Kdrri case study report english 2009 low res


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Kdrri case study report english 2009 low res

  1. 1. CASE STUDY Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework Of Action KAILALI DISASTER RISK REDUCTION INITIATIVES February 2009 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Nepal Red Cross Humanitarian Aid Society, Kailali
  2. 2. Authors: Dhruba Raj Gautam Independent Researcher and Consultant E-mail: drgautam@wlink.com.np Sudarshan Khanal Student at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, USA Email: sudarshan.khanal@yale.edu Special contributors: Ulla Dons, Chet Bahadur Tamang ,Sagar Pokharel, Himal Ojha Photo contributors: Sagar Pokharel, Chet Bahadur Tamang, Himal Ojha, Dhruba Raj Gautam and Ulla Dons Editor: Perry Thapa Cover Photos Front: Community Level Consultation, Front Inside: River bank protection work Back Inside: Observation of IEC posters Back: Clock-wise ; Skill Training, Use Of EWS Siren, Rescue using life Jacket, Boat Constructed with VDC support , Interaction with DHM Technician, River bank protection work Design and Printed by: Mind Share Communications Pvt.Ltd. River bank protection work Published by: Mercy Corps Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal The views expressed in this document should not be taken in a way to reflect the European Commission; and it is not liable for any use that be made of the information contained herein.
  3. 3. Table of Content Foreword Mercy Corps Nepal is pleased to release the enclosed case study: Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction - Contribution to Hyogo Framework for Action. This case study is the result of an evaluation of a DG ECHO-supported project implemented by Mercy Corps and the Nepal Red Cross Society, Kailali District Chapter under the DIPECHO Fourth Action Plan for South Asia, Foreword I Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives. The case study was conducted by an independent Acknowledgements II researcher and consultant, Dhruba Raj Gautam, with contributions from a graduate student at Acronyms III Yale University’s School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Sudarshan Khanal. Support Executive Summary IV for the case study was provided by Mercy Corps’ disaster risk reduction team, while funding for the case study was provided by DG ECHO. 1. The Context 1 As opposed to evaluating the contributions of the project against its own stated objectives, 2. Methodology 2 this case study was designed to evaluate the contribution of the project’s community-based disaster risk reduction activities to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), a 10-year plan 3. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) 2 adopted by 168 governments to make the world safer from natural disaster by substantially reducing disaster-related human, social, economic and environmental losses by 2015. The 4. Project contributions in achieving the priority actions of HFA 3 HFA emerged from the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Hyogo, Japan, and is 4.1 Priority action 1 3 a global blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts. In evaluating the effects of our disaster 4.2 Priority action 2 5 risk reduction work against the HFA, Mercy Corps is aiming to ensure that its actions are 4.3 Priority action 3 8 commensurate with, and contribute to, a coordinated, multi-stakeholder framework to re- 4.4 Priority action 4 13 duce the loss of lives and livelihoods as a result of natural disasters. As one of many local, 4.5. Priority action 5 15 national, and international relief and development actors, we believe that our efforts are much more relevant when adding value to this type of coherent, international action plan. 5. Project contribution in achieving the strategic goals of HFA 17 5.1 Strategic goal 1 17 The case study highlights that community-based disaster risk reduction activities in the Kailali 5.2 Strategic goal 2 17 district have contributed to the HFA’s strategic priorities and objectives by: a) ensuring that 5.3 Strategic goal 3 17 disaster risk reduction is a priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation (HFA Priority Action 1); b) identifying, assessing, and monitoring risks, and carrying out early warn- List of tables ing systems (HFA Priority Action 2); c) supporting knowledge, education and innovation to Table 1: Number of households and ethnic composition by community and VDC 1 build a culture of safety and resilience (HFA Priority Action 3); reducing underlying risk factors Table 2: Gender and ethnic composition of DPC 3 (HFA Priority Action 4); and, increasing preparedness for effective response and recovery Table 3: Lead-time of flooding for different locations 6 (HFA Priority Action 5). On behalf of Mercy Corps, I would like to thank all of those who made Table 4: Warnings based on water levels 6 these achievements possible: DG ECHO under its DIPECHO Fourth Action Plan for South Asia; Table 5: Number of participants in various trainings 10 Nepal Red Cross Society; local, district and national level Government of Nepal stakeholders; Table 6: Status of mitigation work, community nurseries and plantation 13 our DIPECHO Nepal colleague agencies; our own disaster risk reduction team; and, of course most importantly, the partner communities themselves. Josh DeWald Country Director Mercy Corps Nepal Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives I
  4. 4. Acknowledgements Acronyms and Abbreviations BASE Backward Society Education We would like to acknowledge the support of the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Department, which both helped produce this publication and CSSD Conscious Society for Social Development funded the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project under the 4th DIPECHO Action Plan for South Asia. DDC District Development Committee We are grateful to the communities of Bishanpur, Jokahiyapur, Lalitpur, DoHM Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Manikapur, Mohanpur, and Shivaratanpur of Kailali District for their patience in DP Disaster Preparedness providing us with a wealth of information and for being so cooperative during the study. We benefited greatly from disaster preparedness committees, DPC Disaster Preparedness Committee community members and stakeholders, teachers and students, village development committees and district stakeholders in increasing our DRM Disaster Risk Management understanding of how the project contributes towards the Hyogo Framework of Action. We would further like to extend our sincere gratitude to all who helped DRR Disaster Risk reduction make this study a success by contributing their time, feedback and suggestions. DSCO District Soil Conservation Office We would also like to acknowledge the Kailali District Chapter of the Nepal Red DTO District Technical Office Cross Society and Mercy Corps Nepal, which together implemented the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives Project, for their professional support during DWIDP Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention our fieldwork as well at a consultation meeting with district level stakeholders in Dhangadhi. EWS Early Warning System FGD Focus Group Discussion We are grateful to Mercy Corps Nepal and to the project management team for their feedback on and suggestions about our conceptual framework and HFA Hyogo Framework of Action methodology as well as the draft report. We are indeed grateful that Mercy Corps Nepal entrusted us to conduct this case study. JRC Junior Red Cross Circles KII Key Informant Interview Dhruba Raj Gautam and Sudarshan Khanal S&R Search and Rescue SHP Sub-health Post VCA Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment VDC Village Development Committee VDMC Village Disaster Management Committee Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study II February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives III
  5. 5. Executive summary The context: In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross field office, early warning information was made far 4.2 km have been completed) has helped people and continue to fill the knowledge gaps of the com- Society (NRCS) in Kailali, Mercy Corps is currently available to communities and community-based early reach these shelters or other safe places. Raising hand munities in terms of DP and DRR, thereby contribut- implementing the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Ini- warning systems were established. At the commu- pumps has ensured a source of safe water and re- ing to the development of the knowledge and skills tiatives project in six communities. The European Com- nity level, either agharia (a local messenger who duced the risk of epidemics and the spread of water- needed to identify and assess risk and hazards, to mission supports this project through its Humanitar- circulates messages to local people) or other persons borne diseases during the monsoon season. build capacities and to disseminate early warning in- ian Aid Department (under the DIPECHO 4th Action assigned by the DPC monitor flood levels. Emergency formation. Interventions such as small-scale mitiga- Plan for South Asia). This case study was conducted and first aid kits were provided to each community. The project has positively contributed to increasing tion measures and nursery management have di- to demonstrate whether and how and to what ex- CDMA phones and hand-operated sirens helped alert preparedness for effective response and recovery rectly contributed to environmental and natural re- tent the project contributes toward achieving the goals people to and save them from flood risks. The dis- (priority action 5). By participating in national and source management and land-use planning. These towards the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). Con- semination of emergency news and weather-related district-level trainings and workshops for sharing and efforts contribute to developing and strengthening sultations with NRCS and Mercy Corps staff, key in- bulletins by local FM stations was also very effective exchanging information and by sharing resources the the institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build formant interviews, focus group discussions, exit in providing advance preparation. project has helped strengthen policy, technical and resilience to hazards (strategic goal 2). The project meeting with project staff and analysis and report- institutional capacities. Inspired by the communities’ has held several dialogues and consultations to fos- ing were some of the main approaches used in car- For the proper use of knowledge, innovation, and bioengineering initiatives, the District Water Induced ter information sharing, technical backstopping, re- rying out the study. education to build a culture of safety and resilience Disaster Preparedness Office has allocated Rs. 50,000 source and idea and experience sharing and to take at all levels (priority action 3), the project published (EUR 490) to build spurs. The District Soil Conserva- immediate action in improving project initiatives. With Project contributions toward achieving the priority ac- IEC materials for widespread dissemination, showed tion Office allocated another Rs.70,000 (EUR 686) to the project’s provisions for disaster-preparedness ex- tions of HFA: The project has made several efforts to DRR video documentary, organised cross visits and five communities so they could replicate bioengineer- ercises, including evacuation drills and simulations, it ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with performed street dramas. Early warning system and ing techniques. was easy to enhance the capacities of local people. strong institutional basis for implementation (priority evacuation simulations are beneficial for knowledge Mercy Corps’ contribution of food and non-food items action 1). In each community, it established disaster management. So far, more than 1,000 local people, Project contribution in achieving the strategic goals to flood-affected communities from alternative fund- preparedness committees (DPCs) and sub-commit- schoolteachers and students have attended various of HFA: Increasing the ability of community-based ing sources has boosted immediate relief and re- tees with clearly defined roles and responsibilities capacity-building trainings. Viewing students and institutions to carry out DP and DRR activities, devel- sponse, thereby incorporating risk reduction ap- for reducing flood risks and people’s vulnerability. teachers as the key agents for change, the project’s oping knowledge-sharing mechanisms and commu- proaches into the implementation of emergency pre- Financial transparency is maintained through well- school-level programme focuses on DP and DRR as nity DP plans promotes the integration of DRR into paredness, response and recovery programmes (stra- established social auditing. Emergency funds, a com- well as conservation education. sustainable development policies and planning (stra- tegic goal 3). munity-managed initiative, have been instrumental tegic goal 1). Capacity-building initiatives have filled in initiating the disaster preparedness, response and The project has contributed to reducing the underly- maintenance activities. So far, the six communities ing risk factors (priority action 4) through introducing have saved a total of Rs. 74,300 (EUR 728). By low-cost, replicable and easily maintained bioengi- linking community-level disaster preparedness (DP) neering mitigation techniques including bamboo work plans to village development committee (VDC)-level and sand-filled cement sacks. To reinforce bioengi- DP plans, the villagers have secured the resources neering efforts and save productive land along they need to execute their plans. riverbanks, 43,000 plants have been planted over an area of 27,300 m2. These initiatives have signifi- The project has helped project communities to iden- cantly reduced riverbank erosion and increased the tify risks, assess, monitor and carry out early warn- local communities’ confidence in the possibility that ing initiatives (priority action 2). Physical, attitudi- agriculture land and communities can be saved. Com- nal, and social risks and vulnerability were identified munity boats have become a means for safe evacu- through vulnerability and capacity assessment ex- ation during flood, and provisions for community shel- ercises in each community. In coordination with the ters have effectively saved lives during periods of Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DoHM) inundation. The construction of evacuation routes (so Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study IV February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives V
  6. 6. Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Contribution to Hyogo Framework of Action 1. The Context In cooperation with the Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) Table 1 Number of households and ethnic composition by community and VDC VDC Community No. Ethnicity 2. Methodology in Kailali District, Mercy Corps has been implement- of HHs Tharu Brahmin Dalits /Chhetri ing the Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives in This report is based on field research conducted in six through resource sharing. Primary data was collected Pabera Manikapur 73 72 0 1 six communities of four village development com- project communities. Before checklists and guide- using participatory tools and techniques such as fo- Bisanpur 33 33 0 0 mittees (VDCs) since November 2007. The European lines for questions to ask in the field were prepared, cus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant in- Phulbari Lalitpur 78 50 4 24 Commission supports this project through its Humani- Hasuliya Shivratnapur 64 62 1 1 project documents and relevant literature were re- terviews (KIIs). FGDs were carried out with disaster tarian Aid department under the DIPECHO 4th Action Mohanpur 78 78 0 0 viewed. preparedness committees (DPCs) and Junior Red Cross Plan for South Asia. Ratanpur Jokahiyapur 52 52 0 0 Circles (JRCs) to provide insight into the project’s key Total 378 347 5 26 accomplishments. KIIs with bhalmansha2, agharia3, A consultation between Mercy Corps and the Kailali Figure 1 Kailali district with project area Source: Project record, 2007-08 coordinators of sub-committees4, early warning sys- Chapter of NRCS was held before the fieldwork be- The majority of the population of project communi- gan in order to identify the key areas of interven- tem (EWS) volunteers, schoolteachers and students ties (91.8%) is Tharu, the indigenous group of the tions, the emerging issues and the concerns of lo- were conducted to explore their perceptions of the western Terai. Brahmin-Chhetri and Dalit hill migrants cal people with respect to DRR and DP. A brief project’s contributions toward reducing disaster risks. are minority populations (see Table 1). The majority meeting with project field staff in Hasuliya revealed Transects walks with DPC members and nursery man- of these people own only aailani, or unregistered, some key outputs as well as good practices and agement committees helped reveal the extent of miti- land. Landholdings range in area from two katha1 to success stories. A sharing meeting with district-level gation work carried out by the communities, the pro- three bigha. Most are subsistence farmers who rear stakeholders helped to identify the level of coordi- cesses and procedures they followed during that work traditional livestock though sharecropping is also a nation and networking which exists for providing and the benefits in DRR they acquired from it. common practice. Many youths migrate seasonally technical backstopping and synergetic impacts to India for the jobs, as labourers they need to meet family needs for food and other household require- ments as well as to cover the expenses of various festivals. 3. The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) The project aims to build safer communities through Floods are a major hazard in the project communi- disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives in collabora- ties. The Mohana River and its tributaries, the Kataini, The HFA provides a strong basis for priority actions strengthen disaster preparedness for effective re- tion with communities, local governments and other Guraha and Khutiya, regularly inundate the adjacent by governments and governmental organisations sponse. The three strategic goals are (i) integra- key stakeholders. Local capacity building and train- areas and erode riverbanks and productive land. They as well as by local, regional and international non- tion of disaster risk reduction into sustainable de- ing, early warning systems, small-scale mitigation, cause the loss of life and important belongings, in- governmental organisations. It is designed to build velopment policies and planning, (ii) development education, and facilitation of coordination are the key cluding livestock and houses. Flooding damages in- the resilience of nations and communities to disas- and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and areas of project interventions frastructure, including roads, irrigation canals, schools ters. The HFA has five priorities for action and three capacities to build resilience to hazards, and (iii) and health posts, and makes accessing clean drink- strategic goals. The five priorities for action are (i) incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the The project VDCs are located in Kailali District in the ing water sources and sanitation services difficult. It ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and implementation of emergency preparedness, re- Far- Western Development Region of Nepal at lati- also disrupts people’s livelihoods and makes them local priority with strong institutional basis for sponse and recovery programmes. tudes from 28°34’46.31"N to 28°30’39.79"N and increasingly vulnerable. Because floods are so dev- implementation, (ii) identify, assess and monitor longitudes from 80°44’59.21"E to 80°50’52.63"E). astating, people live in constant fear. disaster risks and enhance early warning, (iii) use This report is organised according to the broad cat- Their average altitude is 60 masl. Project commu- knowledge, innovation and education to build a egories set out in the HFA’s priorities for action (sec- nities were selected based on the extent of haz- Mercy Corps has documented this case study-based culture of safety and resilience at all levels, (iv) tion 4 of this case study) and its strategic goals (sec- ards, the vulnerability of and risk to settlements, research in order to share its key achievements and reducing the underlying risk factors, and (v) and tion 5 of this case study). and the damage to houses and cropland attribut- lessons with a national and global audience. This able to river erosion. The history, location, and report also tries to demonstrate whether or not and socio-economic status of communities, as well as how and to what extent the project contributes to- their access to services and institutions and the op- wards the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). portunities for replicating good DRR practices in neighbouring communities were also taken into con- 2 A bhalmansha is a traditional Tharu leader or village guardian selected or elected every year during the Maghi festival (15 to run the village systems. It is a sideration. highly respected position found only in Tharu-dominated villages. 3 An agharia is an assistant to a bhalmasha who circulates messages to local people as instructed by a bhalmash 4 The five sub-committees are 1) nursery management, 2) early warning and rescue, 3) procurement and accounting, 4) construction and 5) community 1 mobilisation. 20 katha=1 bigha = 0.67ha, and 1 katha = 0.0335 ha Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 1 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 2
  7. 7. 4. Project contributions in achieving the community level: all expenditures are discussed at community gatherings both at the initial and final DPCs have adopted a pro-active approach to increas- ing their emergency funds. Mohanpur, for instance, the priority actions of HFA stages of project activities. All key decisions and trans- collected funds by operating a boat service during actions are displayed on community notice boards as the monsoon. For its part, Shivaratanpur collected well as on the walls of DPC offices. Both the DPC and Rs. 564 (EUR 5.5) by conducting Fagui5 and Deuso The project’s achievements demonstrate that the strength through capacity-building trainings and cross- procurement sub-committee members are involved and Bailo6 programmes. Though these programmes project has indeed contributed to bringing about learning visits. Now that they are equipped with suf- in procuring materials from outside, so financial trans- are traditional, using them to raise funds is a the priority actions of HFA. These achievements are ficient knowledge and skills, these committees inde- parency and risk-sharing is high. project-inspired initiative. Shivaratanpur also plans discussed briefly in the following sections. pendently carry out local-level initiatives to reduce to sell seedlings from its nursery. flood risks and various types of vulnerabilities. d. Translated community-agreed rules and 4.1 Priority action 1: Ensure that disaster risk regulations into action The six project communities have started to advo- reduction is a national and local priority with b. Developed knowledge-sharing mechanisms The DPCs have formulated and enforced rules and cate providing support to neighbouring vulnerable strong institutional basis for implementation The project has developed a powerful mechanism regulations governing DP and DRR activities. Rules communities during emergencies. Shivaratanpur and for building and sharing knowledge. The practice include restrictions on grazing near protected Mankapur communities, for example, gave 72 and a. Strengthened community-based institutions of selecting participants for trainings and orienta- riverbanks, safeguarding newly planted areas, and 75 kilogrammes of rice respectively from their emer- to carry out DP and DRR activities tions through DPC meetings boosts social solidarity allocating roles and responsibilities among the DPC gency funds to Basanta when a wild elephant to- Six gender- and socially-inclusive disaster prepared- and prevents bias. Because it is mandatory for train- and sub-committee members. Shivaratanpur com- tally destroyed its stored grain and damaged houses. ness committees (DPCs), one in each project com- ees to disseminate the new information, knowl- munity, for example, has agreed to fine members These communities were able to respond immedi- munity, were formed to promote DP-related activi- edge and skills they acquire to other DPC mem- who are habitually late to meetings and who refuse ately because they had an emergency fund. The ties and to mobilise local people to reduce flood bers, knowledge sharing is also strong. to get involved in weekly sanitation campaigns. Bisanpur DPC had agreed to contribute two quintals risks (see Table 2). Shivaratanpur community even Search and rescue sub-committee members are of wheat to Koshi flood victims, but they were forced included a differently- abled person and a widow c. Maintained financial transparency in each responsible for monitoring flood and blow sirens to drop this idea after they became flood victims among its DPC members and has elected a woman project activity as needed, while the procurement and accounting themselves in September. Their efforts show that bhalmansa. DPCs network, coordinate and build Each DPC has simple but effective measures to committee members are accountable for social au- collaborative efforts are beginning to reduce disas- rapport with village-level stakeholders. These net- maintain financial transparency. Each has its own diting. The translation of community-agreed rules, ter risks. These initiatives have helped build a sense works, in turn, promote resource sharing. For in- bank account through which it accesses whatever norms and values into action has helped commu- of social solidarity among villagers and should fos- stance, the coordination between the Lalitpur DPC resources the project and district agencies provide. nities adopt a consolidated approach to DRR. ter still more collaboration in DRR initiatives. and Phulbari VDC made it possible for the former The procurement and accounting sub-committee as- to secure life jackets for two boat operators who sists in maintaining all financial transactions in an e. Maintained equity in resource sharing to es- f. Prepared community- and VDC-level DP plans service the community and for local police for use orderly manner. Social auditing is fully established at tablish emergency funds Each DPC has prepared a community-level DP plan during emergencies. Five sub-committees under Equitable resource mechanisms are enforced to col- which incorporates a variety of activities like orienta- each DPC were formed in order to clearly allocate Box 1 Information, knowledge and skills are more important than material support lect cash and grain for emergencies. Each DPC has tions, evacuation, rescue and relief work, community roles and responsibilities and to increase account- In the beginning, we were quite unhappy with established an emergency fund to initiate, operate nursery management, riverbank protection, construc- ability in initiating DRR activities. The provision that project authorities. They kept inviting us to and maintain disaster preparedness and response tion of evacuation routes, allocation of roles and re- one DPC member be an ex-officio member of each trainings and orientations, but our interest lay in getting project resources to build gabion spurs activities. This fund serves as a local resource for sponsibilities for river monitoring, and operation and sub-committee has established a culture of shar- to protect the riverbank from floods. However, immediate relief and response during emergencies maintenance of early warning equipment. This was ing and understanding between DPCs and their sub- with the project’s persistence in building our as well as for mitigation initiatives. Locals see the the first time such plans had been prepared and lo- committees. These committees have grown in knowledge through trainings and exposure, we learned a lot about actions we can take locally to emergency fund as a ray of hope in reducing disas- cals are very enthusiastic about implementing them reduce the disaster risks. Because of the project’s ter risks. Different DPCs have agreed that each fam- by mobilising local resources. They also hope to get Table 2 Gender and ethnic composition of DPC continuous facilitation, very good practices like VDC Communties Members Ethnicity sharing knowledge after attending a training, ily will contribute between five and one hundred additional support from the VDC and district levels. M F T Tharu B-C Dalits Total maintaining financial transparency, ensuring rupees each month and contribute one kilogramme Phulbari Lalitpur 8 5 13 8 2 3 13 equity in resource sharing, and translating of wheat per katha of land held. The fact that the The project has facilitated the formation of village Hasuliya Mohanpur 8 5 13 13 0 0 13 community-agreed rules and regulations into Shivaratanpur 6 7 13 12 1 0 13 action have been ingrained in us. In the long run contribution in grain is based on landholding is an disaster management committees (VDMCs) in each Pabera Bisanpur 9 4 13 13 0 0 13 in, information, knowledge and skills are more indication that resource mobilisation is equitable. VDC whose role is to link community-level DP plans important than material support. Manikapur 7 6 13 12 0 1 13 So far, a total of Rs. 74,300 (EUR 728) has been with VDC plans. VDC stakeholders were inspired to Ratanpur Jokahiyapur 8 5 13 13 0 0 13 -Mr. Khoj Ram Chaudhari, Manikapur saved by all six project communities. Bisanpur has encourage such linkages after visiting the six project Total 46 32 78 71 3 4 78 (District Vice-Chairperson, Freed Kamaiya Society, Kailali) saved the most, Rs 25,708 (EUR 252), and communities. Community-level DP plans will even- Source: Project record 2007-08 /Note: B-C=Brahmin-Chhetri Jokahiyapur the least, Rs 5919 (EUR 58). tually be incorporated into VDC development plans. 5 A popular festival among Tharus in which people throw coloured powder and water balloons at each other. It usually falls in March. Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 6 A song and dance programme practiced from house to house by hill migrants during Tihar, 3 February 2009 the Festival of Lights, which falls in October or November. Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 4
  8. 8. VDCs secretaries serve as VDCM coordinators and are flood warning information was circulated to project the community level, either the agharia or a person currently overseeing the formulation of VDC-level DP communities one to one-and-a-half hours earlier than assigned by the DPC monitors flood levels. This project plans which will consolidate community- level plans the calculated lead time (see Table 3). The commu- provision built on rather than interfering with tradi- and consider common issues pertinent to DRR. This nities thought that this information was very helpful tional EWS-based practices. Hazard monitoring prac- step has opened the way to mobilising VDC-level re- as it enable them to evacuate in time. tices vary across the communities. Shivaratanpur, for sources in the execution of community-level DP plans. instance, has allocated a team of people to monitor For instance, Hasuliya VDC provided Rs 5,000 to Table 3 Lead time of flooding for different locations floods twice a day, at 9 a.m. and 8 p.m., whereas Shivaratanpur DPC to construct a boat. Inspired by River Location Calculated Suggested Bisanpur requires that the EWS coordinator monitor hours hour Shivaratanpur, other DPCs also plan to solicit funds flood levels three times a day, at 5 a.m., 1 p.m. and Mohona Malakheti to Bisanpur 9 8 from their VDCs. Once community-level DP plans are Malakheti to Bhansar 3 2.5 9 p.m. Keeping safety and security in mind, each linked with VDC plans, they will automatically be Bhansar to Bisanpur 6 5 monitor has been provided with an umbrella, rubber linked to the plans of Kailali District and DRR will be Khutiya Khutiya Mudi Bhavar 10 9 boots, a torchlight and a raincoat. to Bisanpur mainstreamed in district policies, planning and imple- Gauri Ganga Highway to Lalitpur 3 2.5 mentation. Kataini Highway to Manikapur 4.2 3.5 Community-based local practices are designed to be VDC level stakeholders meeting Source: Project record, 2008 accessible to illiterate people. For instance, each com- In short, the establishment of strengthened commu- munity has established a wooden post marked with nity-based institutions to carry out DP and DRR activi- b. Hazard monitoring yellow and red bands at riverbanks. Such a marker is ties, the development of knowledge-sharing mecha- able to develop risk maps based on the level of risk The project has introduced both watershed and com- a very simple method of DRR: water reaching the nisms, the maintenance of financial transparency in identified. The categorised areas as being at low, munity-level approaches to hazard monitoring. In col- Box 3 We are proud that no one has died in our communities. each project activities, and the drafting of commu- medium or high risk. They identified areas at low laboration with five upstream rain gauge stations and With the careful use of EWS devices and nity- as well as VDC-level DP plans have ensured that risk as those inundated during a general flood. If six upstream and three downstream water-level application of the skills and knowledge we disaster risk reduction is a local priority with strong floodwaters enter areas at medium and high risk, gauging stations, project communities are able to gained through various trainings and exposures, institutional basis for implementation. preparations for evacuation to save lives and impor- monitor the extent of flood risks in their localities. we made sure that no human casualties were reported in our project communities although tant belongings are required. During the flood of Sep- The project has helped train gauge recorders to moni- 24 people died in adjoining communities. These 4.2 Priority action 2: Identify, assess and tember 2008, local communities used the skills and tor water levels hourly so that they can disseminate figures show that if locals are prepared sufficiently in advance, the extent of flood risks monitor disaster risks and enhance early knowledge they had acquired with great success to real-time data to downstream communities. DPC and can be reduced dramatically. warning reduce flood risks. EWS coordinators are responsible for maintaining com- -Mr Chhallu Ram Chaudhari, Teacher, Hasulia munications with upstream stations and for dissemi- a. Developed knowledge and skills to identify Box 2 No need to worry about getting resources nating information to communities. Cross-visits to four yellow band is a sign to get prepared; reaching the and assess risk Since learning that Shivratanpur got resources rain gauge stations and four water-level gauging sta- red, a warning to evacuate immediately. In terms of The project introduced vulnerability and capacity as- from Hasuliya VDC to construct a boat, we have tions clarified to DPC and EWS sub-committee mem- rainfall-based warnings, an intensity of 110-150 mm planned to visit our VDC to request some resources sessment (VCA) exercises in each community to iden- to replicate bioengineering work. We now know bers how rain and water levels are monitored and per hour is considered the first warning; 151-200 mm, tify physical, attitudinal, and social risks and vulner- that making such a request is our right. I am quite how information is communicated. They learned the second; and above 200 mm, the third. Warnings hopeful that once the VDC-level DP plan is abilities. It also facilitated the assessment of natural finalised, incorporating our community-level DP about average and warning levels and how this are issued through FM radio stations. and man-made hazards in line with communities’ plan, it will be easier to secure resources from knowledge can be translated into preparedness in perceptions of the associated risks. Local people have the VDC to execute the plan’s activities. I don’t their communities (see Table 4). c. Early warning dissemination think we need to worry about funds for the VDC identified and ranked flooding as the main hazard in either as its plan will automatically be linked with The project has coordinated with district-level stake- their area. The factors that increase their vulnerabil- the DDC plan. The mechanism for disseminating information about holders, and enhanced the capacity of communities ity include ignorance, social disunity, the location of -Mr Chheduram Chaudhari, DPC Coordinator, Jokahiyapur flood hazards is also well defined and functional. At settlements on low land near riverbanks and the lack Table 4 Warnings based on water levels of preparedness. These VCA exercises are beneficial People are well informed about the time it takes a in that they increase awareness and preparedness flood to reach their localities from different up- River Location Average flood level Warning flood level (1st stage) Warning flood level (2nd stage) Ready Get set Go and change the attitudes and behaviours of locals stream river gauge stations. Through coordination Mohona Malakheti 2.0 m 2.5 m 3.4 m with respect to risks and how they cope with them. with the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology Khutiya Mudi Bhavar 2.1m 3.6 m 4.8 m (DoHM7) field office, early warning information was Shiva Ganaga Highway Bridge 1.5 m 1.8 m 2.5 m Project communities are well aware of which areas made available to downstream communities. In or- Guruha Highway Bridge 1.2 m 1.5 m 2m Kataini Highway Bridge 1.8 m 2.2 m 2.8 m are vulnerable to flooding and inundation and were der to reduce the possibility of errors being made, Source: Project record, 2008 7 A department under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 5 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 6
  9. 9. bulletins, both of which effectively enabled locals to and district stakeholders, including CARE Nepal and their prepare in advance. During the September 2008 local partner NGOs. In agreeing upon the themes and flood, project communities informed FM stations about the art for each item, the design team kept in mind their situation in order to pressure relevant authori- the Tharu’s social setup and culture. A local artist was ties into acting immediately to provide support. Work- employed to refine the sketches drawn up by the team. ing with local media is an effective way of fostering Each item was field-tested and the feedback of the EWS. community incorporated before it was finalised. De- sign sensitivity and testing have ensured that infor- Activity showing wooden post Box 5 Life jackets became friends during hard times mation about disaster risk, reduction and prevention We appreciated the project’s support in providing is readily understandable and that it encourages and through training and equipment and simulation ex- emergency kits. Life jackets felt like friends in hard enables people to take action to reduce risks and build times. During the last monsoon, Aitabari Chaudhari, ercises to develop local knowledge-based EWS. resilience. who lives on the other side of the Mohana, had to return home immediately because his wife Draupadi To facilitate the dissemination of early warning mes- had died unexpectedly. It was night and there was a high flood in Ghuraha River. He couldn’t find the The project’s approach to information dissemination is sages, the project provided nine CDMA phones at the boat but insisted that he had to get home. We innovative and interesting. Community facilitators dis- four downstream and five upstream rainfall and provided him with a life jacket to cross the river. He seminated the message of each IEC item using door-to- Use of life jacket during S&R reached home in time to attend his wife’s funeral. water-level gauges and a hand-operated siren to door campaigns based on the adult learning approach. Even now, whenever he meets us, he speaks of the each community. Both were found to be very effec- support the life jacket gave him in crossing the river. In short, endeavours in risk identification and assess- The facilitators provided enough room for locals to ex- tive EWS tools during the September 2008 flood. Com- Life jackets have saved the lives of many other local people, including police officials who perform rescue ment were made by increasing knowledge about risks press their understanding of and feelings about key munication channels and contact telephone numbers operations. and about suitable strategies for coping with and mea- themes and messages and to fill in any gaps if neces- were disseminated to communities through fliers. sures for reducing those risks. EWSs were established sary. This flexible, interactive approach increased -Ms. Raj Kumari Chaudhari, Lalitpur, Phulbari Because of these simple mechanisms, locals were by drawing upon the existing knowledge of locals people’s understanding of the main message of each able to evacuate the elderly, pregnant and lactating The joint efforts of district-level agencies have helped about specific hazards and risks. Information was IEC item. mothers, children and livestock before flood levels establish watershed-level EWS. The Mohana Water- disseminated by those systems in a timely fashion approached the level of risk. Although their response shed EWS was designed by a committee under the using simple and understandable language. and evacuation times differed according to the dis- chairmanship of the district techncial office (DTO) with tance to safe shelter and community size, all six com- representation from relevant district stakeholders. 4.3 Priority action 3: Use knowledge, munities were able to evacuate all their members This committee has given time, energy and other innovation, and education to build a culture safely. resources to strengthen watershed-level EWS and to of safety and resilience at all levels link it with downstream communities. FM radios have been very effective in disseminating Information management and exchange: The project information. The project mobilised local FM stations The project provided emergency and first aid kits to has disseminated information about floods and their to disseminate emergency news and weather-related all six communities so they could carry out EWS and risks as well as about various protection mechanisms search and rescue work. The emergency supplies in- and coping strategies both to locals within the project Box 4 Small initiatives promote knowledge about EWS clude life jackets, safety vests, throw bags, area as well as to those in neighbouring communi- Before we took exposure visits to upstream rain guage and flood monitoring stations and carabineers, inner tubes, rope, helmets, hand-oper- ties. It has also published information, education and IEC for flood preparedness interacted with technicians at the DoHM field ated sirens, and stretchers. These materials were communication (IEC) materials, shown video docu- office, we never understood the weather reports broadcast on radio and TV. Those reports were put to good use during the last monsoon. The people mentaries, organised cross visits, performed street b. Cross visits: learning laboratories for locals not useful for us because we did not know the of Mohanpur saved lives using their emergency ma- dramas, and facilitated EWS evacuation simulations To promote learning from others’ experiences and techical terms. We are surprised that with a terials during the flood of September 2008. In in order to share information and build knowledge. replication of good practices, cross visits are very ef- mechanism as simple as installing a red-and- yellow banded wooden post, so much information Shivaratnapur, a drowning person was rescued with fective tools. Each project community visited two can be collected and used for EWS. The exposure the help of a life jacket. The first aid kits were widely a. IEC materials are the key to raising awareness other project communities to observe and learn from visit helped us understand the meanings of flood levels and estimated time for water to reach our used during flooding. First aid kits are kept in the IEC materials are essential for imparting knowledge their efforts in DRR and to replicate good practices. communities. This information is very useful for houses of sudeni8) so that services can be instantly and information. The project published and distributed Locals perceived these visits as learning laboratories EWS. I think small initiatives are very important in provided to locals. four posters, two fliers, flip charts, and games. Before because “believing by seeing” is very convincing. making local communities aware. designing the IEC material, the project held an IEC ori- After their cross visits to Shivaratanpur, the Mohanpur -Ms. Gandhabi Devi Chaudhari, EWS Sub-committee Coordinator, Manikapur entation training for community leaders, project staff, communities of Ratanpur VDC started to make bam- 8 Traditional birth attendant Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Case Study 7 February 2009 Contribution To Hyogo Framework of Action Kailali Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives 8