not be appropriate for investigating human behaviors  Watson – Gegeo and Vlichny(1988) also support S . Wilson  Van Lier (1988) though believe the centrality of cultural description in Ethnography Research views Ethnography Research from two angle. They are weak and strong view
    24. 24.  Weak view: Ethnography Research uses unstructured and participant as it research tool. So it is inferior to experimental research and its finding can be used as the hypothesis for the formal experimental, as a ground clearing operation and finding should be further tested. Thus, it is not regarded as a valid , independent research type(less valid)  Strong view: This view emphasis on the independent status Ethnography Research. So it should be regarded as equal to Experimental Research  later in 1990 M.H.Long argued in favor of weak view of Ethnography Research. He is one of the opinion that the primary purpose of Ethnography Research is to describe classroom process, i.e. learning process which can be later on studied through experimental research(more valid)
    25. 25. He thinks to establish casual relation on the basis of descriptive study is both pre-matured and unwarranted  But David Nunan (1992) is in favor of strong view of Ethnography Research. So he wrote “Ethnography Research is a valid tradition in itself and it should not be simply considered as a hypothesis-generating device for experimental research  In Ethnography Research hypothesis generating after collection the data or data help to formulation of hypothesis(it is qualitative)  But in experimental research hypothesis testing data is collecting to verify the research , data are use to formulation research(it is quantitative)
    26. 26. 2.2.7 Case Study  Case refers to a situation/problem or a single instances case study,      in the study of an individual. It either be a person, classroom, an institution or so on It comes under qualitative research Robson (2002) “case studies opt for analytic rather then statistical generation i.e. They develop a theory which can help researchers to understand other similar cases, phenomena or situation” Adelman it is the study of a case i.e. an instance in action Nesbit and Wall(1984) defined case study as a specific instance that is frequently designed to illustrate a more general principle In Robert Stake view(1996) as a form of research case study is define by interest in individual cases not by the method of inquiry used
    27. 27. Purpose of Case Study  To study intensively the background, current status and environmental interaction of the selected case  To describe the case in its context to understand the complexity and dynamics nature of the entity and to discover connection among experiences behaviors and relevant features of the context
    28. 28. Correlation Research  Correlation Research is object based research. The selection of research tool and sampling procedure depends on the research objective. If there is relationship between two sets of score or variables( positive and negative). The magnitude of the correlation, coefficient would be +1.00 for positive and -1.00 for negative. Bin reality it becomes really difficult to get this types of perfect relationship. As a result the magnitude of the correlation, coefficient varies from -1.00 to +1.00. e.g. high high positive low low High low Negative Low high
    29. 29.  The main corn of Correlation Research is to find out the existences of relationship between two or more variables. The focus is on determining the nature or pattern or magnitude or degree of the relationship. It is objective based research . So selection of research tool and sampling procedures depends on the research objective. Correlation Research is most often defined in opposition to casual study such as experimental study or research. In the later type of researcher attempt to determine that one variable causes another. E.g. supplementary material can bring positive result on reading comprehension. Whereas in formal type of research does not intend to make casual claims. Intended try to determine whether there exists any relationship between two variables or not. In Correlation Research it becomes difficult to claim cause effect relationship because the researcher cannot be sure whether independent variables effect depended variables or vice-versa.
    30. 30.  Supplementary materials: short story, poem, novel, drama etc  Reading comprehension: using supplementary material Correlation and coefficient by computing a statistical. Analysis two sets of score which is collected for the variables included in the study. Different formulaic can be applied to calculate correlation and coefficient Pearson product movement correlation is widely used formulaic for calculating correlation and coefficient . It is a raw score formula and correlation and coefficient are represented by the letter ‘r’. According to Martyn Ddenscmbe 1999 researcher generally regard any correlation coefficient which is (positive and negative )0.3 and below as weak relation and 0.7 and above use strong relation. Similarly, JamesDeazn Brown 1999 thinks that the correlation coefficient of 0.40 and below s weak andlk 0.80 and above as strong.
    31. 31. Types of Correlation Research  On the basis of numbers of the variable included in the study Byvariate and multivariate in 1987 L.M Goldstein produced on article entitle “standard English: The only target for non native speakers of the English. In this article she has explained that there is a positive relation between non-native native English students section of a particular dialect for use and their social relation. In her research she founded that some Hispanic teen age students selected African-American English, instead of standard English, as their target language because most of their peers spoke this variety of English. Multivariate: more then two variables are studied in 1986 C. Ely published on article entitled “An analysis of discomfort risk taking sociability in the SL classroom
    32. 32.  Language classroom discomfort is negatively related to risk taking and sociability language class risk taking is positively related to classroom participation. Classroom participation is positively related to oral proficiency  In then basis on the Basic of the objective Relationship studies and prediction study Relationship study typically investigate a number of variable believed to be related to major complex variables. Such as achievement variable founded to be highly related are eliminated for further consideration and variable there are highly related may7 suggest experiment studies to0 determine if the relationship are casual. So this type of research is come out generally as a preliminary step to experimental research Prediction: it is the further higher step of relationship study. Regardless of whether a relationship is casual or not the existence of a high (positive or negative) relationship permits prediction. For example C.Ely’s study language class discomfort was a significant negative predictor language class risk taking and language class score ability . In the other hand, language class risk taking was a significant positive predictor of classroom participation
    33. 33.  In language research generally constructs like language proficiency, attitudes, perception, communicative competence can not be measured directly and it becomes necessary to reduce them into numerical values with the help of different types of quantifying research tools. So the value of the correlation research, depends on how well these construct are define or measure because of this weakness there always remain the danger of identifying spurious relation pattern which have little or no reliability. This makes a study less meaningful
    34. 34. Characteristics of Correlation Research  It is an objective based study. It means researcher guided by       the objective It can deal with the multiple variable at the same time. So it is appropriate to conduct in the situation where it is difficult to conduct experimental research Data are collected in natural setting Uncovers degree of relationship rather than all or nothing question Quantitative data are collected and analysis It is a group study It’s nature is reductional
    35. 35. 1.5 contextual Influences on Topics of Second Language Research  There are several theoretical socio-political and institutional contextual factors that relate research endeavor (effort) to increase our abilities  There are varieties of topic addressed in L2 research, According to Jonson (1992 p.13) there are three contextual factors that Influences on Topics of Second Language Research. They are; 1 Second language acquisition theory/theories 2 The relevant discipline theory 3 Sociopolitical and educational condition within a nation or across nation