Inee nepal

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Inee nepal

  1. 1. jN8{ lehgjN8{ lehg afnaflnsf, ltgsf kl/jf/ / ;dbfox¿nfO{ u/LaL / cGofoaf6 dQm xg ;3fpg k|lta4 Ps O;fO{ /fxt,ljsf; / k}/jL ;+:yf xf] . O;fO{ dfGotfx¿af6 k|]l/t eP/ xfdL ;+;f/sf ;a}eGbf a9L hf]lvddf /x]sf dflg;x¿;Fuldn]/ sfd ug{ k|lta4 5f}+ . jN8{ lehgn] wd{, hfthflt, ;Dk|bfo jf lnËsf] e]befj gu/L ;a}sf] ;]jf ub{5 . cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 /sf]l/ofnL o4af6 kLl8t 6x/fx¿sf] cfjZostfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ jN8{ lehg sf]l/ofdf ;g !(%) df :yfkgf ePsf] k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{xf] . clxn] of] ;+:yf Plzof nufot ;+;f/sf em08} ;o b]zdf la:tf/ eO;s]sf] 5 . lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnjN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnn] g]kfndf klxnf] k6s ;g !(*@ df :yfgLo nlIft ;d"xx¿nfO{ c:ktfn lgdf{0f ug{/ :jf:Yo ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] p2]Zon] cgbfg ;xof]u u/]/ ljsf; ;DaGwL sfdsf] z?jft u/]sf] xf] . ;g !(**sf] e"sDknfO{ nlIft u/L jN8{ lehgn] e"sDk kLl8tnfO{ ;xfotf pknAw u/fpg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿nfO{ ;xof]uu¥of] . jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnn] cf}krfl/s ¿kdf ;g @))! df ;dfh sNof0f kl/ifb;Fu ;fwf/0f / cfof]hgf;DaGwL ;Demf}tf u/L bL3{sfnLg ljsf; sfo{sf] z?jft u¥of] . ljut ( -gf}_ jif{df ;fdbflos ljsf;sf lglDt ;xfotfu/]sf 5f}+ / xfdL xfn eQmk/, ?kGb]xL, sf7df8f}+, sf:sL, s}nfnL, ndhª, nlntk/, df]/ª, 8f]6L, pbok/ / ;g;/L;lxt !@ j6f lhNnfdf sfo{zLn 5f}+ .cfef/M– k|sfzgM jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfn cgjfbM /d]z l3ld/] rameshghimi@yahoo.com ;+sng tyf ;DkfbgM /f]lxt k|wfg, rohit_pradhan@wvi.org t:jL/x¿ tyf n]cfp6M k|lt1f /]rn vflnË, pratigya_khaling@wvi.org ;+/rgf ;xof]uM lbk]z kn 7fs/, deepesh_paul_thakur@wvi.org 5kfO{M l;Udf hg/n ckm;]6 k|]; ;fFrn, ;fg]kf, nlntk/ kmf]gM %%%$)@(
  2. 2. cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu cGt/lgsfo z}lIfs ;+hfn -cfO{PgO{O{_ dfgjLo tyf ljsf; cjwf/0ff cGtu{t ;+oQm ?kdflqmofzLn /x]sf] cfktsfnLg cj:yf / åGåQ/ kgMlgdf{0f ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/ ;lglZrt ug{ !$)) JolQm tyf;F:yfut ;b:ox? /x]sf] Ps ljZjJofkL ;+hfn xf] . cfO{PgO{O{ -INEE) sf] sfo{sfl/l0f ;d"xn] o; ;+hfnsf nflu ;du|g]t[Tj / lgb]{zg k|bfg ub{5, jt{dfg sfo{sfl/0fL ;d"xdf s]o/, ls|lZrog afnaflnsf sf]if, cGt/f{li6«o p4f/ ;ldlt,;]e b lrN8«]g PnfPG;, ga]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, og]:sf], o=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=, olg;]km / ljZj a}+s 5g .Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ sfo{;d"xn] cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf, hsl8Psf ;+s6df / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdfk|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08sf] ljZjJofkL sfof{Gjogdf ;xhLs/0fsf] sfo{ ub{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08sfnflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] sfo{;d"x -;g @))%-@))*_ df cfktsfnLg cj:yf / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf nflu ljz]if1tf xfl;nu/]sf @) j6f z}lIfs ;+:yfx? /x]sf 5g; ltgLx? z}lIfs ljsf; Ps]8]dL, a]kmf/L (BEFARe), s]o/ ef/t, s]o/cd]l/sf, Sofyf]lns /fxt ;]jf, z/0ffyL{ lzIffsf nflu kmfp08]zg sf]if, kmG8s]lzog 8f]; dG8f]; (Fundacion DosMundos), lhl6h]8, cGt/f{li6«o /fxt ;ldlt, k|mfG;sf] lzIff dGqfno, gj]{lhog rr{ P8, gj]{lhog z/0ffyL{ kl/ifb, ;]e blrN8«]g cd]l/sf, og]:sf], o=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=, olg;]km, o=P;=P=cfO=8L= / ljZj a}+s 5g .@@ j6feGbf a9L ljleGg ;+3;+:yf tyf lgsfox?åf/f cfO{PgO{O{nfO{ o;sf] :yfkgfsfnb]lv g} pknAw u/fOPsf];xof]usf nflu cfef/ JoQm ub{5 . o;sf] k"0f{ ljj/0fsf nflu s[kof cfO{PgO{O{sf] j]a;fO{6 www.ineesite.org x]g{xf]nf .cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf nflu lzIff tyf kgMlgdf{0fsf ;Gbe{df ul/g] jsfnt, ;xof]u tyf sfof{Gjogsf nflu OR5sJolQm tyf ;+3;:yfsf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ vnf 5 . OR5sn] ;b:otf btf{sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf] j]a;fO{6 www.ineesite.org pkof]u ug{xf]nf . ;b:otfsf nflu sg} zNs jf ;b:otf jfkt sg} bfloTj Joxf]g{ kb}{g .yk hfgsf/Lsf nflu, cfO{PgO{O{df ;Dks{sf nflu O{d]nx?M McfO{PgO{O{ ;+hfn ;+of]hs, coordinator@ineesite.orgcfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu ;Dks{ ljGb: minimumstandards@ineesite.orgcfO{PgO{O{ (INEE)©@))$kgMdlb|tM INEE©@))^ISBN 1-58030-034-0k|ltlnlksf ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ ;/lIft ul/Psf] 5 . of] ;fdfu|L k|ltlnlk clwsf/ ;+/lIft 5 t/ z}lIfs p2]Zosf nflu sg}klg dfWodaf6 kgMdlb|t ug{ ;lsg]5 . pko{Qm ;a} k|of]usf nflu cf}krfl/s cgdlt cfjZos 5 t/ ;fdfGotofTo:tf] cgdlt t?Gt} k|bfg ul/g]5 . cGo p2]Zosf nflu k|ltlnlk lgsfNg jf sg} k|sfzgsf nflu kgM k|of]u ug{ jfcgjfb ug{ jf cgjfb :jLsf{g k|ltlnlk clwsf/ ;+/Ifsaf6 k"j{ lnlvt :jLs[lt lng clgjfo{ xg]5 .
  3. 3. Kff7s a[Gb,jsfnt, ljsf; / dfgjLotf, cfktsfn / 36gfx? jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgng]kfn -8AneLcfO{Pg_ sf k|fyldstfk|fKt If]qx? xg . h;dWo] jsfntn] hgtfnfO{vf; kl/l:ylt k|lt ;hu / ;r]t agfpgdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5 .8AnlecfO{Pgn] ljutdf sof
  4. 4. laifo ;rL kl/ro 1 cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffsf nflu Go"gtd dfkb08 1 1= ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x? 9 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf -;xeflutf / ;|f]tx?_ 12 ljZn]if0f -n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg / d"Nof+sg_ 19 kl/lzi6 !M ljZn]if0f 9fFrf 29 kl/lzi6 @M cfktsfnLg cj:Yffsf nflu of]hgf th{dfM 36gf ljZn]if0fsf nflu ;"rL 31 kl/lzi6 #M ;"rgf ;+sng / cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf k|ZgfjnL 35 2= kxFr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f 41 kl/lzi6 !M dgf]a}1flgs ;"rL 52 kl/lzi6 @M ljBfno vfgf sfo{qmd ;"rL 54 3= cWoog / cWofkg 57 4= lzIfsx? / cGo lzIffsdL{x? 69 kl/lzi6 !M cfrf/ ;+lxtf 77 5= lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo 79 cg;"rLx? 88 cg;"rL !M zAbfjnL 88 cg;"rL @M ;Gbe{u|Gy / ;|f]t ;fdfu|L 92 cg;"rL #M cfef/ 101 k[i7kf]if0f kmf/fd 1066= jN8{ lehg OG6/g]zgn g]kfnsf cfktsfnLg dfgjLo p4f/ 1077= ;kmntfsf syfx? 108n]vfhf]vf kmf/fdx? / ;"rLx?sf] yk ;fdfu|Lx? / :km]o/ (SPHERE) dfgjLo a8fkq / :km]o/ dfkb08sf]PdP;O{O{ (MSEE) ;DalGwt ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf o"=Pg=Pr=;L=cf/=sf] lzIff;DaGwL :yfgLo dfu{bz{gsfnflu s[kof http://www.ineesite.org/standards/msee.asp /÷jf MSEE l;l8/f]d x]g{xf]nf, hg cfO{PgO{Osf] {j]a;fO{6df pknAw 5 .
  5. 5. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 1 kl/ro M cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ;a} JolQm, afnaflnsf, ojf tyf jo:sx?sf] cfktsfnLg cj:Yffdf lzIffsf] clwsf/ /x]sf] tYonfO{ cfTd;ft u/L cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 Pp6f xft]kl:tsfsf] ?kdf dfq ge} k|ltj4tfsf] pb3f]if0f ;d]t xf] h;sf] ljsf; Jofks ;xsfo{sf] k|lqmof dfkm{t ePsf] 5 . o;n] :km]o/ cfof]hgfsf lgDg d"n ljZjfzx? k|ltWjlgt u/]sf] 5M sg}klg ;+s6 jf åGåsf sf/0f ;[hgf xg] dfgjLo kL8fnfO{ cGt ug{ ;a} ;+efAo pkfox? ckgfpg] / ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf nflu dof{bf;lxt hLjgsf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lglZrt ug]{ .;f/f+z ljj/0f;a} JolQmx?nfO{ lzIffsf] clwsf/ k|fKt 5 . of] clwsf/ w]/} k|s[ltsf cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw / lnvtx?dfpNn]lvt 5, h:t}M dfgj clwsf/sf] ljZjAoflk 3f]if0ffkq, -;g !($*_ – z/0ffyL{x?sf] cj:yf;DaGwL;lGw -;g !(%!_ – h]g]ef ;lGw -rf+}yf]_ sf] o4sf] ;dodf lgxTyf JolQmsf] ;+/If0f;DaGwL k|fjwfg– cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;fF:s[lts clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw -;g !(^^_, afn clwsf/;DaGwLdxf;lGw -;g !(*(_ – / ljZj lzIff kmf]/dsf] 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgf -;g @)))_ n] k|jl4{t ;a}sfnflu lzIffsf] cjwf/0ff, cflb .lzIff Ps clwsf/ dfq xf]Og ls o;n] cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fh:tf;dodf ef}lts, dgf]a}1flgs / 1fgd"ns ;+/If0f k|bfg ub{5 hg hLjg arfpg] / hLjg bLuf]agfpg] bj} ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . lzIffn] cWoogsf] ;/lIft :yfg pknAw u/fO{ hLjg bLuf]
  6. 6. 2 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08agfpgsf ;fy;fy} k|efljt JolQmx?sf] klxrfg ug]{ Ifdtf / ;xof]u ;d]t pknAw u/fpFb5-ljz]if u/L afnaflnsf tyf ao:sx?sf]_ . ;+s6sf] ;dodf lzIffn] l:y/tf, hLjgsf] ;fdfGoj:yf,;+u7g tyf eljiosf] cfzfd"vL efjgfx? phfu/ u/fO{ åGå tyf ljkbx?sf] dgf]j}1flgs k|efjclNks/0f u/fpFb5 / eljiosf] cfly{s l:y/tfsf nflu ;+/rgfTds cfwf/ tof/ kfb{5 . lzIffn]ljleGg zf]if0f tyf lj£gafwf lj?4 ljleGg dfWodåf/f ;+/If0f u/L hLjg klg arfpFb5, ;fy}yk pbfx/0fdf ckx/0f, ;z:q ;d"xdf aRrfx?sf] elt{ tyf of}ghGo tyf ln+uhGo lx+;flj?4sf];+/If0f klg k|bfg ub{5 . cGtdf, lzIffn] ;+s6sf] ;dodf s;/L afFRg] egL ;/lIft hLjg;DaGwLh:t} ljikmf]6s kbf{yx?af6 ;/Iff, PrcfO{eL P8;af6 arfj6, åGå lgjf/0f / zflGt lgdf{0f;DaGwLhfgsf/Lx? k|bfg u/L 1fg tyf zLk k|bfg ub{5 .cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf lzIffxfn}sf jif{x?df cfktsfnLg ;dodf cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] sfo{qmdx? cfjZos 5gegL r]tgfx?sf] a9f]Q/L ePsf] 5 . nfvf}+ nfv afnaflnsf, ojf tyf jo:sx? z}lIfs lgsfox?tyf /fli6«o Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo ;+:yfx?sf k|of;x?af6 nfeflGjt eO{/x]sf 5g . lzIff If]qnfO{ljz]if hf]8 lbP cg?k, bO{ dxTjk"0f{ d2fx? cuffl8 cfPsf 5gM != s;}n] klg cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ xgg gug]{ dfGotf / To:tf] lzIff dfgjLo ax;sf] dn k|jfxeGbf aflx/ /xg g;Sg] t/ dfgjLo k|ltsfo{sf] Ps k|fyldstf /xg], / @= ;+s6sf] cj:yfdf lzIffsf] nflu Go"gtd :t/sf] kxFr, u0f:t/ / pQ/bfloTj ;lglZrt ug{ Ps Jofks cfwf/;lxtsf] O{R5f / k|ltj4tf .o;}sf nflu cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf] nflu ljZjAofkL Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf; ug{ ;xhLs/0fx]t ;g @))# df Pp6f sfo{;d"x :yfkgf ul/Psf] lyof] . of] k|of; cfO{PgO{O{-INEE_ leq z?cftul/Psf] lyof] hg ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo lgsfox?, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, bftfx?, Joj;fosdL{x?,cg;Gwfgstf{x? tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf JolQmx? ;dfj]z /x]sf] vnf ;+hfn xf], h;n] ;+oQm?kdf lqmofzLn eO{ cfktsfnLg tyf åGåf]Q/ kgMlgdf{0fsf ;dodf lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ ;lglZrtub{5 . o; ;+hfn c;n cEof;x?, k4lt tyf cg;Gwfgx?sf] ;+sng / k|rf/ ug{sf nflulhDd]jf/ 5, ;fy} cfktsfnLg cj:yfåf/f kLl8t ;dbfosf] lzIffsf] clwsf/nfO{ jsfntsf] dfWodåf/fk|j4{g ug{ / o;sf ;b:ox? / ;fem]bf/x?aLr lgoldt ?kdf ;"rgfx? cfbfgk|bfg ug{ lqmofzLn5 . cfO{PgO{O{-INEE_ n] ;|f]t;fwgdf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L klg klxrfg ub{5 / o:tf ;|f]t;fwgsf]cfO{PgO{O{ ;b:o ;+:yfx?åf/f ul7t ljz]if ;d"xåf/f clej[l4 ug{ k|f]T;fxg ub{5 .
  7. 7. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 3o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|:tt ljZjAofkL dfkb08x? cfktsfnLg ;dodf lzIffsf Go"gtd dfkb08x? ljsf;ug{ Aofks tyf ;Nnfxsf/L k|lqmofaf6 cfPsf kl/0ffdx? xg . Go"gtd dfkb08sf] nflu cfO{PgO{O{sf]sfo{;d"xn] ;xhLs/0f u/L ;g @))# kZrft Aofks cfwf/;lxtsf] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf] sfo{af6 dfkb08,;"rs tyf dfub{zg{x? ljsf; u/L cfktsfnLg ;dob]lv k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f;Dd k|Tofe"ltu/fOg] lzIffsf] Go"gtd kxFr / ;Da4 Joj:yfx?nfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . o;sf] ljsf;sf dVok|lqmofut kIfx?df /fli6«o, pkIf]qLo tyf If]qLo k/fdz{x? cfO{PgO{O{sf] ln:6 ;e{ (List-Serve)af6 k|fKt cgnfO{g ;Nnfx ;dsIfL kg/fjnf]sg k|lqmofx? /x]sf lyP . k|To]s r/0fdf ;+slnthfgsf/Lx? csf]{ r/0fsf] k|lqmofsf] nflu ;"rgf lbg k|of]u ul/Psf] lyof] .%) /fi6«sf @,@%) hgf JolQmx?n] o; Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf nflu of]ubfg ug{ePsf] 5 . ;g@))$ sf] hgj/Lb]lv d] dlxgfsf] aLrdf Go"gtd dfkb08sf nflu cfO{PgO{O{ sfo{;d"xn] clk|msf,Plzof, Nofl6g cd]l/sf / dWok"j{ tyf o"/f]k u/L rf/j6f If]qLo:t/df ;Nnfx lng] sfd u/of] .o; If]qLo ;Dd]ngdf !#! k|ltlglwx? ;dfj]z lyP h;df k|efljt ;dbfo, cGt/f{li6«o tyf /fli6«ou}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx?, ;/sf/L tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;+3Lo ;+:yfsf %! b]zsf] k|ltlglwTj /x]sf] loof] .If]qLo ;Dd]ng xgcl3 k|ltlglwx? tyf cfO{PgO{O{sf ;b:ox?af6 !!) j6feGbf a9L :yfgLo,/fli6«o tyf pkIf]qLo k/fdz{ $& j6f b]zx?df ;DkGg ul/of], h;af6 ljleGg ;Nnfx ;emfj /;"rgfx? u}=;=;+=, ;/sf/L tyf o"=Pg=sf k|ltlglwx?, bftfx?, lzIffljbx? / k|efljt ;dbfosf!,()) k|ltlglwx? nufot ljwfyL{, lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x? dfkm{t ;+sng ul/of] . If]qLok/fdz{sf k|ltlglwx?n] dfkb08, ;+s]tx? tyf dfu{bz{g ljsf; ug{ /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo:t/df;Nnfx lng] sfd ug{sf ;fy;fy} If]qLo Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf nflu !)) eGbf a9L cfO{PgO{O{sf]ln:6 ;e{ (List-Serve) df k|fKt hfgsf/Lx? k|of]u ul/of] . ;dsIfL kg/fjnf]sg k|lqmof ;g @))$sf] u[idofddf ;DkGg ul/of] h;df $) hgf lj1x? ;dfj]z /x]sf lyP h;n] If]qLo dfkb08x?sf]ljZn]if0f / kl/dfh{g u/L ljZjAofkL dfkb08sf] :j?k lbPsf xg .o;/L ljsl;t ePsf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] cfwf/ afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, ;a}sf nflulzIff;DaGwL 8sf/ sfo{;+/rgf, o=Pg= ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIox? / :km]o/ cfof]hgfsf dfgjLoa8fkq xg . afn clwsf/;DaGwL dxf;lGw, ;x;|fAbL ljsf; nIo / ;a}sf nflu lzIff cleofgn]sg} klg cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 k|efljtx?sf nflu ;d]t u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf] clwsf/sf] pb3f]if0fu/]sf] 5 . o; xft]kl:tsf lzIffsf] kFxr tyf lzIffsf] clwsf/sf] Go"gtd :t/df kl/k"lt{sf] nfluul/g] k|of;x?df Ps ;fwg xg]5 .
  8. 8. 4 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08:km]o/ cfof]hgfsf] ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] nflu dfgjLo a8fkq / Go"gtd dfkb08, hg ;g !((& dfdfgjLo u}=;=;+=x?, /]8qm;, /]8 lqm;s]G6 cfGbf]ngx?åf/f hf/L ul/Psf] xf], h;n] ljkbaf6 k|efljthgtfx?n] dfgjLo ;xfotfaf6 ck]Iff ug{;Sg] clwsf/nfO{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . :km]o/ xft]kl:tsfdfdVo If]qx? vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, vfB ;/Iff, kf]if0f tyf vfB ;xof]u, SofDk Joj:yfkg,:jf:Yo ;]jf dfgjLo a8fkq tyf Go"gtd dfkb08df ;dflxt u/]sf] 5 . o;n] lzIff ;]jfsf] If]qnfO{;Daf]wg u/]sf] 5}g .of] dfgjLo a8fkq cGt/f{li6«o dfgjLo sfg"g, cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/ sfg"g, z/0ffyL{ sfg"g tyfcGt/f{li6«o /]8qm; / /]8lqm;s]G6 cleofgsf] cfrf/;+lxtf / ljkbsf] /fxtsfnflu u}=;=;+=x?sf l;4fGttyf Joj:yfx?df cfwfl/t /x]sf] 5 . a8fkqn] dfgjLo ;xfotf sfo{ ug{sf nflu cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx?sf]j0f{g ub{5 / ;s+6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] clwsf/ ;+/If0f / ;xfotf k|flKtsf] ljifonfO{ yk hf]8lbPsf] 5 . ;fy} o;df ljkb k|efljt hgtfsf] dofbf{k"0f{ hLjgsf] clwsf/nfO{ klg b[9tfk"j{s:jLsfl/Psf] 5 . of] a8fkqdf /fHo kIf tyf ljb|f]xL kIfn] ;xfotf tyf ;+/If0fsf] clwsf/ k|Tofe"ltug{kg]{ sfg"gL bfloTjx?nfO{ cf}NofOPsf] 5 . ha ;Da4 kIfx? bfloTj lgjf{x ug{ c;dy{ /÷jf c;Ifd xgkUb5g, ta ltgLx? dfgjLo ;+/If0f tyf ;xfotfsf nflu dfgjLo ;+:yfx?nfO{ cgdlt lbg afWo xG5g(www.sphereproject.org).cfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08 k|of]u ug]{ ;docfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf]Go"gtd dfkb08 cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{df k|of]u ug{ agfOPsf] xf], / of] cfktsfnLg k"j{tof/L /dfgjLo jsfntsf nflu ;d]t pkof]uL xg ;Qm5 . logLx? k|fs[lts ljkbx? / ;z:q åGåx? h:tfa[xt k|s[ltsf cj:yfdf nfu" xg ;Qm5g . o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|oQm cfktsfnLg zAb bO{ lj:t[t cy{df lnOPsf] 5M k|fs[lts ljkbx? tyf h6Ln cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?, h;sf] AofVof tn lbOPsf]5. • k|fs[lts ljkbx? eGgfn] ;fdlb|s cfFwL, 6fOkmg, e"sDk, v8]/L / af9L nufotsf ljkbx? alemG5 . s]xL k|fs[lts ljkbx? h:t} e"sDk sg} r]tfjgLlagf cfpg] / 5]p5fpsf :yfgdf a;f]af; ug]{nfO{ ulDe/ k|efj kfb{5 . cGodf h:t} v8]/L lj:tf/} ljsl;t xg ;Qm5 t/ ;dfg ?kdf ljgfzsf/L k|efj kfb{5g . • h6Ln cfktsfnLg cj:yf eGgfn] dfgjl;lh{t xG5g / w]/}h;f] åGå jf ;fdflhs czflGtaf6 l;lh{t xG5g, hg k|fs[lts ljkbaf6 3lge"t xg ;Qm5g . To:tf] cj:yfdf hgtfsf] hLjg,
  9. 9. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 5 ;/Iff, ;d[l4 / dof{bfx? w]/} ;+s6k"0f{ sf/0fx? h:t} k|fs[lts jf dfgjl;lh{t ljkb / ;z:q åGåaf6 vt/fdf kg{ ;b{5g .o; xft]kl:tsfdf /x]sf ljifoj:tx? cf1fTds k|s[ltsf xf]Ogg . ljleGg txsf -kl/jf/ tx/ ;dbfo, :yfgLo clwsf/Lx?, dGqfnosf kbflwsf/Lx?, bftf ;+:yfx?, sfof{Gjogstf{x? cflb_;fem]bf/x?åf/f of] Go"gtd dfkb08x? ljsf; ul/Psf] / ljZjdf b]lvPsf] cfktsfnLg / l56f]kgMlgdf{0fsf] jftfj/0fdf ljsl;t ePsf] xf] . cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf s;/L /fli6«o ;/sf/, cGoclwsf/L / /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yfx? cfktsfnLg l:yltdf k|ltsfo{ (Response) ubf{ lzIffsfsfo{qmdx? :yflkt ug]{ egL o; dfkb08n] dfu{bz{g pknAw u/fpFb5 . k|efljt hgtfåf/f lgwf{/0ful/Psf tTsfnLg lzIffsf] cfjZostf adf]lhd :yfgLo ;dbfox?, ;/sf/x?, cGo clwsf/Lx? tyfdfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?n] k|of]u ug{ ;sg egL of] dfkb08 tof/ kfl/Psf] xf] .;do;Ldfo; Go"gtd dfkb08df pNn]lvt ;do;Ldfsf] k|of]u clwsf+ztM kl/l:yltdf e/kb{5 . logLx? a[xtk|s[ltsf cfktsfnLg kl/l:yltdf nfu" xg ;Qm5g hg k"j{ k|ltsfo{b]lv l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f;Ddxg ;Qm5g / j[xt nlIft ju{n] k|of]u ug{ ;Qm5g . o; xft]kl:tsfdf k|oQm ;rsx? ljZjJofkL ?kdfx/]s cj:yfdf nfu" xg ;Qm}gg g t x/]s ;+efJo k|of]ustf{n] k|of]u ug{ ;Qm5g . pNn]lvt dfkb08 jf;"rsx?;DaGwL pknlAw xfl;n ug{ xKtf, dlxgf jf jiff}{ nfUg ;Qm5 . s]xL cj:yfdf Go"gtd dfkb08/ ;+s]tx?sf] pknlAw afxo ;xfotflagf klg xfFl;n xg ;S5g eg] s]xL cj:Yffx?df lzIff;Da4kbflwsf/L jf lgsfox?;Fusf] ;+oQm k|of; cfjZos klg xg ;S5 . ha lo dfkb08 jf ;"rsx? nfu"ul/G5g To;a]nf ;a} ;Da4 ;fem]bf/x? sfof{Gjog ug{ / kl/0ffd xfFl;n ug{ ;do;Ldfdf ;xdt xg h?/L5.Go"gtd dfkb08 s;/L k|of]u ug]{ <cGt/f{li6«o ;+:yf tyf u}=;=;+= x?n] w]/} yl/sf lgb]{lzsfx? / ;|f]t;fwgx? tof/kf/]sf5g h;n] lzIffsdL{x?nfO{ cfktsfnLg cj:yf tyf l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf k|of;df cWoogtyf dgf];fdflhs lqmofsnfksf ljleGg ljljw kIfx?df Jojxfl/s dfu{bz{gx? pknAwu/fO/x]sf 5g . log} ;+:yfx?sf ;fy;fy} lzIff dGqfno / lzIff If]qsf cGo kbflwsf/Lx?n] gLlttyf lgb]{zgx? ljsf; u/L u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? lgdf{0f u/L ;+rfng ub}{ cfPsf 5g . of]xft]kl:tsfn] :yfgLo :t/df sfof{Gjog ul/g] /0fgLltx? tyf sfo{qmdx? tof/ ug{ / sfof{Gjogug{ lj:t[t ljj/0f pknAw u/fPsf] 5}g . oBlk, o;n] Go"gtd dfkb08sf ljifoj:tx?, dVo
  10. 10. 6 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;"rsx? tyf dfu{bz{gx? k|:tt u/]sf] 5 h;n] z}lIfs ;Gbe{df dfgjLo sfo{sf nflu ljsf; ul/g]z}lIfs sfo{qmd, ltgsf] sfof{Gjog / lg/Gt/tfsf ;fy;fy} ;/sf/L / ;dbfosf] ;xof]usf] af/]df;d]t ;";lrt ub{5 . Go"gtd dfkb08x? kfFr k|sf/df k|:tt ul/Psf 5g . ltlgx? lgDg 5gM ;a} ju{sf nflu Go"gtd ;femf dfkb08x? M of] kl/R5]bdf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfsf] cfjZos If]qx?df k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 / o; xft]kl:tsfdf pNn]lvt dfkb08x? sfof{Gjog ubf{ :yfgLo ;|f]t;fwg k|of]u ug{kg]{ s/fsf ;fy;fy} cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x? k|fylds n]vfhf]vfdf cfwfl/t xgkg]{ hg pkoQm / lg/Gt/ cgudg Pj+ d"Nof+sg Joj:yf klg pNn]lvt 5g Ù cWoogsf] nflu kx“r / pkoQm jftfj/0f M o;df cWoogsf cj;/x? tyf cGt/If]qut cGt/;DaGwsf nflu kxFr clejl4 u/L ;xeflutfdf hf]8 lbOPsf] 5 . h:t}M :jf:Yo, vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{, vfB ;xof]u tyf kf]if0f / cfjf;sf dfWodaf6 ;/Iff, ef}lts, af}l4s ljsf; / dgf]j}1flgs ;d[l4sf] clej[l4 ug]{Ù cWoog / cWofkg M o;df k|efjsf/L cWoog / cWofkg clej[l4sf ;Id tTjx?sf] ljifodf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 M !_ kf7oqmd @_ tflnd #_ lgb]{zg / $_ n]vfhf]vf lzIfs / cGo lzIffsdL{x? M lzIff If]qsf] k|zf;g tyf Joj:yfkgdfdf sfo{/t dfgj ;|f]tsf] kIfdf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 h;df egf{ tyf 5gf}6, ;]jf zt{x? / cgudg / ;xof]usf] ljifodf pNn]lvt 5 Ù lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo M gLlt th{df / kfl/t ug]{, of]hgf tyf sfof{Gjog, cgudg / ;dGjosf ljifodf k|sfz kfl/Psf] 5 .
  11. 11. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 7 if0f–;dbfos ] lj Zn f] ; – sf] ;xeflutf kxFr tyf cWoog tyf xefl cWoogsf] cWofkg jftfj/0f utf–ljZ lzIfsx? tyf lzIff gLlt tyf lzIffsdL{x? ;dGjo fo n]i b 0f f ;d –dfkb08x? / ;"rsx?sf aLr km/sGo"gtd dfkb08x? k|efljt hgtfsf] dof{bfk"0f{ hLjgsf] clwsf/sf] l;4fGtdf cfwfl/t /x]sf]5 . logL x?n] dfgjLo ;xfotfsf] ;dodf xfFl;n ug{kg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd kxFr / cGo Joj:yfsfljifodf JofVof u/]sf] 5 . ltgLx? u0ffTds k|s[ltsf 5g / ljZjAoflk Pj+ sg} klg jftfj/0fdfsfof{Gjog of]Uo /x]sf 5g . x/]s dfkb08sf dVo ;"rsx?n] dfkb08x?sf] pknlAw xfl;n ePgePsf] ;+s]t ub{5g . ltgLx?n] dfkg ug]{ pks/0fsf] ?kdf sfo{ ug]{5g / sfo{qmdsf] k|efj -jfkl/0ffd_ x?sf ;fy;fy} k|oQm k|lqmof -jf ljlw_ x? ;+k|]if0f ug]{5g . o;df ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds bj}lsl;dsf] ljj/0f /xG5 . dVo ;"rsx? ljgfsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 c;n ljj/0f;lxtsf] 3f]if0ffafx]ss]xL xg g;Sg] xG5 h;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{ uf¥xf] xG5 . x/]s kl/R5]bdf /x]sf] dfu{bz{gx? lglZrtaFbfx?;Fu ;DalGwt /x]sf]n] ljleGg ;dodf k|of]u ubf{ Wofg lbgkg]{5 . ltgLx?n] k|fyldstf k|fKtd2fx?df / Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ ;Nnfx k|:tfljt u/]sf 5g / ljleGg låljwf, ljjfbtyf ljBdfg 1fgdf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L klg j0f{g u/]sf 5g . lglZrt dVo ;"rsx?;Fu ;DalGwtdfu{bz{gx? / To;;Fu ;Da4 ljifox? ;+s]t ul/Psf] 5 . dVo ;"rsx? ;Fw} ;Da4 dfubz{gx?;FuldnfP/ dfq cWoog ug{kg]{5 .
  12. 12. 8 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08cGt/;DalGwt d2fx?o; Go"gtd dfkb08 ljsf;sf] qmddf w]/} dxTjk"0f{ d2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ Wofg lbOPsf] 5 .logLx? dfgj tyf afn clwsf/, n}+lus, hgtfsf] ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/, PrcfO{eL P8;, ckf+utf/ ;+s6f;Ggtf;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . oL ljifoj:tx?nfO{ 566} cgR5]bdf /fVg] xf]Og ls ;DalGwtdfkb08x?df g} ;dflxt ul/Psf 5g .sfo{If]q tyf ;LldttfljleGg cgR5]bx?sf dfkb08x? 5§f5§} ?kdf k|:tt geO{ Pscsf{df cGt/;DalGwt /x]sf5g . oBlk ljZjJofkL dfkb08x? th{df ubf{ / ltgLx?nfO{ Jojxf/df nfu" ug]{ Ifdtfsf ;DaGwdfckl/xfo{ ?kdf tgfjx? /x]sf 5g . x/]s kl/l:ylt km/s 5g . To;} sf/0fn] dfkb08 th{dfsf]ljZjJofkL ljsf; k|lqmofdf dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{, lzIffljb, ;/sf/, z}lIfs kbflwsf/L, gful/s;dfh, k|efljt ;dbfo cfbLsf] If]qLo, /fli6«o / :yfgLo txdf a[xt / Jofks ;xeflutf ;lglZrtul/Psf] lyof] .s]xL pbfx/0fx?df, :yfgLo tTjx?n] Go"gtd dfkb08x? cfTd;ft u/]sf] xg;S5 t/ dVo ;"rsx?xfFl;n ug{ g;lsg] xG5 . hj o:tf] cj:yf b]vfkb{5, tj dfkb08 / ;"rssfaLr /x]sf] vf8nx?xft]kl:tsfdf pNn]v ul/Psf 5g / Jojxf/df k|of]u ubf{ b]vfk/]df cjZo JofVof ug{kg]{5 /,vf8nx? pTkGg xgfsf sf/0f / dfkb08 nIfdvL agfpgsf nflu s] kl/jt{g ug{ pkoQm xG5 eGg]s/f klg JofVof ug{kg]{5 .cfO{PgO{O{ Go"gtd dfkb08n] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ;a} ;d:ofx? ;dfwfg ub}{g oBlk o;n] dfgjLo;xfotf ;+:yfx?, ;/sf/x? / :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ z}lIfs ;xfotfsf] k|efjsfl/tf / u0f:t/ clej[l4ug{ Pp6f pks/0fsf] k|:tfj u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ ljkbaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] hLjgdf ;f/e"t km/sNofpg ;lsof]; .
  13. 13. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 9 ! ;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x? kl/ro of] kl/R5]bdf 5 j6f dVo dfkb08sf k|lqmofx?sf] ljifodf JofVof ul/Psf] 5, hg o; xft]kl:tsfsf cGo x/]s ju{x?sf cleGg c+usf ?kdf /x]sf 5g . oL dfkb08x?M !_ ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf, @_ :yfgLo ;|f]t;fwg, #_ k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf, $_ k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt, %_ cgudg / ^_ d"Nof+sg xg . ltgLx? bO{j6f pk–;d"xut zLif{sdf k|:tt ul/Psf 5g, klxnf] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf -;xeflutf / ;|f]t;fwg_ / bf];|f] ljZn]if0f -n]vfhf]vf, k|ltsfo{, cgudg / d"Nof+sg_ xf] . oxfF pNn]lvt dfkb08x? sfof{Gjog u/L dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x? / ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] kxFr / cWoogsf] jftfj/0f, cWoog / cWofkg, lzIfs / cGo lzIffsdL{x?, lzIff gLlt / ;dGjosf If]qx?sf dfkb08x?nfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{5g .cGt/f{li6«o sfg"gL pks/0fx?;“usf] ;DaGwk|To]snfO{ dof{bf;lxtsf] hLjgsf] clwsf/ xg5 / ltgLx?sf] lzIffsf] clwsf/ ;lxtsf] dfgj ]clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg ul/g]5 . cGt/f{li6«o dfgj clwsf/, dfgjLo tyf z/0ffyL{;DaGwL sfg"gdf pNn]vePadf]lhd dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?n] dfgj clwsf/;Fu / ;xeflutfsf] clwsf/, e]befj gxg]clwsf/ / ;"rgfsf] clwsf/;Fu tfbfDotf sfod xg] u/L ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ lhDd]jf/L xg5 . ]:km]o/ cfof]hgfsf] dfgjLo a8fkq, cGt/f{li6«o /]8qm;sf] cfrf/;+lxtf, /]8lqm;s]G6 cfGbf]ng, dfgjLo/fxtsf nflu u}=;=;+= / dfgjLo ;xfotfsf ;+:yfx?n] cfFkm} ;xfotf vf]Hg]nfO{ pQ/bfoL agfpg] lhDdflng]5g . ;femf dfkb08x?n] ;+:yfx? tyf JolQmx?n] k|bfg ug]{ z}lIfs ;xfotfsf nflu lhDd]jf/Lx?sf]/]vf+sg u/]sf] 5 .
  14. 14. 10 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08;a} ju{sf nflu ;femf Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf] dxTj;DalGwt k|fljlws v08 k9g cl3 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf / ljZn]if0fsf] o; v08 k9g h?/L / dxTjk"0f{xg5 . oL v08x?df ;a} Go"gtd dfkb08x?sf nflu d"ne"t kIfx?sf] ;dli6 vfsf sf]l/Psf] xgfn] ]of] k|f;+lus 5 . cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] ;a} r/0fx?sf nflu lzIff;DaGwL tYof+sx?sf] ;+sng /ljZn]if0f dxTjk"0f{ 5 . of]hgfx? agfpg / k|ToIf ;|ft;fwgx? Jojl:yt ug{ ;+s6 z?xbfsf] ;dodf ] Fg} ;|ft;fwg, cfjZostf / ck"0f{ cfjZostfx? klxrfg ug}{ kb{5 . ]cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ;+rfng ul/g] k|efjsf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? kl/l:yltsf] :ki6tfsf cfwf/dfdfq lgwf{/0f u/L ljkb–k|efljt ;dbfosf] cfjZostf k"/f ug]{ vfnsf] xgkb{5 . k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfn] cfkTsfnLg 36gfsf] k|sl[ t / o;n] hgtfnfO{ kf/]sf] k|efj ljZn]if0f ugkb{5 . k|efljt ;dbfosf] {Ifdtfx? / :yfgLo ;|ft;fwgsf] pknAwtf klxrfg ugkg]5 / ;f]xL ;dodf ltgLx?sf] cfjZostf ] { {/ ;+s6f;Ggtfsf] cfFsng u/L cTofjZos ;]jfdf /x]sf ck"0f{tf klg cfFsng ul/g]5 . sfo{qmdx?sf]k|efjsfl/tf ;lglZrt ug{ ;+rfng ul/g] z}lIfs n]vfhf]vfsf nflu ;+s6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] clgjfo{;xeflutf dfq xf]Og ls :yfgLo ;/sf/ / lzIff tyf u}/–lzIffdf ;+nUg dfgjLo ;xfotfsdL{x?nfO{;d]t ;xefuL u/fpg kg]5 . n]vfhf]vfn] ljleGg k|sl[ tsf ;dbfosf nflu cf}krfl/s / cgf}krfl/s {bj} lzIffsf ;DaGwdf ljrf/ k¥ofpg} kb{5 . lzIffnfO{ cGo If]qaf6 cnu /fv]/ x]g{ ;lsFbg cyf{t }cy{zf:q, wfld{s jf k/D/fut ljZjf;, ;fdflhs cEof;, /fhg}lts jf ;/Iff;Da4 tTjx?, ;dfgug]{ ;+oGq jf eljiosf nflu ck]lIft ljsf;af6 cnUu} /fVg ;lsb}g . ;+s6sf sf/0f / k|efjx?sf]ljZn]if0f sfo{ h6Ln 5 . obL ;d:of ;xL tj/n] klxrfg ePg / alemPg eg] pkoQm tj/n] k|ltsfo{ug{ sl7gfO{ xG5 .k|ltsfo{ w]/} tTjx?df lge{/ ub{5, h:t} ;xfotfsdL{x?s]f Ifdtf, ljz]if1ftfsf] If]q-x?_, cfly{s;Lldttf, :yfg / cj:yfsf] 1fg, / sd{rf/L tyf l;sf?sf nflu ;/Iff hf]lvd . s;n], slxn], s]ug]{ egL :ki6 hfgsf/L lbg o; xft]kl :tsfdf k|ltsfo{sf dfkb08x? lj:t[t ?kdf tof/ kfl/Psf] 5 .ha pkoQm k|ltsfo{ ;+oGq lgwf{/0f ul/G5, nlIft ;+oGqx? :yflkt ul/G5 To;n] g} ;xfotfsdL{x?nfO{cfjZostfg?k lgikIf tyf ljgfe]befj ;xfotf ljt/0f ug{ ;xh xG5 .p2]Zog?k lg/Gt/ ?kdf k|ult dfkg ug{ ;"rgfsf] ;+sng / ljZn]if0fsf nflu k|lqmofsf] z?cftd}cgudg k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ugkg]5 / h;af6 sfo{qmdsf] ;fGble{stfx? efjL kl/j]zdf lg/Gt/ hfFlrg] {5 . k|ltsfo{sf] ;dodf jf ;f]sf] ;dflKt kZrft d"Nof+sg sfo{ sfo{qmdsf] cjlw cg;f/ aLraLrdflg/Gt/ ?kdf ugkg]5 / sfo{qmdsf] ;du| k|efjsfl/tf tyf l;lsPsf kf7x? klxrfg ugkg]5 h;af6 { { { {
  15. 15. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 11eljiodf To:t} k|sl[ tsf sfo{qmdx?df ;wf/ xg;Sg]5 . ;DalGwt ;fem]bf/x? tyf l;Sg] JolQmx?nfO{d"Nof+sg k|lqmofdf ;lqmo ?kdf ;xefuL u/fpgkg]5 . d"Nof+sg tyf cgudgsf k|lqmofx?, ljifoj:tx? {/ kl/0ffdx? o;df ;+nUg ePsfsf] ;/Iffdf ;+emf}tf gu/L kf/bzL{ xg5g / nfeflGjt ;dbfo tyf cGo ];/f]sf/jfnfx?nfO{ Jofks?kdf ljt/0f ul/g]5 . s]xL cj:Yffx?df ;"rgfx? /fhgLlts jf ;fdflhs;fF:s[lts sf/0fn] ;+jbgzLn xG5g, t;y{ ;+ul| xt tYof+s jf hfgsf/Lx? thljhLk"0f{ tj/n] pkof]u ]ug}kb{5 . {cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf k|efjsf/L z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;+s6 k|efljt ;dbfosf] af/]df a[xt hfgsf/Ldf /sfo{qmdsf] tof/L r/0fdf g} ltgLx?sf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t xG5 . ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf zAbn]k|lqmof / lqmofsnfkx? banfO{ hgfpFb5 h;n] k|efljt ;dbfosf] ;b:ox?sf] cfjfh ;gfpg cgdlt }lbG5, lg0f{o lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf cleGg c+usf] ?kdf ;+nUg u/fpg ;zQm kfb{5 / z}lIfs d2fx?df k|ToIflg0f{o ug{ ;an kfb{5 . w]/} tx / dfqfdf ;xeflutf xg;Qm5 -k|ltsfTds ;xeflutf, ;Nnfxsf/L /k"0f{ ;xeflutf_ . o;df k"0f{ ;xeflutfsf] k|flKt cfktsfnLg kl/l:ytdf w]/h;f] uf¥xf] xG5 hxfF ;Nnfx }lbg cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] lzIffsf nflu nlIft xG5 / k"0f{ ;xeflutf g} p2]Zo /xG5 .cgejx?n] b]vfPcg;f/ k|tLs ;xeflutf Pp6f lal;{Psf] cj;/ xf] / bLuf] Pj+ u0f:t/Lo sfo{qmdJoj:yfsf nflu of] ck|efjsf/L 5 . ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf ;b:o / ;+s6af6 k|efljt ;dbfosf ;b:osf]n]vfhf]vf, of]hgf thdf, sfof{Gjog, Joj:yfkg / k|ltsfo{sf] cgudgdf ;xeflutfnfO{ clej[l4 {ugkb{5 h;n] ljkb k|ltsfo{sf] pkoQmtf, k|efjsfl/tf / u0f:t/Lotf ;lglZrt ug{ ;sf]; . ;dbfosf] {;lqmo ;xeflutfn] ;dbfodf cfwfl/t lzIffsf d2fx? / /0fgLltxx?nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;Daf]wgug{ ;xh kfb{5 . cltl/Qm ?kdf ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfn] :yfgLo ;|ft;fwgsf] klxrfg u/L ;dbfoleq ]kl/rfng ug{ /0fgLlts p2]Zo k"lt{ ugsf ;fy;y} z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf nflu ;xdlt / ;xof]usf] lgdf{0f {;d]t ub{5 . ;dbflos ;xeflutfn] oyfy{ / bLuf] ;zlQms/0f Pj+ Ifdtf ljsf;nfO{ ;dfj]z ug}{ kb{5,/ :yfgLo txsf k|of;x?nfO{ ;d]t dhat agfpg} kb{5 .1fg tyf ;"rgfsf] k|ltsfo{df ;+nUg ;a}sfaLr Jojl:yt cfbfgk|bfg xg cTofjZos /x]sf] 5h;n] ;d:ofsf] ;femf aemfO{ / lgsfosfaLr k|efjsf/L ;dGjo :yflkt ub{5 . tYof+s ;+sng Pj+ljZn]if0f ug]{ ljlzli6s[t k|0ffnLsf] k|j4{g ul/g]5 . o;af6 ;"rgfx? ;an ?kdf clen]vLs/0f,cfbfgk|bfg / ljt/0f xg5 . ]
  16. 16. 12 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 Go"gtd dfkb08x? M logLx?sf] u0ffTds k|sl[ tsf] xg5g / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf Joj:yfx?sf] ] Go"gtd pknlAwsf] :t/ lgwf{l/t xg5g . ] dVo ;"rsx? M logLx? ;+stx? xg h;n] dfkb08x? k/f eP jf gePsf] b]vfpFb5g . ] logLx?n] sfo{qmd / o;df k|of]u ul/Psf k|lqmof jf ljlwx?n] kf/]sf k|efj jf kl/0ffdx?sf] dfkg / ;+rf/ ug]{ pkfo b]vfpF5 . oL ;rsx? ;+VofTds jf u0ffTds xg ;Qm5g . dfu{bz{g M o;df ljleGg cj:yfx?df slxn] dfkb08 / ;rsx? k|of]u ug],{ Jojxfl/s ;d:of ;dfwgfy{ pkfox? / k|fyldstf k|fKt d2fx?sf ljifodf ;Nnfxh:tf Wofg lbgkg]{ vf; abfx? F ;dfj]z /x]sf 5g . ltgLx?df h6Ln dfkb08 jf ;"rs ;Da4 h6Ln d2fx? / låljwf, ljjfbx? jf jt{dfg 1fgsf ck"0f{ kIfx?sf] JofVof ;dfj]z 5 . cg;rL @ df 5flgPsf ;Gbe{ u|Gyx? " pNn]lvt 5g, h;n] ;fdfGo ljifox? / vf; k|fljlws ljifosf ;"rgfsf ;|ftx? k|i6ofPsf 5g . ] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ ;xeflutf ;|ftx? ] cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? / cGo ;b:ox? ;lqmotfk"js lzIffsf { cWoogsf lqmofsnfkx? sfof{Gjog sfo{qmdx?sf] cfFsng, of]hgf ug{ :yfgLo ;|ftx? klxrfg, ] thdf, sfof{Gjog, cgudg / { d"Nof+sgdf ;xefuL xg] . kl/rfng / k|of]u ug]{ . cg;rL @ M ;Gbe{ u|Gy / ;|ft ;xfotf ;fdfu|L " ] ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf v08
  17. 17. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 13 ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf;DaGwL dfkb08 !M ;xeflutf cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfosf ;b:ox? ;lqmotfk"js lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] cfFsng, of]hgf { thdf, sfof{Gjog, cgudg / d"Nof+sgdf ;xefuL xg] . {dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { lzIffsf lqmofsnfksf] k|fyldsLs/0f Pj+ of]hgf tof/ ug{ cfktsfnaf6 k|efljt ;dbfoaf6 rlgPsf k|ltlglwx? ;xefuL /x]sf / lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ;lglZrt /x]sf] . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–% x]gxf]nf_ { afnaflnsf / ojfx? klg z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? ljsf; / sfof{Gjogdf ;xefuL ePsf] . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ x]gxf]nf_ { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tyf ltgsf] ah]6sf] ;fdflhs k/LIf0fsf] nflu ;fj{hlgs a}7sx? u/]sf] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & x]gxf]nf_ { afnaflnsf tyf ojfx?;lxt ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sf] nflu z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? Joj:yfkg ug{ tflnd tyf Ifdtf ljsf;sf cj;/x? pknAw /x]sf] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * x]gxf]nf_ { dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?df ;dbfosf] k|ltlglwTjM ;a} Go"gtd dfkb08x?df pNn]lvt ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] ;dbfosf] lzIffsf] cfjZostf lgwf{/0f / ;Daf]wg ug{ :yflkt ;ldltnfO{ hgfpF5 h;df cleefjs /÷jf cleefjs lzIfssf] ;+3, :yfgLo lgsfox?, gful/s ;dfhsf] ;+:yfx?, ;fdbflos ;+:yfx? / ojf tyf dlxnfsf ;d"x, lzIfs / l;Sg] JolQmx? jf cGo ;Da4sf k|ltlglwx? -hxfF pkoQm xG5_ /xG5g . ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf pk;ldltx? xg ;Sg]5 h;sf ;b:ox? o;sf] ;+/rgfdf klg k|ltlglwTj ug]5g . s]xL pbfx/0fx?df { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? Pp6f lzIff sfo{qmdsf nflu lhDd]jf/ /xg]5g eg] sg} If]qdf eg] s]xL lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? /xg]5g . cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ljsf; Pj+ Joj:yfkg ug{sf] nflu kl/jf/, ;dbfo tyf ljBfnosf] ;DaGwx? cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf dftflktf jf cleefjsx?sf dfWodaf6 ;an agfOg]5 . kl/jf/, ;dbfo / ljBfnosf] ;DaGwx?sf] ;+/rgfx? ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofaf6 ljsf; ul/g]5 . of] k|lqmof ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?, cleefjs, lzIfs ;+3 cflbsf ;fy;fy}
  18. 18. 14 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 :yfgLo kl/l:ylt / ;d:ofx? -aRrfsf] g]tTjdf /x]sf] 3/_ ;Fu ;fdgf ug{ ljz]if pkfox?df [ klg ckgfOg]5 . ;dbfodf cfwfl/t k|lqmofn] ;+/rgfx? -olb klxn] g} :yflkt ePsf 5}gg eg]_ lgdf{0f ug{ d2t ug]5g / :yfgLo ;+:s[lt tyf z}lIfs dfGotfx?nfO{ kfngf ug]{ jt{dfg { ;+/rgfx? ;an agfpg]5 / :yfgLo hWg] ;+oGq -;+s6;Fu_ klg kl/is[t xgkg]5 . ]{ @= ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?M o;sf] k|ltlglwTj ;dfj]zL xgkb{5, ;xeflutf xgkg]{ ;d"x / ;+:yfx?df :yfgLo u}=;=;+=x?, wfld{s ;+:yfx?, k/Dk/fut g]tfx?, ljz]if z}lIfs cfjZostf ePsf ;d"xx?, ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?, dlxnf tyf aflnsfx?, hftLo ;d"x Pj+ ljleGg pd]/;d"xx? / cGo kb{5g . k|ltlglwx? k|hftflGqs k4ltaf6 rlgg kb{5 . kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0fdf ;fdbflos lzIff ;d"x a}wflgs ?kdf dfGotf k|fKt xgkb{5 / cf}krfl/s ;+:yfsf] ?kdf sfo{ ug{ sfg"gL ?kdf btf{ ugkb{5 . hxfF pxL sfo{ lhDd]jf/Lsf;fy klxn] g} :yflkt { ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? lqmofzLn /x]sf 5g, To:tf] ;ldltx?nfO{ ckgfO{ ;dfgfGt/ ;+:yfx? agfpg xbg . F} ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? ;dfj]zL / ;Gtlnt xgkb{5 Pj+ k|efljt ;dbfosf] ljljlwtf emlNsg] u/L n}l+ us, pd]/, hftLo, wfld{s / ;fdflhs ;+/rgfx?sf cnfjf cGo kIf;d]t ;dfj]z u/fpg kb{5 . dlxnf tyf aflnsfx?nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ dxTjk"0f{ eP cg?k ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?df ltgLx?nfO{ ljsf;sf] ;dfg ;fem]bf/ agfO{ ;dtf ;lglZrt / clej[l4 ul/g kb{5 . #= e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx?M ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf ;b:ox?sf] e"ldsf tyf lhDd]jf/Lx? :ki6 kl/eflift xgkb{5 / ;dbfonfO{ x/avt pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . o;df cGo s/fsf { cltl/Qm b]xfo s/fx? ;dfj]z xg;Qm5g M ljleGg rf;f]x?sf d2f;DaGwdf lgoldt a}7s / lg0f{ox? ug],{ a}7ssf] lg0f{ox?, ;dbfosf] cfly{s / lhlG; ;xof]u ljj/0f kl:tsfdf pNn]v ug],{ ;fF:s[lts ?kn] pkoQm k4ltx? pknAw u/fpg] -h:t}M nrsk"0f{ ljBfno ;fl/0fL, ;dbfosf] ;Gbe{ emNsfpg] z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf kf7oqmd / ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sf] ;xeflutf, cflb_, / ;dbfo;Fu ;+rf/ ug],{ lzIffsf sfo{qmd /÷jf /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo clwsf/Lx? dfkm{t ;dbfosf ;b:ox?sfaLr c;n ;DaGw ljsf; $= z}lIfs k|ltsfo{x? tof/ ubf{ ;dbfosf] ;xeflutfM ;a} ;/sf/L tyf u}/ ;/sf/L lgsfox? lzIffsf k|ltsfo{x? tof/ kfbf{ ;xdt xgkg]5 / ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ug{ {
  19. 19. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 15 sfo{ljlwx? lgdf{0f ugkg]5 . oL sfo{ljlwx? k|yd lbgb]lv g} tTsfnLg k|ltsfo{sf] Ps cleGg { { c+u xg5 / o;df ;xeflutfd"ns ljlwx?sf] pkof]u b]xfosf] s/f l56f] :yfkgf ug]{ s/f ] ;dflxt xgkg]5M { ljleGg pk–;d"xx? -afnaflnsf, ojf tyf k|f9x?_ sf] tTsfnLg z}lIfs cfjZostfx?, } pknAw dfgjLo Ifdtf / ;do, ;fy} cfly{s tf ef}lts ;|ft;fwgx?, ] ljleGg pk–;d"xx?sf ;fy} eflifs ;d"xx?aLrsf] zlQmsf] ultzLntf, ;/Iffsf] ;Lldttf, lzIffsf Joj:yfx?sf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx?, / hLjg arfpg] ;Da4 z}lIfs ;"rgfx? cfktsfnLg /fxtsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfx?df PsLs[t ug]{ /0fgLltx? . -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL % k[i7 @$ tyf lzIff;DaGwL gLlt tyf ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 @$ klg x]gxf]nf _ . {%= :yfgLo lzIff sfo{of]hgfM ;dbfo / ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltn] k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f ug{ ;Qm5 / z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tNnf]txsf] ;fwf/0f dflg;sf] ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofåf/f of]hgf lgdf{0f k|lqmofsf] lgwf{/0f u/L ljz]if u/L ;+s6f;Gg ;d"x / ;+s6af6 k|efljt hgtfsf] cfjZostfx?, rf;f] / d"Nox?nfO{ of]hgfdf k|ltljlDjt ul/gkb{5 . o; of]hgf k|lqmofsf] kl/0ffd ;dbfodf cfwfl/s lzIff sfo{of]hgf xf] . o; of]hgfn] cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s lzIff ;]jf tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] u0f:t/ a9fpg Pp6f vfsf k|bfg ub{5 . lzIff sfo{of]hgfn] w]/} p2]Zox? af]ssf] xG5, hg lgDgadf]lhd 5g t/ o;df dfq ;Lldt 5}ggM ] ljleGg lqmofsnfkx?, ;"rs tyf nIfx?sf] dfWodaf6 cWoogsf] ;+efljt jftfj/0f o:tf] k|sf/sf] xgkb{5 egL ;xsdL{x?sfaLr Ps ;femf b[li6sf]0f ljsf; ug]{ . ;xsdL{x?sfaLr cWoogsf] jftfj/0fsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;ljwfx?sf] ;wf/sf nflu k|fyldstfx? lgwf{/0f ug{ ;xdlt / ;femf k|ltj4tf lgdf{0f ug]{ . of]hgfdf lgwf{l/t nIox? xfFl;n ug{ sfo{of]hgfdf :ki6 ?kdf ljleGg ;/f]sf/jfnfx?sf sfo{ / lhDd]jf/Lx? tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlw leq k"/f xg] u/L pNn]v ug]{ . :yfgLo lzIff sfo{of]hgfx?df ;a} ;fe]mbf/x? nufot ;xfotf k|bfg ug]{ lgsfox?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx? tyf cGo lzIff sfo{qmd ;+rfnsx?sf aLr ;xlqmofTds e"ldsfx? lgwf{/0f xgkb{5 . ;dbfosf] Jofks ;xeflutfnfO{ bLuf] agfpg ;+nUgtfsf] ;F:s[lt lgdf{0f u/L
  20. 20. 16 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 d2t ug{ / ;dbfon] lg/Gt/ cgudg tyf n]vfhf]vf ug]{ sfo{ ;lglZrttfsf nflu sfo{of]hgfx?df cfrf/;+lxtf ;dfj]z xgkb{5 . o;df cGo ljleGg If]qx? h:t}M of]hgf lgdf{0f, afnaflnsfsf] ;+/If0f, aflnsf, dlxnf tyf ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xsf JolQmx?sf] ;xeflutf, k|j4{g cWoog tyf cWofkgsf lqmofsnfkx?sf] sfof{Gjog, cgudg, ;|ft kl/rfng, sd{rf/L ] egf{ tyf tflnd, k"jf{wf/ ljsf; / dd{t;+ef/, ;Da4 afxo;+:yfaLr ;dGjo tyf :jf:Yo, ;/;kmfO{, vfg]kfgL Pj+ kf]if0fsf pkoQm :yfgdf PsLs[t ug]{ pkoQm Joj:yf kb{5g . ;a} ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ ;"rgfsf] kxFr /x]sf] 5 eGg] s/f dxTjk"0f{ xg5 h;n] ltgLx?nfO{ ] ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltnfO{ z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? s;/L k|efjsf/L tj/n] Joj:yfkg ug]{ egL ;Nnfx lbg ;Qm5g -lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 &# / lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 @ k[i7 *$ klg x]gxf]nf_ { ^= z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx?df afnaflnsfsf] ;xeflutfM afnclwsf/;DaGwL ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo + dxf;GwLsf] wf/f !@ n] ojfj:yfsf] lhDd]jf/L lgldQ tof/L xg afnaflnsfnfO{ ltgLx?sf] cfkmg} hLjgnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ ljifodf egfO{ /fVg] clwsf/ k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . of] wf/f cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf ;fy} hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0fsfndf klg nfu" xG5 . ljBfyL{x?÷lzsf?x?, ljz]if u/L ojf / jo:sx?nfO{ ltgLx?nfO{ k|bfg ul/g] lzIffsf] k|0ffnLut Joj:yfsf] ljsf; / Joj:yfkgdf ;xefuL u/fOgkb{5 . afnaflnsfx?nfO{ ljleGg cEof;x?df clgjfo{ ?kdf k|lzlIft ug}kb{5 h;n] ltgLx? cfkm}nfO{ / cGo afnaflnsfnfO{ ;dbfoleq { ;/lIft /fVg ;Qm5g . tflndn] ltgLx? /rgfTds ?kdf ;xeflu xg ;sg / ;sf/fTds kl/jt{gsf] z?cft ug{ ;sg egL hf]8 lbgkb{5, h:t}M ljBfnosf lqmofsnfkx? ;wfg{ ;Nnfx lbg] jf cWoogsf] jftfj/0fleq /x]sf zf]if0fx?sf] ljifodf hfgsf/L lbg] jf arfj6 ug]{ -kxrF tyf l;sfOsf] jftfj/0f dfkb08 @ k[i7 $* / lzIfs tyf cGo lzIffsdL{sf;DaGwL dfkb08 # k[i7 &% klg x]gxf]nf_ . cfktsfndf cfOkg]{ sfo{x? -h:t}M afnaflnsf tyf ojfx?sf nflu { dgf]/GhgfTds lqmofsnfk_ ug{ ojf ;dbfo ljz]if u/L ljBfno ghfg]nfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg ;lsG5 hg ;dbfosf nflu dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf xG5g . o;n] gsf/fTds k|efjx? h:t} ck/fw, ;z:q ;d"x cflbsf] lj?4df ltgLx?nfO{ ;sf/fTds ljsNkx? k|bfg ub{5 . &= ;fdflhs k/LIf0fx? z}lIfs sfo{qmdsf] ;dbfodf cfwfl/t d"Nof+sg xg . tL k/LIf0fx? dfgjLo, cfly{s tyf ef}lts ;|ftx?sf] cfk"lt{, cem} s] cfjZos 5 egL klxrfg ug{ ] / oyfy{df s] pknAw 5 egL cfFsng ug{ ;+rfng ul/G5 / o;n] cGo kIfx?sf ;fy} sfo{qmdsf] k|efjsfl/tfsf] klg cgudg ub{5 .
  21. 21. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 17 ;fdflhs k/LIf0fx? ;+s6sf] z?d} jf dWo r/0fd} ;+rfng ug{ ;Fw} ;+ej gxg ;Qm5 . oBlk ha ;+s6 :yL/ cj:yfdf /xG5 -h:t} nfdf] ;dosf hsl8Psf ;+s6 jf l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] r/0f_ To:tf] ;dodf ;fdflhs k/LIf0fn] ;dbfox?sf nflu cfkmg} lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? cem k|efjsf/L ?kn] cgudg ug]{ Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ cj;/ pknAw u/fpFb5 -ljZn]if0f dfkb08 $ k[i7 @^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { *= Ifdtf ljsf;M k|of{ Kt / pkoQm tflnd jf ;Nnfx lagf ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? cfkmgf] k|fljlws Ifdtfaf6 Joj:yfkg u5{g jf :jfldTj u|x0f u5{g egL ck]Iff ug{ ;xL xbg . tflnd sfo{qmdx?n] ;dbfosf] Ifdtf Pj+ tflndsf cfjZostfx? klxrfg ug]{ / F} ltgLx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ tl/sf klg cfFsng ugkb{5 . ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltsf] Ifdtf { ljsf;sf] cltl/Qm, pknAw xg] ;xof]usf] u0f:t/ tyf bLuf]kgfsf nflu lzIffsf sfo{qmdx?n] ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ z}lIfs lqmofsnfksf sfo{df ;xefuL u/fpg] / tflnd lbg kb{5 . ;dbfosf] ;xeflutf;DaGwL dfkb08 @M ;|ft ] :yfgLo ;dbfosf ;|ftx? klxrfg, kl/rfng / k|of]u u/L lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? / cGo cWoogsf ] cj;/x? sfof{Gjog ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ;dbfox?, lzIffsdL{x? / l;sf?x?n] ;dbfoleq /x]sf lzIffsf ;|ftx? klxrfg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g ] l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { ;dbfodf /x]sf ;|ftx? lzIffsf] kxr, ;+/If0f / u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? lgldQ kl/rfng ] F ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @–# x]gxf]nf_ . { ;fe]mbf/x?n] ;dbfox?sf] IfdtfnfO{ dfGotf lbg] / ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg]5g, ;fy} lzIffsf sfo{qmdx? tof/L ubf{ :yfgLo ;Lkx? / Ifdtfsf] cej[l4d"ns pkof]u ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% x]gxf]nf_ . {
  22. 22. 18 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != ;fdbflos ;|ftx? eGgfn] ;dfhdf /x]sf dfgjLo, af}l4s, cfly{s jf ef}lts ;|ftx?nfO{ ] ] hgfpFb5 . ;|ft kl/rfngnfO{ cWoogsf] jftfj/0f ;b9Ls/0f ug{ cfa4 ugkg]5 . o;df ] [ { { ef}lts jftfj/0f -h:t}M ljBfnosf] lgdf{0f, dd{t;Def/df ef}lts / >dsf] of]ubfg_ / af}l4s Pj+ efjgfTds jftfj/0f -h:t} lzIfs jf ;xhstf{sf nflu dgf];fdflhs ;xof]u jf ;+/If0fsf d2fx?nfO{ ;Daf]wg_ kg{ ;Qm5g . kf/blz{tf / pQ/bfloTj clej[l4 lgldQ clen]vx? /flvg]5 -kxFr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @–# k[i7 $*–%) klg x]gxf]nf_ . { @= kxr / ;/Iffsf] clej[l4 M ;dbfosf ;b:ox?nfO{ ;+s6f;Gg ;dxleqsf afnaflnsfnfO{ F d2t ug{ ;do / ;|ft k|bfg ug{ kl/rfng ul/g]5, h;af6 ljBfnodf egf{ eO{ lgoldt ] k7gkf7g xg5, h:t} dlxnf jf ojf ;d"xsf] k|of;åf/f u/Lj kl/jf/sf afnaflnsfsf nflu ] pkoQm nufx? lbg] jf aRrfn] g]tTj u/]sf] kl/jf/nfO{ vfBfGg lbg] . dlxnfn] aflnsfx?sf] [ ljBfnodf pkl:yltsf] nflu sIff ;xof]uL, lg?T;flxt ultljlwsf lj?4 ;/Iff k|bfg u/]/ Pj+ ;dbfosf ;b:ox?n] cfjZos kg]{ afnaflnsfnfO{ ljBfno;Dd k¥ofpg] / 3/ kmsf{pg] sfo{ u/]/ ;xof]u k¥ofpg ;Qm5g -kxr tyf cWoogsf] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 @–# k[i7 F $*–%) klg x]gxf]nf_ . { #= bLuf]kgf lgdf{0f M ;dbfox?nfO{ nfdf] ;dosf nflu cWoogsf] jftfj/0f Joj:yfkg ug{, ;|ft kl/rfng / Joj:yfkg ug{ tyf bLuf]kgf -;]jfx?sf] dd{t;+ef/, ;+s6f;Gg ljBfyL{x?sf] ] ;xeflutf ;lglZrt ug{ ljz]if pkfox? ckgfpg_ sf nflu tflnd ;lxt e"ldsf / lhDd]jf/Lx? lbgkg]5 . { $= ;dbfosf] of]ubfgnfO{ dfGotf M bftfx?nfO{ lbOg] k|ltj]bgdf ;dbfosf of]ubfgx?sf] ;+VofTds / u0ffTds ;"rgfx? ;dflji6 /x]sf] xgkb{5 . ;zQm ;dbfosf] of]ubfgx? ;"rsd"ns k|ltj4tfsf] ?kdf phfu/ xg ;Sg]5g / sfo{qmdx?sf] bLuf]kgf k|flKt xgkb{5 . %= :yfgLo Ifdtf M ;+s6sf] ;dodf x:tIf]k jf sfof{Gjog ubf{ ;xeflutfn] hgtfsf] dof{bf / cfzfsf] efjnfO{ ;b9 agfpg kb{5 . sfo{qmdx? tof/ kfbf{ :yfgLo Ifdtfsf] cfwf/ bl/nf] [ xg] / hgtfsf] cfFkmg} hWg;Sg] /0fgLltx?nfO{ gh/cGbfh gug]{ xgkb{5 .
  23. 23. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 19 ljZn]if0f dfkb08 ! dfkb08 @ dfkb08 # dfkb08 $k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt cgudg d"Nof+sg PsLs[t / z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ;a} ;fe]mbf/x?n] cEof;x? kl/dfh{g ;xeflutfd"ns nflu ;d:ofsf] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf ug{sf nflu z}lIfs k|lqmofåf/f :ki6 ljj/0f lqmofsnfkx? tyf k|ltsfo{sf] Jojl:yt cfktsfnLg ;lxtsf] sfo{ut k|efljt ;dbfosf Pj+ lgikIf d"Nof+sg ljsl;t xb} cfPsf F cj:yfsf] z}lIfs /0fgLltx? pNn]lvt ug]{ / pQ/bfloTj cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf ug]{ Ps 9fFrf ljsf; lgoldt ?kdf clej[l4 ug]{ ug]{ . cgudg ug]{ . kl/lzi6 ! n]vfhf]vf 9fFrf kl/lzi6 @ cfktsfndf of]hgf M cj:yf ljZn]if0f ;"rL kl/lzi6 # ;"rgf ;+sng Pj+ cfjZostf klxrfg kmf/fd cg;rL @ M " ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L tyf ;|ft ;fdfu|L ljZn]if0f v08 ]
  24. 24. 20 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ljZn]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !M k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vf PsLs[t / ;xeflutfd"ns k|lqmofåf/f cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] z}lIfs n]vfhf]vf ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { zflGt ;/Iff / ;/lIft cj:yfsf] ljrf/ u/]/ Ps k|f/lDes b|t z}lIfs n]vfhfvf hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] ;DkGg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–# klg x]gxf]nf_ . { tYof+ssf] cfjZostfx? klxrfg u/L ;+sng ug{ Pj+ ;"rsx?sf] ljsf;, JofVof / kl/dfh{g ug{ tyf ;"rgf Joj:yfkg / k|rf/k|;f/ ug{ dVo ;fe]mbf/x? ;xefuL xg5g . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–% ] klg x]gxf]nf_ . { cfktsfnLg k|efljt If]qx?sf] nflu ljleGg tx / k|sf/sf lzIffsf s] s:tf cfjZostfx? 5g tyf ;|ftx? ;DaGwL Ps k"0f{ n]vfhf]vf sfo{ dVo ;/f]sf/afnfx?sf] ;xeflutf ;DkGg ugkb{5 ] { / lgoldt ?kdf cBfjlws ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { { lzIff cGt/ ljifout n]vfhf]vfsf] Ps c+u xf] h;n] k|efljt hgtfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;]jf;ljwfx? lgwf{/0f ug{ /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / ;/Iffsf] jftfj/0f hg;f+lVos ljt/0f tyf pknAw ;|ft ;DaGwL ;"rgf ;+sng ub{5 . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . ] { n]vfhf]vfn] ljBfyL{x?sf] ;+/If0fdf b]lvPsf jt{dfg jf ;+efljt rgf}ltx?sf] ljZn]if0f ub{5 . o:tf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ rgf}ltx?, ;+s6f;Ggtf / Ifdtfx?;DaGwL rgf}ltx?sf] Jojl:yt hf]lvd n]vfhf]vf dfWodsf] k|of]u ugkb{5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL & klg x]gxf]nf_ . { { cfktsfnLg cj:yf cfpgeGbf cufl8 / cfktsfnLg ;dodf cWoog tyf lzIffsf :yfgLo Ifdtfx?, ;|ftx? tyf /0fgLltx? klxrfg ul/g]5 . ] n]vfhf]vfaf6 lzIffsf] p2]Zox? / pkoQmtf;DaGwL :yfgLo dgf]efjx? / k|fyldstf k|fKt z}lIfs cfjZostf tyf lqmofsnfkx? klxrfg xg5 . ] n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? tyf lzIffsf tYof+sx? e08f/0f ug]{ k4lt ljsf; u/L cfbfgk|bfgsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * klg x]gxf]nf_ . {
  25. 25. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 21dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx?!= n]vfhf]vf ug]{ ;dodf n]vfhf]vf ug]{ 6f]nL / k|efljt ;dbfosf] ;/Iff / ;/lIft cj:yfnfO{ Wofg lbgkb{5 . hxfF kxrsf] ;d:of 5, To:tf] ;dodf j}slNks /0fgLltx? vf]hL u/L låtLo F ;|ftx? h:t} :yfgLo g]tTj / ;dbfosf] ;+hfn k|of]u ugkb{5 . hFxf vnf kxrsf] ;+efjgf ] [ { F 5, ToxfF k|f/lDes :t/d} n]vfhf]vf ug{ lj:t[t tYof+s / ;"rgf ;+sng Joj:yfsf] pkNnf] :t/sf] k|of; xgkb{5 . n]vfhf]vf cgudg tyf d"Nof+sg tYof+s, sfo{qmdsf] pknlAw tyf ;Lldttfsf] cWoog tyf ;"rgf / ck0f{ cfjZostfx?sf cfwf/df lgoldt -sDtLdf q}dfl;s ?kdf_ cBfjlws xgkb{5 . @= tYof+s ;+sng tyf n]vfhf]vf of]hgfa4 ?kdf xgkb{5 / of] sfo{ z}lIfs cfjZostf, Ifdtf, ;|ft / ck"0f{tfx? olsg ug{ ;+rfng ul/g]5 . ;a} k|sl[ tsf lzIff / :yfgx? ;d]6g] u/L ] ;du| n]vfhf]vf sfo{ oyf;+ej l56f]eGbf l56f] ;DkGg ul/g kb{5 t/ o;n] tTsfn} ugkg]{{ sfo{sf nflu cf+lzs n]vfhf]vf ug{ zL3| tof/Ldf 9LnfO{ ugxbg . ljleGg lzIff k|bfosx?sf] { F } :ynut e|d0fnfO{ ;dGjo ugkg]5 / oyf;+ej cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{df ;+nUg sd{rf/Lx?n] { { k¥ofO/x]sf] ;]jfsf] Wofg e+u gxg] u/L ugkg]5 . { { u0ffTds tyf ;+VofTds n]vfhf]vfsf pks/0fx? cGt/f{li6«o dfkb08x?;Fu, ;a}sf nflu lzIff / clwsf/df clwsf/ dfu{bz{gdf tfbfDotf sfod ug]{ vfnsf] xgkb{5 . o;n] ljZjAofkL k|of;x?nfO{ :yfgLo ;dbfo;Fu hf]8g d2t ub{5 / :yfgLo :t/ b]lv ljZjAofkL 9fFrfx? / ;rsx?sf s8Lx?sf] k|j4{g ub{5 . cGt/lgsfo txdf kl/of]hgfx?sf] ;dGjodf ;xhLs/0f ug{ / ;"rgf ljt/0fstf{sf] dfu 36fpg /fHout ?kdf tYof+s ;+sng kmf/fdx? :t/Los/0f ugkg]5 . oL kmf/fdx?df :yfgLo pQ/bftf jf ;dbfon] dxTjk"0f{ 7fg]sf cltl/Qm ;"rgfx? { { yk ug{sf] nflu;d]t vfnL 7fpF pknAw xgkg]5 . { dfgjLo k|ltsfo{df sg} klg k|sf/sf] tYof+s ;+sng ug{ g}lts dfGotfx? ckl/xfo{ 5g . sg} klg p2]Zosf nflu ;+slnt ul/g] ;rgf jf cgudg, n]vfhf]vf jf ;e]If0fx?n] hgtfnfO{ { hf]lvddf kfg{ ;Qm5 lsgls ;+slnt ;"rgfsf] ;+jbgzLn k|sl[ t dfq xf]Og ls k|lqmofdf ] ;+nUg ePsf] cfwf/df ;d]t hgtf nlIft xg ;SQ5 jf hf]lvddf kg{ ;Qm5g . dof{bfsf cfwf/e"t l;4fGtx?, sg} xfgL gug]{ / e]befj/lxt h:tf dfGotfx? ;Fw} x[bodf /fVg clgjfo{ 5 / ;"rgfbftfx?sf] clwsf/sf] ljifodf ltgLx?nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpg] / ;+/If0f ug]{ lhDd]jf/L klg ;+snsx?sf] /x]sf] 5 . ;+/If0f Ps k|fyldstfM dfgjLo ;xfotfsf nflu tYof+s ;+sngdf ;+/If0fnfO{ cfTd;ft ug]{ dfu{bz{g kl:tsf;Fu cfj4 cg;rL @ k[i7 (@ df lbOPsf " ljZn]if0fsf ;|ft;fdfu|Lx? x]gxf]nf . ] {
  26. 26. 22 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 #= ljZn]if0fsf] ljlwx?M k"jf{ux 36fpgsf nflu axkIfLo ;|ftx?af6 k|fKt ;"rgfx? ljZn]if0f u/L | ] lgrf]8 lgsfNg cl3 lqkIfLo sf]0faf6 x]gkb{5 . lqmkIfLo sf]0f tYof+s ;+sng / ljZn]if0fdf { /x]sf låcyL{ jf vlK6Psf ;"rgfx? dfkgug]{ Ps ldl>t ljlwsf ;fy;fy} u0f:t/Lo ;"rgfsf] ljsf; Pj+ ;lglZrttf xfFl;n ug{sf] nflu ljleGg wf/0ffut kf6fx? ;dflji6 kIf klg xf] . afxo dgf]efj jf k|fyldstfx?df dfq cfwfl/t xg] k|stlsf] dfgjLo k|ltsfo{nfO{ kl/Tofu [ ug{ :yfgLo dgf]efjx? ;d]t ljZn]if0fdf ;dfj]z xG5g . $= ;/f]sf/jfnfx?df k|efljt ;dbfosf ;d"x-x?_ dWo]af6 hlt;Sbf] w]/} JolQmx? ;dfj]z ugkb{5 . tYof+s Pj+ ;"rgf ;+sng, ljZn]if0f, ;"rgf Joj:yfkg tyf ljt/0fdf ;/f]sf/ { afnfx?sf] ;xeflutf k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfsf] ;dodf kl/l:yltut sf/0faf6 ;Lldt xg;Qm5, t/ kl5Nnf ;dodf n]vfhf]vf, cgudg tyf d"Nof+sgdf clej[l4 ugkb{5 . { %= n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? hlt;Sbf] rfF8f] pknAw u/fpg kb{5 tfls lqmofsnfkx? of]hgfa4 xg ;S5g . ;+s6 k"jsf] tYof+s / ;+s6 kZrftsf] n]vfhf]vfx? h;n] z}lIfs cfjZostfx? { / ;|ftx? -h:t}M clwsf/Lx?, u}=;=;+=x?, dfgjLo ;dbfo leqsf ljlzli6s[t ;+:yfx? / ] :yfgLo ;dbfoaf6_ tof/L xfntdf ;a} lqmofzLn ;fem]bf/x?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg kg]5 . of] { ljz]if u/L cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf :ynut kxr gePsf lqmofzLn ;fe]mbf/x?s]f nflu F pkof]uL xG5 . ^= ;fdfGo cfktsfnLg n]vfhf]vfx? ubf{ cfktsfnLg ;d"xdf z}lIfs tyf afn ;+/If0fsf cfjZostf tyf ;|ftx?;DaGwL tYof+s ;+sng Ps lzIffljb jf afn ;+/If0f lj1 ;dfj]z ] u/fpgkb{5 . ljleGg lgsfox?n] lo lqmofsnfkx? ;+rfng ubf{ ;fwg;|ftx?, sd{rf/L Joj:yf ] / ;f+u7lgs Ifdtfsf] k|ltj4tf hgfpg kb{5 . &= hf]lvd ljZn]if0fM ljleGg kl/l:ytn] afnaflnsf tyf ojfsf] :jf:Yo tyf ;/Iffdf kfg{;Sg] k|efjx?sf] ;a} kIfx?df ljrf/ k/ofpg dxTjk"0f{ xg5, hxfF lzIffn] ;+/If0ffTds /÷jf ] hf]lvdd"ns k|efjx? l;h{gf ug{;Qm5 . n]vfhf]vfdf hf]lvdsf] ;"rL jf hf]lvdsf] vfsf klg ;dfj]z ugkb{5, h;df lgDg ljj/0fx? ;dfj]z ugkb{5M ljleGg pd]/ ;d"x / ;+sf6;Gg { { ;dxsf jftfj/0fLo tyf k|fs[lts k|sf]kx?;Fu hf]l8Psf hf]lvdk"0f{ tTjx?, hldgdf /x]sf ljikmf]6s tyf gkl8Psf ljikmf]6s kbfy{x?, ejg / k"jf{wf/x?sf] ;/Iff, afn ;+/If0f / ;/Iff, zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s :jf:Yosf rgf}ltx?, lzIfsx?sf] of]Uotf;DaGwL ;d:ofx?, ljBfyL{ egf{;Vof tyf kf7oqmd, / cGo ;Da4 ;"rgfx? -gdgfsf nflu hf]lvd vfsfsf] + PdP;O{O{ l;l8/f]d (MSEE CD-ROM) x]gxf]nf_ . {
  27. 27. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 23 n]vfhf]vf sfo{n] k|fs[lts jf cGo k|sl[ tsf] k|lts"n k|efjx? /f]syfd, clNks/0f Pj+ cfktsfnLg ;dosf sfo{x? -k"jtof/L, k|ltsfo{, kgMlgdf{0f / kgM:yfkgf_ sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ { hf]lvd Joj:yfkg /0fgLltx? pNn]v ugkb{5 . o;sf nflu s]xL kl/l:yltx?df cfktsfnLg { cj:yfaf6 hf]lug jf k|ltsfo{ ug{ x/]s z}lIfs ;+:yfx?df ljBfno / lzIffno e}k/L tyf ;/Iff of]hgf xg cfjZos 5 . cfjZos k/]df k|To]s z}lIfs s]Gb|n] ;DefAo hf]lvd :ki6 b]lvg] / ;+s6f;GgnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ tTjx? k|sfz kfl/Psf] Ps hf]lvd gS;f tof/ ugkg]5 . { { *= n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx? cfbfgk|bfgM o;nfO{ :yfgLo / /fli6«o txdf ;Da4 lgsfox? åf/f ;dGjo xgkg]5 . obL ;dGjo ug{sf nflu bIf kbflwsf/Lx? jf lgsfox? pknAw 5}gg { eg] ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo dfgjLo dfldnfsf] sfof{no (UNOCHA) nfO{ ;dGjo Pj+ ;"rgfx? + cfbfgk|bfg ug]{ ;+oGqsf] nflu g]tTj k|:tfj ugkg]5 . n]vfhf]vfsf] kl/0ffdx?sf] cfbfgk|bfg [ { { ubf{ tYof+sLo 9fFrfsf] ;6Ls kl/ro / ;a} ;/f]sf/afnfx?n] tYof+ssf] kl/0ffd pkof]u ug{ ;Sg] k|sl[ tsf] xgkb{5 -lzIff gLlt / ;dGjo;DaGwL dfkb08 # k[i7 *^ klg x]gxf]nf_ . { ljZn]if0f dfkb08 @M k|ltsfo{ /0fgLlt z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf nflu ;d:ofsf] :ki6 ljj/0f ;lxtsf] sfo{ut /0fgLltx? pNn]lvt Ps 9fFrf ljsf; ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfwf/e"t tYof+sx? sfo{qmdsf] z?cftd} Jojl:yt ?kdf ;+slnt ul/g]5 . cfktsfnLg z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf /0fgLltx?n] ;du| tYof+sx?sf] :ki6 ljj/0f k|ltljlDat ug]5 { -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . { z}lIfs k|ltsfo{n] afnaflnsf, ojf tyf ;du| ;dbfodf kfg]{ k|efjx?sf] cgudg ug{ j}wflgs a]~rdfs{ (Benchmark) tyf ;"rsx? klxrfg ul/g]5 . k|f/lDes n]vfhf]vfsf qmddf ;+slnt ;"rgfx? gofF tYof+sx?åf/f cBfjlws ul/g]5 h;n] rfn" sfo{qmdsf] ljsf;;DaGwdf ;"lrt ub{5 . -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . { z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ /0fgLltx?n] ;+s6f;Gg /x]sf JolQm jf ljz]if z}lIfs cfjZostfx? ePsf, afnaflnsf / ojfx?sf] ;/Iff / ;d[l4nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg]5 . ;dfj]zL / u0f:t/Lo lzIffsf nflu z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ /0fgLltx?n] ;+s6 k|efljt hgtfsf cfjZostfx? pGgt tj/n] k"lt{ ug]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL $–^ x]gxf]nf_ . { {
  28. 28. 24 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != k|ltsfo{sf k|:tfjx?n] o;df pNn]lvt Go"gtd dfkb08x? k/f ug{ cTofjZos lqmofsnfksf nflu /sd cgdfg / k|of{Kt cfly{s ;|ftsf] Joj:yf ;lglZrt ugkg]5 . k|:tfjx?df s:tf] ] { { z}lIfs lqmofsnfk sg :yfgdf ;+rfng xg nfu]sf] xf], klxrfg ePsf cfjZostfx?sf nflu ljleGg tx / k|sf/sf lzIffx?n] slt xb;Dd ;d]6g] xf] ;f]sf] cfFsng / afFsL cfjZostfx? k"/f ug{sf nflu cGo ;+u7gx? k|lta4 /x]sf] s/f ;d]t O{lu+t ugkg]5 olb lzIffsf] jf:tljs { { dfu klxn] b]lvPsf] eGbf w]/} dfqfdf ePdf ;f] k"/f ug{sf] nflu nrstfsf] oyf;+ej hlt;Sbf] w]/} xgkb{5 . ljleGg tx / k|sl[ tsf cfktsfnLg z}lIfs vr{x? lgwf{/0f ubf{ ;+:yfx?sf aLr } bLuf]kgf / Ps?ktf clej[l4 xg] k|of;x? ul/g]5 . -h:t} tnj ;ljwf, ;fwgx?df, cflb_ @= tYof+s ;+nsg tyf ljZn]if0fsf nflu Ifdtf ljsf;M cfwf/e"t tYof+s ;+sng, ljZn]if0f / cgudg Pj+ d"Nof+sg sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ k|:tfjx?df vf;df /fli6«o sd{rf/Lsf] Ifdtf ljsf; kIf ;dfj]z xgkb{5 . of] ljifonfO{ k|:tfj k|lqmofdf w]/h;f] k"0f{?kn] Wofg lbO+bg . } } {} #= /0fgLltx? cBfjlws ug]M{ cfktsfnLg / l56f] kgMlgdf{0fsf] ;dodf k|ltsfo{sf k|:tfjx? sDtLdf q}dfl;s ?kdf kg/fjnf]sg / cBfjlws ul/g]5 . To;df xfn;Dd k|fKt ePsf pknlAwx?, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf cfPsf] kl/jt{gx? / k/f gePsf cfjZostfx?sf] tfhf cfFsngx? k|:tt ugkg]5 . cfjZostfg;f/ o;sf] nIf eg] u0f:t/ / cf]u6g] If]qsf] { { pGgtzLn ;wf/sf ;fy;fy} bL3{sfnLg bLuf]kgf;Fu ;DalGwt xgkb{5 . $= bftfx?sf] k|ltsfo{M bftfx?n] lgoldt ?kdf cfktsfnLg k|ltsfo{n] cf]u6]sf] If]q / u0f:t/ bjsf] lgoldt ;dLIff ugkg]5 h;df ;s+6f;Gg ;dbfosf ljBfyL{ jf k|lzIffyL{x?sf] } { { egf{ tyf lgoldttf ;d]t kb{5g . ltlgx?n] ljleGg cfktsfn k|efljt If]qx?df z}lIfs cj;/x?sf] kxrsf] k|Tofelt ;lglZrt ugkg]5 . z/0ffyL{ jf cfGtl/s ?kdf lj:yflkt F { { hg;+Vofn] Go"gtd dfkb08 adf]lhd lzIff kfpg ;sg egL sf]if -/sd_ x? k|bfg ugkg]5 { { -kxr tyf cWoogs] jftfj/0f;DaGwL dfkb08 !, dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL * klg x]gxf]nf_ . F { %= /fli6«o sfo{qmdx?sf] ;b9Ls/0fM ljz]if u/L lj:yflkt gePsf hgtfsf nflu kgMlgdf{0f [ r/0fdf cfktsfnLg z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ubf{ Ps?ktf xg] u/L / /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo lzIffsf of]hgf, k|zf;g, Joj:yfkg tyf lzIfssf] ;]jfsfnLg tflnd tyf ;xof]usf If]qsf /fli6«o z}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;b9 xgu/L of]hgf agfpg kg]5 . [ ] { ^= ;+:yfut sfof{bzsf ;Lldttfx?af6 dlQmM ;Lldt sfof{bz ePsf -h:t} afnaflnsfsf ] ] nflu dfq sfof{bz ePsf, jf z/0ffyL{ / ltgLx?sf] ;kmn kmLlt{sf nflu dfq_ ;xfotfd"ns ]
  29. 29. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 25 ;+:yffx?n] ;/sf/L jf a[xt sfof{bz ePsf ;+:yfx?;Fu cleGg c+usf] ?kdf ;+oQm ?kn] ] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{ ugkg]5 h;af6 ;a} z}lIfs cfjZostfx? k"/f xg ;sg . k|To]s k|efljt { { If]qsf z}lIfs /0fgLltx?n] aRrfx?sf] z}zjsfnLg ljsf;sf cfjZostfx?sf ;fy;fy} ojfx?sf] dfWolds, pRr Pj+ k|fljlws lzIffsf] cfjZostf, lzIfsx?sf] ;]jfsfnLg tflnd / pkoQm j}slNks lzIffsf] klg Joj:yf ugkg]5 . z}lIfs ljsf;sf /0fgLltx?n] hg If]qsf { { z/0ffyL{x?n] ;]jf k|fKt ul//x]sf 5g, ltgLx?n] nfdf] ;dofjlwsf] ;xfotf sfo{qmdx? ljsf; ugkg]5, h;df dfgjLo ;+:yfx?n] ug]{ ;xof]u tf]lsPsf] ;do ;lxtsf] xg;Qm5 -h:t}M { { z/0ffyL{x?sf] k|f/lDes kgMPsLs/0f / :jb]z kmLlt{df ;xof]u_ . ljZn]if0f dfkb08 #M cgudg ;Da4 ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n] z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf lqmofsnfkx? tyf k|efljt ;dbfosf ljsl;t xb} F cfPsf cfjZostfx? lgoldt ?kdf cgudg ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { cfktsfnLg cj:yfx?sf] lg/Gt/ cgudg ug]{ k4lt / k|lqmofut x:tIf]kx? :yflkt 5g / sfof{Gjog e}/x]sf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL !–@ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { ;a} k|efljt ;dbfox?sf] dlxnf, k?if, afnaflnsf tyf ojf;Fu lgoldt k/fdz{ lnOPsf] / cgudg lqmofsnfkx?df ;xefuL u/fOPsf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL @ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { lzIffsf tYof+sx? Jojl:yt / lgoldt ?kdf ;+sng, cfwf/e"t txsf] ;"rgfaf6 z? ul/Psf] / tTkZrft xg] kl/jt{g tyf k|jl[ Qx? cgudg eO/x]sf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL #–$ x]gxf]nf_ . ] { tYof+sx? e/kbf]{ / ljZn]if0fx? k|dfl0ftof]Uo Pj+ ljZj;gLo 5g egL ;lglZrt ug{ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ tYof+s ;+sngsf] ljlwx? af/]df k|lzlIft ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL % x]gxf]nf_ . { k"jl{ gwf{l/t lgoldt cGt/fndf lzIffsf ;"rgfx? ljZn]if0f ePsf] / ;fem]bf/x?aLr cfbfgk|bfg ePsf] xg5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . ] { gofF k|jl[ Qx? k|ltlalDat ug{ / ;";l" rt lg0f{o lgdf{0f k|lqmofnfO{ cgldt lbg k[i7kf]if0fsf cfwf/df cgudgsf k4lt tyf tYofs e08f/0fx? lgoldt ?kdf cBfjlws ug]{ . kl/jt{gx?, gofF k|jl[ Qx?, cfjZostfx? tyf ;|ftx? klxrfg ug]{ ;"rgfx? lzIff sfo{qmdsf ] Joj:yfksx?nfO{ lgoldt ?kdf pknAw u/fpg] . cfjZos ePdf cgudgsf glthf adf]lhd sfo{qmdx?df ;dfof]hg ug]{ .
  30. 30. 26 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != cgudg M hgtfsf kl/jlt{t z}lIfs cfjZostfx?sf ;fy;fy} hjfkmb]xLd"ns / ;d:of;Fu ;DalGwt hf/L sfo{qmdx?n] sg sg xb;Dd tL cfjZostfx? k/f ul//x]sf 5g / ;wf/sf ;+efjgfx?sf] hfgsf/L lng] ljifodf cgudgn] JoQm ugkg]5 . ;a} tYof+sx? Ps} { { /kmtf/df ;+sng ug{ cfjZos xg] 5}g . t;y{ tYof+s ;+sng of]hgfdf cfjZostfdf cfwfl/t eO{ slt k6s;Dd sg k|sl[ tsf tYof+sx? ;+sng ug]{ egL lg0f{ox? ;dfj]z xG5, / tYof+s ;+sng / k|zf]wgsf nflu vkt xg] ;|ft;fwgsf] dfqf ;d]t pNn]v xG5 . dfu ] tyf ;d:ofx? ;rsx? -h:t}M egf{ ;+Vof, ljBfno 5f]8g]sf] ;+Vof, ljBfno cfpg cl3 vfgf vfP gvfPsf], lstfjx?sf] ;+Vof, lzIf0f ;fdfu|L tyf kf7o;fdfu|Ls]f pknAwtf cflb_ sf dfWodaf6 tTsfn hfgsf/L lbO{ w]/} k|sl[ tsf ;"rgfx? gdgfsf] ?kdf ljBfnox? / lzIffsf cGo sfo{qmdx?af6 ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5 . ljBfno 5f]8g] afnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof / kgM egf{ xg grfxgsf] sf/0f jf ?h xflh/ gxgsf] sf/0fx? klg ;fgf] gdgfsf] ?kdf 5flgPsf] :yfgsf] 3/kl/jf/;Fuaf6 lngsf ;fy;fy} ;dbfosf ;d"x;Fu a}7s u/L cgudg ug{ ;lsG5 . @= cgudgdf hgtfsf] ;+nUgtf M k|efljt hgtfsf ;a} ;d"xx?af6 ;fF:s[lts ?kn] :jLsfo{ tj/df ;"rgf ;+sng ug{ ;Sg] AolQmnfO{ ;dfj]z u/fpg kb{5, ljz]if u/L n}lu+s / eflifs bIftf /fVg]nfO{ . :yfgLo ;fF:s[lts cEof; cg?k dlxnf jf cNk;+Vos ;dbfosf] ;d"x;Fu 566} k/fdz{ ugkg]{ klg xg ;S5 h;sf nflu ;dfhaf6 :jLsfo{ JolQm 5fGgkb{5 . { #= lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnL M cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf klg cj?4 ePsf] xg;Qm5 . cfwf/e"t tYof+s ;+sng / ;fdGo k|zf]wg Joj:yfnfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy kgM;+rfng Joj:yf ;/sf/L lgsfox?nfO{ cGt/ lgsfo ;dGjo / ;xof]u dfkm{t ldnfpg kb{5 . pknAw ;"rgfx?sf] ;+sng, Joj:yfkg, JofVof, sfof{Gjog, ljsf; jf cfbfgk|bfg ug{sf nflu :yflkt /fli6«o lzIff Joj:yfkg ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] kgM:yfkgf jf ljsf; ug{ Ifdtf ljsf; / /fli6«o, If]qLo / :yfgLo txdf ;|ftx? cfjZos xg;Qm5 . cfktsfndf of] sfo{ rfF8f]eGbf ] rfF8f] z?cft ul/xfNg kb{5, h;sf] nIo l56f] kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf cgudg k4lt sfdofj /xg xg5 . z}lIfs ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Ps h6Lntd kIf eg]sf] o;;Fu ldNbf] ;km6j]o/sf] ] pknAwtf xf] . /fli6«o / lhNnftxsf lzIffsf sfof{no jf lzIffsf cGo ;x–If]qx? -h:t} /fli6«o tflnd ;+:yfx?_ df k/s ;km6j]o/ (Software) pknAw xg ;Qm5 h;n] ldNbf]hNbf] tYof+s k|0ffnLsf] h8fg u/L ;"rgfsf] cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;xh tNofpg ;Qm5 . $= ljBfyL{x?sf] cgudg ;+efjgf cg;f/ k9fO{ 5f]8L;s]kl5 jf k9fO{ ;lsPkl5 ugkg]5 . cgudgn] ;fIf/tf / ;f+VosLo bIftf Pj+ ;fIf/tf kZrft kf7o;fdfu|Lsf] kxrnfO{ { { F
  31. 31. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 27 ;dfj]z ugkb{5 . k|fljlws lzIffsf nflu ul/g] cgudgdf /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/x?sf] pknAwtf { / k"j{ tflnd lnPsfx?n] u/]sf] k|fljlws zLksf] pkof]ux? ;DaGwL cfFs8f cWoog jf sg} sd{rf/Låf/f vf]hL ug]{ ljlwsf] k|of]u ugkg]5 . sfo{qmd ;dflKt kZrftsf] cgudgn] gofF { { sfo{qmd tof/ ug{ dxTjk"0f{ k[i7kf]if0f k|bfg ub{5 . -cWoog tyf cWofkgsf dfkb08x? $ k[i7 ^* klg x]gxf]nf_ . { %= tYof+ssf] j}wflgstfM ;a} ljZn]if0fx?n] b]xfosf] JofVof lnlkj4 u/]sf] xgkb{5M !_ ;"rssf] kl/efiff @_ tYof+ssf] ;|ft #_ ;+sng ljlw $_ ;"rgf ;+sns / %_ tYof+s ljZn]if0f ] sfo{ljlw . tYof+ssf] k|zf;g, ;+sng jf ljZn]if0f sfo{df sg} clgoldttf ;[hgf ePsf] eP Tof] klg pNn]v xgkb{5 . ;"rgfbftfx?n] ;|ft clej[l4 -h:t} egf{;Vof jf pkl:yltsf] cfFs8fdf ] a9f]Q/L_ lgldQ jf sg} cf/f]kaf6 aRg tYof+sx? a+ufPsf] xg ;S5 . tYof+ssf] j}wflgstfnfO{ a9fpg sd{rf/Lsf] tflnddf c3f]lift cgudg e|d0f xg] gLlt klg hfgsf/L u/fpg kg]5 . { ljZn]if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 $M d"Nof+sg pQ/bfloTj clej[l4 / cEof;x? kl/dfh{g ug{sf nflu z}lIfs k|ltsfo{sf] Jojl:yt / lgikIf d"Nof+sg ug]{ .dVo ;"rsx? -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL;“u ;dGjo u/]/ cWoog ugkg]_ { { ;du| k|ltsfo{sf /0fgLltx?, ljlzi6 z}lIfs Pj+ afn ;+/If0fsf p2]Zox? tyf Go"gtdg dfkb08x?sf] cfwf/df sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf gLlt, sfo{qmd / kl/0ffdx?sf] d"Nof+sg pkoQm cGt/fndf ;DkGg ug]{ -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL ! x]gxf]nf_ . { nfu" ul/Psf sfo{qmdaf6 k/]sf] cgk]lIft k|efjsf ljifodf ;"rgf vf]Hg] . ;a} ;/f]sf/jfnfx? Pj+ k|efljtf hgtf tyf ;a} If]qut ;xsdL{x?af6 ;"rgf ;+sng kf/bzL{ / lgikIf tl/sfaf6 ul/g]5 . d"Nof+sg lqmofsnfkdf ;a} ;fem]bf/x?M ;LdflGts[t ;d"xx?, ;fdbflos lzIff ;ldltx?, lzIffsf /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo kbflwsf/Lx?, lzIfs tyf ljBfyL{x?nfO{ ;dflxt ul/g]5 . c;n cEof;x? tyf l;lsPsf kf7x? /fli6«o, :yfgLo tyf dfgjLo ;dbfosf aLr Aofks ?kdf cfbfg k|bfg ul/g]5 / cfktsfnLg cj:yfsf] kl5Nnf] r/0fdf /fli6«o tyf ljZjAofkL lzIffsf nIox?df of]Ubfg k¥ofpg jsfnt, sfo{qmd tyf gLltx?df pkof]u ul/g]5 -dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fL # x]gxf]nf_ . {
  32. 32. 28 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 dfu{bz{g l6Kk0fLx? != d"Nof+sgx?n] u0ffTds tyf ;+VofTds bj} k|sl[ tsf tYof+sx? ;+sng u/L PsLs[t :j?k k|bfg ugkg]5 . . ;+VofTds tYof+sn] ;Gbe{ cg;f/sf] ;"rgf lbg / ;+slnt tYof+sLo { { ;"rgfsf] JofVof ug{ d2t ub{5 . u0ffTds tYof+sx? cGtjftf{, cjnf]sg e|d0f / lnvtx?sf dfWodaf6 ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5; u0ffTds tYof+s ;e]If0f tyf k|ZgfjnLsf dfWodaf6 { ;+sng ug{ ;lsG5, d"Nof+sgn] dfgjLo, ef}lts tyf cfly{s nufgL, ljBfyL{sf] kxr, F lg/Gt/tf, ;dfj]zL tyf ;+/If0f, cWoog / cWofkg k|lqmofx?, cWoogsf] dfGotf / k|dfl0fs/0f, efjL lzIff / /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? / ;dbfodf kg]{ k|efjx?;DaGwL k"0f{ n]vfhf]vf k|:tt ugkg]5 . { { @= d"NofÍgåf/f Ifdtf ljsf; M d"NofÍg cjwf/0ffx? nfu" u/fpg, d"NofÍg 9fFrf / k|lqmofx?sf] ;xeflutfTds cfwf/df ljsf; ug{ / gtLhfsf] ;+oQm ?kdf ;dLIff Pj+ JofVof ug{ d"NofÍg ah]6n] ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu sfo{zfnf -uf]i7L_ ug]{ Joj:yf ;d]t ;dfj]z ugkg]5 . o;n] ltlgx?nfO{ eljiodf æ:jfldTjÆ sfnflu ;}4flGts cfwf/ ljsf; ug{ { { Pj+ ;emfjx?sf] sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u ug{;Qm5 . cfof]hgfaf6 nfeflGjt xgx?n] h:t} ] lzIfsx? tyf cGo lzIffsdL{x?n] cfkm"n] ef]usf Jojxfl/s sl7gfOx? / lglZrt ;emfjx?sf] ] kl/0ffd:j?k ;fdgf ugkg]{ sl7gfOx? ;d]t pNn]v ug{ ;Qm5g . { #= glthfx? Pj+ l;lsPsf kf7x?sf] cfbfgk|bfg M ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ljt/0f ug{ ;lsg] k|sl[ tsf ;"rgfx? k|ltj]bgsf] k|yd v08df ;dfj]z ug{ d"NofÍgstf{x?nfO{ cg/f]w ugkg]5 / uf]Ko jf { { cfGtl/s k|sl[ tsf glthfx? Aofks ?kdf ljt/0f gxg] u/L bf];f| ] v08df k|:tt ugkg]5 . { {
  33. 33. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 29;a} cfwf/x?sf nflu Go"gtd ;femf dfkb08x? Mkl/lzi6x?kl/lzi6–! ;+/If0f -zfl//Ls, sfg"gL / ef}lts_/dfgj clwsf//sfg"sf] zf;g ;dbfosf] hg;+Vof, lj:yflkt, a]kQf / pd]/ / ln+usf] ljt/0f cflb_ hg;f+lVos -hDdf hg;+Vof, vf; ;+s6f;Gg ;d"x, cf>o lbg] d[Tob/-h:t}M ln+u / pd]/sf] ljljwtf;lxtsf] n}+lus_ ;xeflutf ?U0ftf (Morbidity) kf]if0f l:ylt k|fylds :jf:Yo, cf>o Ifdtf tyf ;+s6f;Ggtfx?sf] ljZn]if0fdf ef8fFdf kf]if0f tyf vfOg] :ynsf] :j:y ;/;kmfO{sf] kfgL cf];fg]{ dgf];fdflhs ;]jfdf vfgf pknAwtf Jojxf/x? tx 7fpF;Dd kxFr kxFr kof{Kttf vfB ;/Iff :jf:Yo, kf]if0f tyf dgf];fdflhs ;]jfdf kxFrsf] sfo{;Dkfbg 3/kl/jf/x?sf] cfly{s lzIff ;fdflhs tyf c;dfgtfx? l:ylt tyf ahf/sf] ;fF:s[lts cj:yf ;Gbe{ /fli6«o ;Gbe{ /fli6«o ahf/x? /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, P]ltxfl;s, o;sf] ;+rfng -/ To;af6 afxo ;/sf/sf] Ifdtf, k"jf{wf/, k|0ffnLx?, ;xfotfsf nflu dfu 36fpg]_ jf e"uf]n, df};d, k|fs[lts k|sf]kx?, cGt/f{li6«o csfof{Tds ;+:yfx?, cflb .sg} lglZrt hg;+Vofsf] ;femf cfjZostfx? aemg] p2]Zosf] nflu 5nkmn / ljZn]if0fsf]cfwf/sf] ?kdf lng n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrf k|of]u ul/G5 . o; ljZn]if0fn] k|df0f / lg0f{onfO{ hf]8b5 . of] n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrfn] ljleGg ljljwtfx?nfO{ ;d]6b5 hg cfFkm}df cfjZostfsf] ?kdf geO{ rf;f];Da4egfO{sf d4fx? xg . ljleGg cfwf/x?aLrsf] sf/0f–sfo{;DaGwdf ;Nnfx lbFbf o; 9fFrfn] :ki6;Fuo;df ;Nnfx lbFbg / n]vfhf]vf ;d"xsf nflu ;xof]u ug{ yk cf}hf/x? j[l4 ug{ cfjZos 5 . To:tf] }cf}hf/x? ljsf; gxGh]n;Dd ;d"xn] sf/0f–sfo{;DaGw AofVof s;/L ug]{ egL cfFkm} 5fGg ;Qm5 . o;9fFrfn] ;+s6df k|fyldsLs/0f u/L dfgjLo k|ltsfo{ of]hgf agfpg] nIfsf] nflu ;"rgf cfbfgk|bfg ug{Ps ;dfg / kf/bzL{ rf}tf/L k|bfg ub{5 . hals 9fFrfsf] k|To]s txdf rf;f]x?sf >[vnfx? k|ltljlDat +
  34. 34. 30 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08ePsf 5g, h;sf] cy{ qmdzM k|fyldstfk|fKt k|ltsfo{ eGg] xbg . 9fFrfn] ljleGg cj:yfx? cGt/cfl>t F}/x]sf] s/f k|sfz kfb{5 / To;nfO{ ToxL ?kdf dfq aemg kb{5 . 9fFrfleqsf k|To]s cfwf/x? 5§f5§}d"NofÍg ugkg]5 -h:t}M lzIff_ / PsLs[t n]vfhf]vfsf] Ps efusf] ?kdf -h:t}M lzIffdf kl/l:yltn] { {kf/]sf] k|efjn] 9fFrfsf cGo cfwf/x?df kf/]sf] k|efj_ . ;+/If0f÷dfgj clwsf/÷sfg"gsf] zf;gx?dne"t d2fx? xg hg 5§} / d"nk|jfxLs/0fsf b[li6n] ;Daf]wg xg cfjZos 5 . n]vfhf]vfsf] z?cftljGb" ef}uf]lns jf hg;f+lVos ;d"x xgk5{ . ;|ft M n]vfhf]vfsf] 9fFrf cGt/lgsfo :yfoL ;ldltn]sf] Sofk ;x–sfo{;d"xn] ljsf; u/]sf] xf] / ;g ]@))$ hgj/L @% df bftfx?, ;+oQm /fi6«;3Lo lgsfox?, /]8qm; / u}=;=;+=x?sf] sfo{zfnfn] kl/dfh{g +u/]sf] xf] .
  35. 35. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 31kl/lzi6–@ cfktsfnLg cj:Yffsf nflu of]hgf thdfM 36gf {ljZn]if0fsf nflu ;"rLxfdLn] sfo{qmdsf] of]hgf agfpFbf / sfof{Gjog ug{ ljleGg sf/0fx?, d2fx? / hgtf Pj+ ;+:yfx?sf]ljifodf hfgsf/Lx? xfl;n u/]sf] xgkb{5 . h;sf ljj/0fx? b]xfo adf]lhd 5gM != cfwf/e"t n]vfhf]vf M cfwf/e"t cWoogsf nflu sg tYof+sx? cfjZos 5g < tkfO{nfO{ of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ sg tYof+sx? cfjZos 5g / s] pknAw 5g, h:t}M ljBfnox? /x]sf] 7fpF -;+Vof, :yfg_, ck]lIft ljBfyL{sf] ;+Vof, lzIfsx?sf] ;+Vof cflb < sfo{qmd z? ugeGbf cl3 g} tkfO{n] cfwf/e"t tYof+sx? ;+sng ug]{ cj;/ pknAw 5 < {@= 36gfsf] k|sl[ t M 36gfsf] k|sl[ t s:tf] 5 -lj:tf/} cfPsf] jf cs:dft_ < cfktsfnLg cj:yfaf6 k|efljt ePsf ;d"xx? -;fF:s[lts, pd]/, n}lu+s cflb_ jf sg} vf; ;+s6f;Gg ;d"xx? 5g <#= 36gfsf] l:y/tf M s] 36gf l:y/ 5 -5f]6f] cjlw÷dWod cjlw_ jf cem} al9/x]sf] 5 < s] cgdfg ug{ ;lsg] cGo ;+s6x? cufl8 b]lvG5g -gofF cfktsfnLg jf xfnsf] 36gfdf dxTjk"0f{ kl/jt{g_ < sg} tTjx? klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 h;n] cs:dft jf ;f/e"t kl/jt{gsf] :j?kdf kl/0ft xg ;Qm5g <$= jt{dfg lzIff k|0ffnL M lzIff k|0ffnL Joj:yf;DaGwL M jtdf{g lzIff k|0ffnL ;+rflnt 5 < nlIft hg;+Vofdf PseGbf a9L ;+rflnt k|0ffnL 5 < jt{dfg cfktsfnLg cj:yfn] pknAw lzIff Joj:yf -x?_ nfO{ s;/L k|efljt kf/of] < s] ejgx? tyf k"jf{wf/x? Ifltu|:t ePsf] jf sdL ePsf] cj:yf -efG;f3/, ;/;kmfO{sf ;ljwfx?, e08f/ clfb_ 5 < jt{dfg cWoogsf] jftfj/0f s:tf] /x]sf] 5 -:yfg, ;fdfu|Lx?, sIff sf]7fx?, sd{rf/L cflb_ <
  36. 36. 32 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 ljleGg If]qLo÷hftLo÷cGo k[i7e"ldsf afnaflnsf jf s]6f jf s]6Lsf] cj:yf ;dfg 5 < s] afnaflnsfx? egf{ ePsf 5g / lg/Gt/ ljBfno cfO{/x]sf 5g < obL 5}g eg] lsg < s] afnaflnsfx? ljBfno cfpFbf ef]s} xG5g -h:t}M vfhf gxg, ljBfno;Dd kUg nfdf] b/L, cfd ?kdf skf]if0f_< s] afnaflnsfx? sg} vf; ;Id skf]if0fsf] sdLaf6 u|l;t 5g < 5g eg] Tof] sg xf] < kf7oqmd / lzIf0f;DaGwL M s] ;a}sf nflu ;dfg k|sl[ tsf kf7oqmd 5g < k9fpg] efiff -jf efiffx?_ Pp6} 5g < lzIfsx?, lzIf0f ;fdfu|Lx? /÷jf cWoogsf nflu cfjZos ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw 5g < lzIfssf nflu tflnd / kgM tflnd cfjZos 5 < cgf}krfl/s jf ;Lkd"ns tflnd sfo{qmdx? -k/fgf -afn_ n8fsx?, ljBfnoaf6 efu]sf afnaflnsf /÷jf cGo vf; lk5l8Psf ;d"xx?sf nflu_ cfjZos 5g <%= dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx? M dVo ;/f]sf/jfnfx? klxrfg ug]{ s;n] s] sfd ul//x]sf] 5 < s] sfdsf] nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < s;n] s] of]hgf agfO{/x]sf] 5 < s] s:tf] ;fwg;|ftsf nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < ] sg lg0f{ox?sf nflu sf] lhDd]jf/ 5 < cGo cGt/f{li6«o ;+u7gx? u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yfx? -/fli6«o tyf :yfgLo_ ;/sf/L lgsfox? M /fli6«o tyf :YffgLo ;/sf/sf] jt{dfg cj:yf s:tf] -j}wflgs, cGtl/d_ /x]sf] 5 < lzIffsf] k|zf;g s;n] ub{5 < ljBfnox? -lzIfsx?, k|wfgfWofksx?, cleefjs lzIfs ;+u7gx?_ ;dbfo -g]tfx?, kfsfx?, wfld{s, dlxnf ;+u7gx?, :Jff:YosdL{x?, jf cGo ;fdbflos ;d"xx?_ kl/jf/ M ;dbfosf] k"jsfnb]lvsf] k|dv ;+/rgf s:tf] /x]sf] 5 < { s] cfktsfnLg cj:yfn] kfl/jfl/s ;+/rgfnfO{ k|efj kf/]sf] 5 < afnsflnsfsf] lzIffdf ;xeflutf -ljz]if u/L aflnsfsf] xsdf_ s;n] lg0f{o ub{5 <
  37. 37. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 33^= pknAw ;|ftx? ] lzIffsf] nflu -dfly pNn]lvt jt{dfg lzIff k|0ffnL klg x]gxf]nf_ { cWoogsf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < ljBfnodf /x]sf ;ljwfx? k"0f{ ?kdf ;+rfngsf nflu pknAw 5g < b}lgs ?kdf ljBfno ;+rfng ug{sf nflu kof{Kt dfqfdf lzIfsx? tyf cGo sd{rf/Lx? 5g < vfB ;xfotsf nflu M vfB ljt/0f z? ug{ slQsf] h?/L 5 < vfgf tof/ kfg{ slt hgf JolQm pknAw 5g < vfgf tof/ ug{sf nflu s]s:tf] ;ljwfx? /x]sf 5g -ljBfnodf efG;fx?, e08f/0f u[x, ksfpg] / vfg] efF8fx?, 8f8kGo", O{Gwg, kfgL cflb_ < oL ;ljwfx? sfod ug{ ;+ej 5 < oftfoftf÷cfk"lt÷e08f/0fsf] k"jf{wf/ /x]sf] 5 < sg vfgfsf ;fdfu|Lx? pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] cj:yfdf 5 < sxfF / slt l56f] tL vfgfx? k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] / vfgf ljt/0f ug]{ s]Gb|;Dd k¥ofpg ;lsG5 < sg} ljBfno :jf:Yo sfo{qmdx? ;rfng xg nfu]sf] jf klxn] g} pknAw 5g ls < sg} bftfn] tTsfn sg} k|ltj4tf hfx]/ u/]sf] 5 ls < sfof{Gjogsf nflu sg} ;+efAo ;fe]mbf/ pknAw 5 ls <&= jt{dfg / ;+efljt afwfx? ;/Iff cWoogsf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < lzIf0f :yfgx? afnaflnsf, lzIfsx? tyf ;xfotfsdL{x?sf nflu ;/lIft kxr pknAw 5 < F vfgf tof/ ug{ jf ljt/0f ug{sf nflu ;/lIft :yfgx? pknAw 5g < vfBfGg cf];f/k;f/ ug{ / ljt/0f ug{ ;/lIft 5 < vfB e08f/0f ;/lIft tj/n] /x]sf] 5 < n}l+ us÷hftLo afwfx? sg} klg n}lu+s ;d"xsf vf; afwfx?÷d2fx? /x]sf 5g ls < ljleGg ;d"xx? -hftLo, If]qLo_ sf vf; jfwfx?÷d2fx? /x]sf 5g ls < j}wflgstf sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug{sf nflu ;/sf/L ;fem]bf/ :ki6 ?kdf pknAw 5 <
  38. 38. 34 cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 z}lIfs lqmofsnfkx? tof/ kfg{ / ;xof]u ug{ /fhg}lts÷:yfgLo g]tTjaf6 clwsf/ k|fKt 5 < [ obL 5}g eg] lsg < lo ;xof]u ljgf cufl8 a9g hf]lvd 5 ls 5}g < lo ;xof]u ljgf cufl8 a9bf Gofok"0f{ xG5 < ;fem]fbfl/tf ljsf; ug{ ;lsG5 < sfo{qmdx? ;xof]u cfsif{0f ug{ /÷jf ljsf; ug{sf nflu tof/ ug{ ;lsG5 <;|ft u|x0f M ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, cfktsfnLg cj:yfdf ljBfno vfgfsf] of]hgf–cj:Yff ljZn]if0f, ]of]hgf lgdf{0f, sfof{Gjog, ;g @))$, http://www.wfp.org
  39. 39. cfktsfnLg cj:yf, hsl8Psf ;+s6 / k|f/lDes kgMlgdf{0f r/0fdf k|Tofe"lt xgkg]{ lzIffsf] Go"gtd dfkb08 35kl/lzi6 #M ;"rgf ;+sng / cfjZostfx? n]vfhf]vf k|ZgfjnL:yfg -x?_M================================================================================================================================cfktsfnsf] k|s[ltM=====================================================================================================================dVo ;d:of -x?_M======================================================================================================================= s]xL ljBfnox? cem} ;+rfngdf 5g < 5g/5}gg < :yfg -x?_ k|efljt afnaflnsfx?sf] pkl:ylt s]6L s]6f!= ;d:of //jf lj:tf/Ls/0fsf] dVo sf/0f -x?_ M ljBfno ejgx? Ifltu|:t ePsf % olb kfl/>lds glbPdf lzIfsn] gk9fpg] ljBfno kl/;/df kfgL c;/lIft jf pknAw ofqf vt/foQm xFb} uPsf] % % gePsf] afnaflnsfx? gc6]sf÷ljBfnoaflx/ /x]sf % lzIfsx? ;]gfdf egf{ ePsf % OSokd]06÷;fwgx? cgknAw % s]xL ljBfyL{x? ulDe/ dgf]qf;df /x]sf % z}lIfs ;fdfu|Lx? vl/b ug{ kl/jf/x? c;dy{ % s]xL ljBfyL{x? czQm ePsf % lzIfsx?n] 5f]8]sf jf 8/fPsf % afnaflnsfx? ;]gfdf egf{ ePsf % lzIfssf] ;§fdf /fVg lzlIft JolQmx?sf] cefj %@= afnaflnsfsf] hg;+Vof klxrfg hDdf s]6L s]6fafnaflnsfsf] ;+Vof =================== ================== ===============)–% jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%^–!# jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%!$–!* jif{ pd]/sf ===================% ==================% ===============%afl;Gbfx? ===================% ==================% ===============%aflx/af6 cfPsfx? ===================% ==================% ===============%

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