Disaster                                                         ljkb hf]lvd
     Risk                                    ...
European Commission Humanitarian Aid                           o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8
department                ...
Disaster Situation
Ü	 	Likewise,	global	epidemics	like	Bird	Flu	(Avian	Influenza)	
                                             and Swine Flu...
Disaster Management
of disaster affected or disaster vulnerable     The proposed comprehensive risk reduction
    people. Three is a need for...
      Risk              Proposed Disaster
                        Management Act,

The proposed       •   Emphasizes on development of
                       micro and macro hazard and
Major strategic priorities:

Considering the Hyogo Framework for Action – HFA                             •    Reduce the ...
Priorities of Hyogo Framework for Action:        development, reduce the causes of vulnerability
   It is necessary to develop and put in             Recent earthquakes have
    place disaster management action plan  ...
people needs priority investments. We urge
                                    the government, donors and international
 Reduction                                Some Experiences of
“            “
    The flood and
    landslide of Nepal
    occurred during 1993
    A.D was the most
    destructing disa...
Promoting Early Warning System:
A Basis for Risk Reduction
As soon as we heard the Siren,              This time there was no need
                 we came out from our house, took ...
Disaster Loss Database                                               Disaster
District   Data-cards          Human                                 Houses
                          Deaths    Injuries  ...
Database of Disaster Loss                                                                                        ...
Earthquake Grief of Nepal will be More Horrible
  Nepal faced destructing earthquakes in1934 A.D and 1985. Meanshilw, ther...
Western Nepal: Doti, Achham, Kalikot, Jajarkot,   Large number of people died due      Flood has effected terai region
Disaster brings economic   Landlside has        Fire is huge problem in terai region.   Flood has affected
loss. It is fou...
For more information on DRR please contact any of the partners

       European Commission Humanitarian Aid department (EC...
Working Together… for a Risk Resilient Nepal
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  1. 1. Disaster ljkb hf]lvd Risk Go"gLs/0f Reduction Toolkit AN INFORMATION PACK FOR ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L g]kfnsf ;+ljwfg ;ef;bx?sf CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY nflu hfgsf/Ld"ns MEMBERS OF NEPAL ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L Working Together… for a Risk Resilient Nepal This DRR Tool Kit for Constituent Assembly members is k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|L produced jointly by the following organizations, o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'Doflg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6sf] with funding support of cfly{s ;xof]udf l8k]sf] kfrf}+sf ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx? European Commission Humanitarian Aid department -PS;gP8 ;xnufgL c;P8, s]o/ g]kfn, (through DIPECHO V partners ActionAid with AusAID xofG8LSofk OG6/g]zgn, dl;{sf]/, co-finance, Care Nepal, Handicap International, k|fS6Lsn PS;g / o'Pgl8lk—lal;lkcf/_ Mercy Corps, Practical Action and cS;kmfd hLaL, ;+oQm /fi6« ;+3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmd ' UNDP BCPR South and South West Asia), Oxfam GB, / cGt/f{li6«o u};; ;+3, g]kfnn] United Nations Development Program Nepal and ;+o'Qm ?kdf ;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:ox?sf] Association of International NGOs, Nepal. lglDt tof/ ul/Psf] xf] . Design, layout & production by PowerComm, 5552987
  2. 2. European Commission Humanitarian Aid o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 department l8kf6{d]G6 The European CommissionÊs Humanitarian Aid o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6 department is under the direct responsibility of sldzg/ n'O{; dfO{s]nsf] k|ToIf pQ/bfloTjdf Commissioner Louis Michel. Since 1992, the /x]sf] 5 . ;g !((@ b]lv pQm sldzgn] o'/f]k Commission has funded relief to millions of victims eGbf aflx/sf b]zx¿df x'g] k|fs[lts tyf dfgjhGo of natural and man-made disasters outside the ljkbx¿af6 kLl8t nfvf}+ dflg;x¿nfO{ dfgjLo European Union. ;xfotf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . Aid is channelled impartially to the affected o'/f]lkog sldzgn] k|efljt hgtfnfO{ pgLx¿sf] populations, regardless of their race, ethnic group, j0f{, hftLo ;d"x, wd{, lnË, pd]/, /fli6«otf jf religion, gender, age, nationality or political affiliation. /fhgLlts cfj4tf h]–h:tf] ePklg lgikIf In the area of humanitarian aid, the Commission tl/sfn] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpFb5 . dfgjLo works with 200 operational partners, including ;xfotfsf If]qdf sldzgn] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf specialised United Nation agencies, the Red ljlzli6s[t lgsfo, /]8qm; tyf /]8 lqm;]G6 Cross/Crescent movement and non-governmental cfGbf]ng / u};;nufotsf b'O{;oeGbf a9L ;+:yf organisations (NGOs). The European Commission jf ;fem]bf/x¿;Fu sfo{ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o'/f]lkog is one of the biggest sources of humanitarian aid in sldzg dfgjLo ;xfotfsf If]qdf ljZjs} ;a}eGbf the world. In 2007, it provided over 768 million Euros 7"nf] ;|f]tdWo]sf] Ps xf] . ;g @))& df o;n] dfgjLo for humanitarian projects. This does not include the ;xfotfsf nflu &^* ldlnog o'/f] /sd pknAw aid given separately by the EUÊs 25 Member States. u/fPsf] lyof] . o;df o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf @% j6f ;b:o– Support went to projects in (number) countries. /fi6«n] cnUu} k|bfg ug]{ ;xof]u /sd ;dfj]z The funds are spent on goods and services such ul/Psf] 5}g . pknAw u/fPsf] /sd vfBfGg, sk8f, as food, clothing, shelter, medical provisions, water cfjf;, cf}iflw, kfgL cfk"lt{, ;/;kmfO{, cfkTsfnLg supplies, sanitation, emergency repairs and mine- dd{t;Def/ / af?bL ;'?Ë x6fpg] h:tf sfo{x¿df clearing. vr{ x'G5 . The Commission also funds disaster preparedness sldzgn] k|fs[lts ljkbsf] pRr ;Defjgf ePsf and mitigation projects in regions prone to natural If]qx¿df ljkb k"j{tof/L / Iflt Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL catastrophes. Under department of Disaster cfof]hgfx¿df klg nufgL ub{5 . k|sf]k Preparedness (DIPECHO), the European k"j{tof/L;DaGwL ljefu -l8k]sf]_ dftxtdf /x]sf] CommissionÊs Humanitarian Aid department has o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6n] g]kfn been supporting a number of disaster preparedness nufot blIf0f Plzof If]qdf ljkb k"j{tof/L;DaGwL initiatives in South Asia, including Nepal. w]/} sfo{x¿ ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/]sf] 5 . For more information, please visit official website of European Commission at www.ec.europa.eu
  3. 3. Disaster Situation in Nepal Disaster Disaster Situation in Nepal Risk Reduction Toolkit 30 th Global Rank in Water Induced Disasters Risk 11 “ th Global Rank in Earthquake Risk Photo: ECO Nepal Ü Of 198 countries in the 346 recent diarrhea world, Nepal is ranked 11th in terms of earthquake Living under constant threat of disasters, affected death risk and 30th in terms of water-induced disaster risk we Nepalese people 62,016 (UN/BCPR, 2004) have to ensure a risk recent diarrhea Ü Nepal is highly vulnerable resilient country to to a variety of disasters affected people like flood, landslide, ensure our right to earthquake, fi re, epidemic, and climate change lead a secure life... impact, etc. 1,000 death due to Ü Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF), avalenches, industrial and transport accident, environmental pollution, pesticides related disasters, accidents etc. are contributing to disaster vulnerability in Nepal. every year Ü A recent report of Department of Epidemelogy and Disease 1,20,80,00,000 Control, Nepal shows that 346 people died and 62,016 people were directly by diarrheal epidemic that spread over 20 districts NPR, economic of far and mid-western Nepal since 2008. loss per year
  4. 4. Ü Likewise, global epidemics like Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) and Swine Flu (H1N1) are already affecting the local population. Ü Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) report indicates that every year, more than 1,000 people die due to disasters. According to DisInventar Database, on an average over two persons die everyday because of disasters, 200 everyday are affected. Photo: Co Action Nepal Ü From 1971 to 2007, over 1,33,000 people were affected every year by disasters... over 9,350 houses were destroyed every year (MoHA) Ü MoHA report shows that economic loss due to disasters is NPR 1.2 billion a year. “ Ü German Watch Index, 2006 states that Nepal is ranked Photo: ISET-N 6th in terms of vulnerability due climate change induced hazards. Ü Nepal’s average temperature is increasing rapidly compared to global average in global warming. If the current trend of rising temperature continues, three-fourth of Nepal’s 3,000+ glacial lakes will dwindle by 2030 due to premature meltdown. Ü ICIMOD assessment illustrates that of the 2323 glacial lakes of Nepal, 20 are potentially dangerous and can result in According to various Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). studies, among the Ü Entire Nepal’s on high seismic active zone indicating major 200 cities of impending high intensity earthquake anytime. According to various studies, among the major 200 cities of the world, the world, Kathmandu Kathmandu valley is extremely vulnerable to earthquake and valley is extremely can result in mass scale destruction of lives and property. vulnerable to Ü The joint study report of MoHA and JICA (Japan International Coorporation Agency), 2002 estimates that earthquake and can if an earthquake of intensity equivalent to 8.4 Richter scale result in mass scale strikes Kathmandu valley (compared to 1934 earthquake), 40,000 people may lose life; destruction of lives 95,000 people are likely to be injured and over 60 percent and property. of the buildings will collapse. Ü The frequency, intensity and impact of disasters is on the rise...
  5. 5. Disaster Management Disaster Risk Reduction Toolkit Legislation: Legislation: Need for Revision Disaster Management Need for Revision al Nep to: ECO Pho Natural Calamity ” (Relief) Act of 1982, though amended twice is has not served its purpose in ensuring rights of disaster affected and disaster vulnerable people. In its current form, it is inadequate to address comprehensive risk reduction framework. A revision to the existing legal provisions is imperative now…  Nepal is highly vulnerable to disaster risks.  Previous experiences have given ample The country lags in its capacity to cope with evidence that preparedness measures disasters and major disaster events can wreck can reduce disaster losses drastically. (In havoc to the future of Nepal. There is a need to Bangladesh, the cycle of 1970 killed strengthen the policy and legislation on disaster 500,000 people while only 4,000 life management, losses were reported due to 2009 cyclone. Experiences have emphasizing Reason is the comprehensive cyclone proved that disaster on holistic risk preparedness program in Bangladesh preparedness can reduce reduction measures since early 90’s). 90% of human losses. through clear One rupee invested in emphasis on  The Natural Calamity (Relief) Act of 1982, preparedness can save various stages amended twice in 1989 and 1992 is more seven rupees at times of of disaster risk response oriented. The existing legislation has mass casualties. management cycle. been found to be inadequate to address rights
  6. 6. of disaster affected or disaster vulnerable  The proposed comprehensive risk reduction people. Three is a need for immediate framework should include, among other revision of the existing legal provisions to provisions: ensure holistic risk management policies and systems giving adequate emphasis Transition from a ‘relief centric’ to a ‘risk on all stages of disaster risk management reduction centric’ approach cycle from preparedness to sustainable Elimination of ‘knowledge gap’ on disaster risk development. reduction in the society Emphasis on gender and social inclusion  The state must ensure that people with including people with disabilities disabilities as well as other differentially Efficient and effective coordination through vulnerable people are consulted and included participation at all stages of disaster risk in all aspects of society, ensuring equal reduction process opportunities in private and public life. Integrating risk reduction approach into Inclusion of differentially vulnerable people development policies and actions must be a component of any decision Establishment of an effective organizational and action on disaster risk management at structure to facilitate quick and efficient decision various levels. making Integrating disaster risk reduction plans at various  Disaster Impact Assessment should be levels, from local to national levels mandatory during development and Establishment of disaster management fund with infrastructure planning, along with clear authority and guidelines environmental impact assessment. Strengthening political commitment for comprehensive disaster risk reduction  The government should immediately address need for stronger legislation, which has  Under aegis of the Hyogo Framework of Action been proposed to the government through a to reduce disaster risks (Nepal is a signatory to multi-stakeholder initiative in 2005. this global framework), a National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management was approved by International legal the cabinet in 2009. This strategy needs to be instruments and followed up with appropriate policy and necessary humanitarian standards legislation to convert intention and strategy into emphasizes on right to reality. life with dignity during Government of Nepal has adopted emergencies. It underlines the United Nation’s Convention the responsibility of the state Nepa l related the rights of people with : ECO to protect and safeguard Photo disabilities in 2009. Especially human life and dignity. the clause 11 has mentioned that every country should have developed all necessary arrangement required to protect the rights of people with disabilities during thedisaster including armed conflict, human conflict and natural disasters.
  7. 7. Disaster Risk Proposed Disaster Management Act, Reduction Toolkit 2009 – Key Features “ The proposed Disaster Management Act, 2009 is towards enhancing effective management of risk reduction throughout the disaster management cycle – preparedness, mitigation, rescue and Proposed Disaster Management Act, 2009 – Key Features relief, rehabilitation and recovery The proposed Act emphasizes on protecting and securing lives It is very urgent to and property with emphasis on critical facilities that impact general public and facilitates management of disasters effectively pass out the Disaster Management Act The proposed Disaster Management Act, 2009 calls for replacement of the existing Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 to support the The salient features of the proposed DM Act are: implementation of National Strategy on Disaster • Disasters are defined distinctly as natural and human induced Risk Management, • Provision for National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM) to be chaired by R. H. Prime Minister of Nepal which supplements the with clear mandate and functions, duties, responsibilities and authority of the council. development of the country and ensures the • Proposal to set up National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the NCDM, to act as the focal point for disaster management functions in Nepal from formulation rights of each individual to of appropriate strategies and plans to implementation and safe life. supervision of disaster management activities • Clarifies theforcesresponsibility andArmy, Nepal of security role, including Nepal functions Police and Armed Police Force; institutions, industrial sector and private organizations Photo: ECO Nepal
  8. 8. The proposed • Emphasizes on development of micro and macro hazard and Though the proposed Disaster Management Act, developed through a Disaster vulnerability maps for disaster prone multi-stakeholder consulting and initiative, areas to inform decision makers was submitted to the government, three Management to address disaster risk reduction years have elapsed in the meantime. An Act, 2063 calls effectively effective legislation and policy framework ” could have guided the country to reduce for replacement • Clarity in different approaches and functions during the three states disaster impacts during this period and for of the existing future. Lack of an efficient and sound legal - pre-disaster, during-disaster and provision has resulted in the people leading post-disaster Natural Calamity a life ridden with multiple vulnerability, (Relief) Act, • Clarity in actions and approaches during different stages in a insecure from threats and unsure about securing rights to lead a life with dignity 2032 disaster risk reduction cycle, from during disasters. preparedness onwards to relief, recovery and development We urge the constituent assembly members, policy makers and government • Proposal for various committees to look into and be responsible to endorse the proposed Disaster Management Act without further delay. A for Preparedness, Rescue and “ strong Nepal requires a strong disaster risk Relief as well as Rehabilitation and reduction framework and it is the primary Reconstruction; under the leadership responsibility of the state to offer such a respective ministries including framework to the people of Nepal. formation of similar committees at district and local levels Three years have gone by since the proposed Disaster Management Act was submitted to the government. We urge the constituent assembly members, policy makers and government to endorse the proposed Disaster Management Act, 2009 without further delay. Photo: UNDP-BPCR
  9. 9. Disaster Risk Reduction Photo: ECO Nepal Toolkit The need for National Strategy for institutional Disaster Risk Management, 2009 strengthening is very ” important for effective implementation of The Government of Nepal approved the National Strategy for Disaster sector approach Risk Management (NSDRM) 2009, paving way to address disaster underlined in the risk reduction in a comprehensive manner within overall development National Strategy framework. Guided by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), the NSDRM is a step towards meeting the goals and priorities set through for Disaster Risk HFA. Management The NSDRM has an overall objective of providing direction to Disaster Risk Management integrate disaster risk reduction into national development plans and National Strategy for processes. NSDRM analyses risks and vulnerabilities of Nepal, taking note of historic events and seeking to learn from past events. It emphasizes on the relationship between disasters and poverty and suggests strong risk reduction approach to insure development investments by the government. NSDRM is based on the spirit and principles of Total Disaster Risk Management (TDRM) approach Major guiding principles of disaster risk management strategy: Photo: Co-Action Nepal • Mainstreaming disaster risk • Holistic risk management Women are 14 reduction into development approach plans • Safety and security to staff times more likely • Ensuring safety to life and and stakeholders to die of natural social security • One window policy and disasters • Gender and social inclusion cluster based approach to disaster management • Decentralized implementation processes • Spirit of participatory, interactive and coordinated efforts to DRR
  10. 10. Major strategic priorities: Considering the Hyogo Framework for Action – HFA • Reduce the factors of extended risks, and (2005-2015) as a guiding document, identifying the major challenges in the Nepalese context and in the • Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response. implementation process of getting solution to them, the major five priority actions are defined as: In order to achieve those priority activities, 29 strategic activities, their indicative activities • Prioritizing disaster risks mitigation at national and and outcomes and responsible agencies for local level and ensuring the management of strong operation are also defined. organizational structure for its implementation, • Assessment of potential disaster risks, identify, monitor and enhance early-warning system • Use of knowledge, innovation and education in order to develop safe culture and resilience, Photo: Handicap International Sectoral Strategies for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): For disaster risk reduction and managing • Strategy related to livelihood sector preparedness, mitigation or response work for emergency situations, different sectoral activities • Strategy related to water and sanitation sector are also mentioned in this strategy as per the nature of nine sectors: • Strategy related to forest and soil conservation sectors • Strategy related to agriculture and food security sector • Strategy related to information, communication, coordination and • Strategy related to health and nutrition sector management capacity sector • Strategy related to education sector • Strategy related to tracing, rescue and • Strategy related to shelter, infrastructure and damage assessment and need analysis physical planning sector sector Photo: ECO Nepal
  11. 11. Disaster Risk Reduction Toolkit The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA): The common strategy approved by the member states of the United Nations Organizations for global disaster risk reduction is the “Hyogo Framework for Action”. In the Second UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Kobe, Japan … Photo: ECO Nepal from 18 to 22 January, 2005, 168 states of the world unanimously approved the Hyogo Framework of Action with commitment for its adoption. The Hyogo Framework for Action has expected an important The common result that within the period of a decade by 2015, through strategy approved by significant reduction of humanitarian, social, economic and the member states environmental impacts caused by disaster, every state and of the United Nations community will develop resilience against it. Organizations for The Hyogo Framework of Action has defined five priority areas global disaster risk of action. In order to get them effectively implemented, guiding reduction is the principles are developed and it has also recommended practical Framework The Hyogo “Hyogo Framework measures to develop resilience among the communities vulnerable for Action”. to disaster on the background of sustainable development. … The Hyogo Framework of Action emphasizes on the concept of disaster risk reduction as a center of development plan and strategy. Disaster challenges the achievements of development and increases poverty. Thus it has made aware of the fact that The Hyogo Framework the impact of disaster can be the main barrier to Millennium for Action has expected Development Goals (MDGs) if serious steps are not taken in an important result that time. within the period of a 1 decade by 2015, through International Strategy ISDR for Disaster Reduction SUMMARY of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters (Hyogo Framework) significant reduction Expected outcome, strategic goals and priorities for action 2005-2015 Expected Outcome of humanitarian, The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries Contributing to the achievements of the internationally agreed development goals (including the MDGs) Strategic Goals social, economic and The integration of disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies and planning Development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build resilience to hazards The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes environmental impacts Priorities for Action caused by disaster, 1. Ensure that disaster risk 2. Identify, assess and monitor 3. Use knowledge, innovation 4. Reduce the underlying risk factors 5. Strengthen disaster preparedness reduction (DRR) is a national disaster risks and enhance early and education to build a culture for effective response at all levels and a local priority with a warning of safety and resilience at strong institutional basis for all levels implementation every state and � DRR institutional mechanisms � Risk assessments and maps, � Information sharing and cooperation; � Sustainable ecosystems and environmental � Disaster management capacities: (national platforms); multi-risk: elaboration and � Networks across disciplines and management policy, technical and institutional designated responsibilities dissemination regions; dialogue � DRR strategies integrated with climate change capacities � DRR part of development � Indicators on DRR and vulnerability � Use of standard DRR terminology adaptation � Dialogue, coordination & information Key Activities policies and planning, sector � Data & statistical loss information � Inclusion of DRR into school � Food security for resilience exchange between disaster managers wise and multisector � Early warning: people centered; curricula, formal and informal � DRR integrated into health sector and safe hospitals and development sectors community will develop � Legislation to support DRR information systems; public policy education � Protection of critical public facilities � Regional approaches to disaster � Decentralisation of � Scientific and technological � Training and learning on DRR: � Recovery schemes and social safety- nets response, with risk reduction focus responsibilities and resources development; data sharing, space- community level, local authorities, � Vulnerability reduction with diversified income options � Review & and exercise preparedness � Assessment of human based earth observation, climate targeted sectors; equal access � Financial risk-sharing mechanisms and contingency plans resources and capacities modeling and forecasting; early � Research capacity: multi-risk; socio- � Public-private partnership � Emergency funds � Foster political commitment warning economic; application � Land use planning and building codes � Voluntarism & participation resilience against it. � Community participation � Regional and emerging risks � Public awareness and media � Rural development plans and DRR Cross Cutting Issues Multi-hazard approach Gender perspective and cultural diversity Community and volunteers participation Capacity building & technology transfer DRR= disaster risk reduction www.unisdr.org
  12. 12. Priorities of Hyogo Framework for Action: development, reduce the causes of vulnerability by appropriate landuse planning and The Hyogo Framework for Action has techniques. identified five priorities for actions. This can be called as the core part of the Hyogo Priority action 5: Strengthen disaster Framework for Action. It has explained the preparedness for effective response at all details of the potential actions under each levels. priority. Make strong policies, technical and institutional capacity through development of human and Priority action 1: Ensure that disaster physical resources with trainings related to risk reduction is a national and a local disaster management at local, regional land priority with a strong institutional basis national level. for implementation. For strong institutional, national designs, With an aim of making effective disaster institutional instruments and legal framework, risk reduction, there should be coordination, sustainable resource management, information sharing between all stakeholders community participation must be strong. of preparedness, vulnerability reduction, and disaster coping and development sector. Priority action 2: Identify, assess, and monitor disaster risks and enhance early In a national situation of disaster overlapping warning system. the coping capacity, it is necessary to ensure the effective development and strengthening of Identify local, regional and national coordination in regional level, implement the vulnerability, monitoring and evaluation, policy in regional level, planning and establish develop early warning system, and capacity early warning system. building to cope with the potential vulnerability. Develop planning and policy of preparedness visioning the most disaster affective region and Priority action 3: Use knowledge, group. Ensure the quick and effective response innovation, and education to build a in case of disaster, support with food and culture of safety and resilience at all necessary items and promote the practice of levels. preparedness. Information management and information sharing at local and national level, raise To establish an Emergency fund as per capacity through awareness including necessary for coping disaster, reduce loss and education, training, and research to face support preparedness activities. disaster and secured community. Motivate the attitude of volunteerism among Priority action 4: Reduce the underlying community and stakeholder and active risk factors participation to reduce disaster vulnerability. Environmental and natural resource management, practice social and economical
  13. 13. Disaster Risk Reduction Toolkit Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Development Photo: ECO Nepal  Disasters destroy development plays a human lives, property, It is necessary to draft vital role in ushering social and cultural development. assets and phycho- the legal and institutional Infrastructure and social well being of critical facility frameworks for mainstreaming development should the society  Disasters destroy disaster into development to keep risk reduction parameters in mind development work for disaster risk reduction from conception state Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Development investments and onwards pull back years of and develop risk resilient development and growth  Adequate efforts Nepal. should be given to ensure  Investment in development, implementation of national without risk consideration, will make building code to reduce disaster risks. structures and systems vulnerable to This should be made mandatory at all disasters levels.  Achievement of Millennium Development  Community participation in all Goals and sustainable development levels of decision making is of in Nepal cannot be achieved without paramount importance in risk addressing disaster risks reduction mainstreaming, including  Mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction participation of differentially into development will enhance local, vulnerable groups regional and national capacity to cope  It is necessary to strengthen local with disasters and become risk resilient knowledge, skills and techniques  Economic development is necessary to cope with disasters, through a for poverty reduction. Infrastructure community led participatory exercise
  14. 14.  It is necessary to develop and put in  Recent earthquakes have place disaster management action plan demonstrated that unsafe in all 75 districts of Nepal and its VDCs school structures can cause widespread loss. For example,  Adequate studies and researches in 2004 earthquake in Pakistan, should be carried out along river basins 18,000 children were killed by to understand floods, flash floods and unsafe school buildings. School landslides, from hills to terai. Appropriate buildings in Nepal are unsafe. mechanisms should be developed to Immediate measures should address associated risks to people, be taken towards school and property and environment hospital safety Major Legal instruments for DRR Natural Calamity Relief Act, 1982 National Action Plan 1996 (Amendment) Three Years Interim Plan's Approach Paper 2005-2008 Disaster Victim Relief Distribution Norms , 2007 National Disaster Risk Reduction Platform, 2008 National Strategy on Disaster Risk Management, 2009 Disaster Management Act, 2009 People’s Declaration on Disaster Risk Reduction Photo: UNDP-BPCR
  15. 15. Disaster Risk Reduction Toolkit People’s Declaration on Disaster Risk Reduction, Nepal We, the people of Nepal who are under constant threat of disasters, who are affected by disasters The new constitution of and vulnerable to the growing incidences of calamities, hereby declare that: Nepal should clearly address 1) Disaster Risk Reduction is people’s rights. the issues of disasters in " It entails ensuring security to people who the country and should are affected by and vulnerable to disasters. We urge the government of Nepal to the fundamental rights of immediately take further measures for a disaster affected and disaster comprehensive disaster risk reduction policy vulnerable persons to a safe that emphasizes addressing the special needs and concerns of differentially vulnerable and secure life with dignity people. and protection of their rights 2) The rights of people can be protected from disaster risks only through appropriate legal and policy provisions. We seek immediate adoption of We believe that there is tremendous scope the Disaster Management Act 2063 (Revised for us to build upon our achievements and and submitted to the government in scale up our initiatives at community level. February 2007) by the constituent assembly, We seek continued support of the key stakeholders who have been working with us to enhance our disaster resilience. 3) We believe that efficient governance and a prosperous nation cannot be achieved without including people in the decision 5) We believe that a culture of risk reduction making process. Community is the first has to be encouraged at all levels, from the Disaster Risk Reduction People’s Declaration on impact receiver of any disaster and the first grassroots people to the highest offices of responder too. We urge the government the government. We urge the government to ensure that policy framework and to build capacities of its own systems to government decisions should invariably mainstream risk reduction at all levels and include people’s participation at various and invest in building community capacity to appropriate levels. better respond to and prepare themselves to disasters. 4) We recognize the important role played by international NGOs, civil society, 6) We believe that mainstreaming disaster risk local NGOs, donors and government in reduction within the development process supporting disaster risk reduction initiatives. and addressing rights of disaster affected
  16. 16. people needs priority investments. We urge the government, donors and international We believe that a culture community to listen to the voices of people and extend their fullest support to our of risk reduction has to be desire to build a risk free nation. encouraged at all levels, 7) We understand the importance of from the grassroots people working together. We declare our underlying commitment to the process of to the highest offices of comprehensive disaster risk reduction in Nepal and assure our support to initiatives the government. We urge from government, donors, international community and other national stakeholders the government to build to build a Risk Free Nepal capacities of its own systems 8) We believe that a dream of a New Nepal to mainstream risk reduction cannot be realized without addressing " the inherent risks posed by disasters. We at all levels and invest in believe that disaster risk reduction is not an option for this country, but an essential building community capacity pre-requisite that defines its development process. to better respond to and prepare themselves to 9) We once again reiterate our commitment to work with the government towards realizing disasters. our goal of risk free Nepal. Photo: Action Aid Nepal
  17. 17. Disaster Risk Reduction Some Experiences of Heavy Floods in Nepal Toolkit 49 Economic loss of 1993's flood and billion landslide “ Photo: Co-Action Nepal emergency residence block Koshi Floods: A constructed for Koshi Agony and Anguish affected people. She was August 18, 2008: a l August 18, 2008: a breach in seven months pregnant breach in the east the east embankment of the when Koshi floods broke embankment of the mighty Koshi river resulted in out. Her family had to stay “ mighty Koshi river resulted in severe floods, displacing over 50,000 people of Sunsari and Saptarhi districts. l severe floods, displacing over 50,000 people of Sunsari and Saptarhi districts. Shantidevi Mandal, Haripur VDC lost her father… lost her property and was forced to live in the river bank for several days… without support, without protection l without food for seven days… I was to be drown by flood… people were shouting… whole village went under water… with great difficulty, we survived and fled from our village. Heavy Floods in Nepal Some Experiences of l Kaburahi Sahani said that l We became totally hopeless in the aftermath of floods, when flood water rushed she found herself and her into our village, said Anita family to develop health Sada, a 19 year old living in problems. She found the
  18. 18. “ “ The flood and landslide of Nepal occurred during 1993 A.D was the most destructing disaster in 58 years time. Photo: Co-Action Nepal same in others too. She got involved as a health Floods and could have averted disaster and reduced losses volunteer, but it came late. Landslides of 1993 If such support systems l There was no weather The flood and landslide of were available immediately forecasts coming up. Nepal occurred during 1993 after floods, things would People were not aware A.D was the most destructing have been much better. that Koshi was swelling disaster in 58 years time. The Kaburahi lost her son due to alarmingly. data of loss at that year is as post flood epidemic. follows: l There was no plans for Shanti Devi is another any shelter settlements. l Disaster loss area Loss The identified shelters person who lost everything in life. She lost her home, were vulnerable to further Death 1336 her buffaloes and land. Her landslides Missing 163 husband is a wage laborer Affected family 85254 l At that time, even the with irregular employment. Destroyed Houses 25425 governmental, non One of her sons is Agricultural land government and other physically challenged. Other (hectare) 17113 institutional support were left home to work in India. Economic Loss sporadic and not efficient. During the floods, when she (NRs ) 49,00,000 An efficient system could thought everything is lost, have reduced disaster after some fellow villagers helped l The floods and landslides effects to a great extent rescued her to safe place of 1993 was one of the near the river bank. Her l Post disaster epidemics most destructive disasters future looks bleak now. spread out, taking out more to have hit Nepal. lives with it. Even today, l Nuna Devi and her three l There is a widespread people get nightmares of children ran and ran with feeling in the community that vicious day other villagers during that that losses by 1993 floods gruesome night. She was l Government could not and landslides are grossly 9 months pregnant at that provide adequate relief underestimated and time. She went many days and rehabilitation support, improperly reported without food and with much though the royal family physical and mental pain. l There was no early warning had visited the affected available to people. Warning area in 1993. People were left to fend for themselves.
  19. 19. Promoting Early Warning System: A Basis for Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Reduction Toolkit Each year, the monsoon flood destroys life and property of thousands of One night in 1993, there was a people. It causes soil erosion, kills heavy flood in village. The flood livestock destroys stored food items, swept away my home together and life and properties making it almost with 24 livestock and 145800 impossible to rehabilitate. sq. ft of crop land. Even I was Hundreds of people are displacing displaced near forest in the north from their home as well as losing their part of Bhandara. life due to landslides and soil erosion -Nawaraj Silwal, 50, Bhandara, Chitwan occurring every year. Millions of people in Nepal are bound to live with a fear of potential At midnight, when I got down earthquake that may largely destroy life from my bed to go to toilet, I and properties. came to know that the water level was already reached to my knee. -Lahu Ram Chaudhary, Lalitpur, Kailali These are only few voices, representing the whole affected people expressing their problems due to lack of Early Warning System. It is possible to get early warning information to be safe from the above mentioned disasters. It only demands commitments and action to change behaviour. Till date, Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS) for flood is established in five districts (Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Banke, Bardia and Kailali) of Nepal. With this successful experience we can now be optimistic for a safer future. Early Warning Promoting Photo: Practical Action System
  20. 20. As soon as we heard the Siren, This time there was no need we came out from our house, took of rescue and relief operation our livestock to upland ground due to Early Warning System (Thule Chour), and shifted our established in west Rapti River. important goods and documents The communities already received from ground floor to upstairs. the flood information and reached -Basant Chaudhary, Bagaicha Tole, to safer place before flood. Nawalparasi, sharing experiences of after flood of 6 September 2007 -Chief District Officer, Birendra Baniya, Banke speaking in5 January 2010 workshop after the flood of 6 October 2009 We are happy and proud that life of all the people in our community was saved. Due to the Early Definitely, all flood affected people Warning System equipment residing near river banks in Nepal are and right use of knowledge and not getting early warning facilities. skills gained during the training and exposure visits people were Besides flood, there is no early warning system established for other different safe in the project communities. types of disaster. Whereas, 24 people had lost their lives in our neighbouring It is an urgent need to scale up such communities. Early Warning System in other areas of the country. Hence, the support to -ChalluRam Chaudhary, Hasuliya, Kailai government has already been started to sharing his experiences after flood of 20 draft National Early Warning Strategy for September 2008 Key Disaster Risk Reduction in Nepal. Photo: Practical Action
  21. 21. Disaster Loss Database Disaster Risk Reduction Database of disaster loss from 1971 A.D to 2008 A.D Toolkit District Data-cards Human Houses Deaths Injuries Affected Destroyed Damaged Achham 131 627 97 213,793 299 43 Arghakanchi 95 145 316 31,574 697 768 Baglung 195 422 181 59,360 964 276 Baitadi 108 331 1,669 24,507 1,426 2,018 Bajhang 79 281 30 13,053 6,516 8,622 Bajura 130 460 54 23,631 421 74 Banke 344 1,022 763 87,933 5,347 544 Bara 276 223 673 109,941 1,704 415 Bardiya 170 198 484 27,152 8,871 9,156 Bhaktapur 218 76 200 13,343 657 1,674 Bhojpur 130 219 749 81,354 1,791 4,785 Chitawan 280 419 5,592 192,515 5,160 953 Dadeldhura 86 55 192 7,331 95 132 Dailekh 168 485 154 7,747 389 136 Dang 372 483 551 55,211 1,683 361 Darchula 113 193 134 2,861 4,307 2,885 Dhading 315 450 535 25,171 1,636 685 Dhankuta 140 219 1,247 7,485 3,831 5,446 Dhanusa 388 660 976 424,180 9,179 9,148 Dolakha 182 316 590 18,504 722 1,581 Dolpa 72 328 68 820 39 0 Doti 185 784 2,250 32,548 151 184 Gorkha 170 421 696 37,585 729 45 Gulmi 135 274 88 6,722 444 298 Humla 150 391 89 10,980 132 77 Ilam 165 233 1,496 4,038 1,003 3,056 Jajarkot 124 490 250 14,247 604 342 Jhapa 601 570 1,363 50,030 5,132 783 Jumla 138 408 242 46,082 224 156 Kailali 363 1,056 893 66,996 2,265 447 Kalikot 119 604 153 4,703 85 247 Kanchanpur 223 281 4,968 30,853 848 566 Kapilbastu 163 274 308 36,623 5,540 242 Kaski 355 369 241 7,329 449 249 Kathmandu 673 404 828 8,235 518 795 Kavre 329 303 1,099 30,105 2,826 1,150 Khotang 111 254 549 13,437 3,171 6,175 Lalitpur 269 198 167 3,366 848 370
  22. 22. District Data-cards Human Houses Deaths Injuries Affected Destroyed Damaged Lamjung 155 161 74 11,786 468 127 Mahotari 355 433 1,305 548,075 9,073 6,144 Makwanpur 473 946 571 101,716 3,638 2,844 Manang 46 78 15 808 41 4 Morang 651 835 2,061 87,053 3,555 4,038 Mugu 72 336 78 3,249 264 67 Mustang 48 40 25 2,278 121 4 Myagdi 138 225 403 18,036 264 128 Nawalparasi 322 301 893 76,443 4,593 1,706 Nuwakot 232 271 567 8,653 366 117 Okhaldhunga 125 211 253 7,979 2,224 1,382 Palpa 194 304 951 56,484 895 434 Panchthar 145 189 834 9,658 1,498 3,486 Parbat 175 88 476 69,816 384 145 Parsa 232 235 3,194 371,942 3,423 380 Pyuthan 100 247 618 2,077 368 66 Ramechhap 214 223 594 23,328 1,666 3,063 Rasuwa 112 374 22 4,191 252 139 Rautahat 343 655 574 393,066 5,915 13,969 Rolpa 84 227 206 4,938 429 11 Rukum 121 366 149 13,705 761 496 Rupandehi 292 501 1,064 51,591 4,207 1,301 Salyan 129 208 450 3,242 249 74 Sankhuwasabha210 245 473 17,251 1,088 1,582 Saptari 539 831 545 432,075 25,542 2,803 Sarlahi 338 997 769 456,498 14,451 15,492 Sindhuli 290 467 714 164,612 4,059 2,957 Sindhupalchoke314 662 866 96,491 1,395 621 Siraha 328 376 379 68,859 9,759 3,260 Solukhumbu 123 164 515 13,984 545 95 Sunsari 479 531 2,911 258,577 14,923 9,195 Surkhet 81 112 23 4,385 105 210 Syangja 309 388 258 32,989 1,666 939 Tanahu 253 253 366 86,501 793 647 Taplejung 230 276 362 23,503 618 575 Terhathum 99 127 194 10,920 1,574 2,523 Udayapur 263 329 744 75,845 4,367 3,854 Total 16,879 28,138 55,431 5,443,949 206,242 149,762 Source: Nepal Desinventar Database, 2009 NSET
  23. 23. Disaster Database of Disaster Loss Risk Reduction Toolkit The disaster database of different types of disaster within 8 years, from 2001 A.D to 2008 A.D, shows clear picture of Nepal Loss/Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Death 394 418 461 310 192 221 322 171 Missing 95 45 21 58 11 20 189 6 Injured 181 134 287 160 220 150 186 55 Affected Family 26303 16054 40486 11730 16997 4273 1,29,649 21,600 Livestock loss 947 667 2126 1125 905 727 22,140 7066 Destroyed houses 8540 4596 15632 6458 3681 3155 13,655 13864 Damaged Houses 700 1664 4204 361 1137 13 28,041 1228 Agricutural land (Hectare) 520 1025 4,029 21,016 Economic loss (NRs) 1286964014 539874525 4276166156 989909000 341095212 381969055 2230866966 1,63,32300 Source: MOHA
  24. 24. Earthquake Grief of Nepal will be More Horrible Nepal faced destructing earthquakes in1934 A.D and 1985. Meanshilw, there were some small scale earthquakes which also made some damages. The earthquakes and the loss: Loss/Year 1934 1966 1980 1988 Earthquake Magnitude (Richter scale) 8.4 6.6 Earthquake Occurred Area Nepal and India Western Nepal Western Nepal Eastern Nepal Most Affected Area Kathmandu Darchula, Darchula, Sunsari, Dharan Baitadi, Bajang Baitadi, Bajang Death 8,519 14 103 721 Houses Loss 2,07,740 Not Available Not Available 65,000 Source: NSET Lesson learned from the earthquake incidence and the effects occurred after disaster are as follows: Earthquake is not a frequent disaster event. However, experts has mentioned that in every 100 years, Nepal will face a devastating earthquake. Earthquake is not regular as flood, landslide, epedimics etc. Though earthquake occurs in a long time interval, damages and loss of life and property from earthquake will be incredible. It is not possible to predict when earthquake occurs and earthquakes occurs in very short time. Though it is of short duration, it effects the development and destroys all constructiom. Earthquake doesnot kill people, but people die during the breakdown of the constructed buildings. The effect of earthquake is colossal and enormous money and time is necessary for reconstruction and rehabilitation.
  25. 25. Western Nepal: Doti, Achham, Kalikot, Jajarkot, Large number of people died due Flood has effected terai region Kailali and Banke; similarly eastern Nepal: to landslide in eight mountain of Nepal, most people lost Rautahat, Dhanusha, Saptari and Morang- districts of Nepal; Myagdi, Kaski, their lives in central region, More than 400 people are died of Epidemics. Syanjya, Dhading, Sindhupalchowk, Makawanpur and Sarlahi. Disaster The data shows that these districts are mostly Makawanpur, Khotang, Taplejung. Risk affected by epidemics. Reduction Toolkit
  26. 26. Disaster brings economic Landlside has Fire is huge problem in terai region. Flood has affected loss. It is found that affected buildings Enourmous houses are lost due buildings in Jhapa, Morang, disasters like flood, of Syangya, to fire in Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Siraha, Makawanpur, landslide, and fire Dhading, Kaski Siraha, Dhanusa, Mahotari, Parsa, Sindhuli, Chitwan, contributes to the and Makawanpur kapilbastu and Banke districts of Nawalparasi, Rupandehi property loss in Nepal of Manabharat Nepal. including other terai Disaster Risk range. districts. Reduction Toolkit
  27. 27. For more information on DRR please contact any of the partners European Commission Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) Nepal 977 1 4439120 www.ec.europa.eu/echo Australian Government (AusAID) 977 1 4371678 www.ausaid.gov.au Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) 977 1 4211219/4211200 www.moha.gov.np Association of International NGOs (AIN) 977 1 4222271/4222247 www.ain.org.np UNDP Nepal/UNDP-BPCR 977 1 5523200 www.undp.org.np ActionAid Nepal 977 1 4436477/4421232 www.actionaid.org/nepal CARE Nepal 977 1 5522800/5522153 www.carenepal.org Handicap International 977 1 4378482/4374609 www.handicap-international.org Mercy Corps 977 1 5555532 www.mercycorps.org/countries/nepal Practical Action 977 1 4446015/4434482 www.practical action.org Oxfam International 977 1 5530574/5542881 www.oxfam.org DPNet Nepal 977 1 4672165/6226613 www.dpnet.org.np National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET) 977 1 5591000 www.nset.org.np Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) 977 1 4270650/4273734 www.nrcs.org Co-Action Nepal 977 56533168 www.nepaldisaster.org ECO Nepal 977 1 4435844 www.econepal.org
  28. 28. Working Together… for a Risk Resilient Nepal