6. earthquakel dks 6

417 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
417
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

6. earthquakel dks 6

  1. 1. e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷1 “
  2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–^ e'O“rfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷2 “
  3. 3. s[lt M e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f “ n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, c;f/ @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-6-7 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷3 “
  4. 4. k|sfzssf] egfO g]kfn ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo] e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvdsf] P3f/f}F :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 ' F eg] sf7df8f}+ pkTosf ljZjsf hf]lvdk"0f{ bz ;x/dWo]df k5{ . blIf0ftkm{ /x]sf] OlG8og Kn]6 gfd lbOPsf] e"ueL{o r§fg pQ/tkm{ /x]sf] ltAa]ltog r§fgleq 3':g] qmd rln/x]sf] sf/0faf6 oxfFsf] e"ue{ cl:y/ /x]sfn] klg e'Orfnf]sf] F hf]lvd /x]sf] lj1fx?sf] egfO /x]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] P]ltxfl;s ljZn]if0f cg';f/ x/]s &) b]lv Ps ;o jif{sf] aLrdf 7"nf] e'Orfnf] hfg] u/]sf 5 . !(() ;fndf uPsf] dxfe"sDkkl5 @)$% ;fndf F k"jL{ g]kfnsf] pbok'/ glhs} s]Gb|ljGb' eP/ uPsf] e'Orfnf] g} o;aLrsf] 7"nf] F e'Orfnf] xf] . t/ e"ue{ljbx?sf cg';f/ ;f] e'Orfnf] dWod:t/sf] dfq ePsfn] F F s'g} klg lbg g]kfndf dxfe"sDk hfg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] 5 . olb clxn]s} cj:yfdf !(() ;fns} Ifdtfsf] e'Orfnf] uof] eg]] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf ;a}eGbf F a9L Iflt x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . s'g ;dodf sqf] Ifdtfsf] e'Orfnf] hfG5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ ;lsFbg, g t o;sf] F } k"j;rgf g} k|fKt x'G5 . e'Orfnf] hfg] ;do / To;sf] ljgfzsf/L zlQmsf af/]df { " F k"j{ hfgsf/L lng g;lsg] x'gfn] g} o;nfO{ ljgfzsf/L k|sf]k dflgPsf] xf] . o; cj:yfdf xfdLn] e"sDkk|lt/f]wL k|ljlwsf] k|of]u u/]/ 3/ agfpg], 3/leqsf ;/;fdfg e'Orfnf] hfFbf xlNnP/ gn8g] u/L /fVg], cfkTsfnLg emf]nf tof/ F u/L To;df cfkTsfndf rflxg] j:t' /fVg], e'Orfnf] hfFbf kl/jf/sf ;b:o / F 5/l5d]snfO{ ;'/lIft /xg] ljlw l;sfpg] tyf ;'/lIft :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L ;fd'bflos ?kdf ;d]t k"jtof/L ug]{ k|of; ug'{ k5{ . xfdLn] la;{g gx'g] oyfy{ { s] xf] eg] e'Orfnf]n] dflg; dfb}g t/ dflg;n] agfPsf ;+/rgf elTsFbf To;df F { k/]/ dflg; d5{g . To;}n] ;s];Dd alnof ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug'{ g} e'Orfnf]sf] F hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] dxTjk"0f{ sfd xf] . e'Orfnf] / o;af6 x'g] Iflt Go"gLs/0fsf af/]df hlt rrf{ u/] klg sd} x'G5 . F oBlk xfdLn] o; z[ªvnfdf e'Orfnf]af/] ;fdfGo hfgsf/L lbg] k|of; u/]sf F 5f}F . o; k|of;nfO{ n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]n] ;fy{s agfpg' ePsf] dx;"; xfdLn] u/]sf 5f}F . n]vssf] o; b]gn] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf sfo{df ;lqmo /x]sf ;ª3;+:yf, ;fdflhs sfo{stf{ / ;d'bfonfO{ yf]/} dfq ;xof]u ug{ ;sof] eg] klg xfdLn] u/]sf] o; k|of;n] ;fy{stf k|fKt u/]sf] 7fGg]5f}F . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf x/]s z[ªvnf ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg] ;lxt o;nfO{ k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ ] Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n | tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal] e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷4 “
  5. 5. ljifo;"rL e'Orfnf]sf] kl/ro tyf o;af/]sf] e|d “ %–* k[i7e"ld % e'Orfnf]sf] cy{ “ ^ e'Orfnf];DaGwL e|fds wf/0ff “ ^ e|fds wf/0ffdflysf] ljZjf; / c;/ * e'Orfnf hfg] sf/0f / k|sf/ “ (–!@ g]kfndf e'Orfnf] hfg] sf/0f “ ( e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf “ !) e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf/ “ !! e'Orfnf]sf] clen]vg “ !@ e'Orfnf]sf] Oltxf; “ !#–!% e'Orfnf]sf] pTklQ “ !# ljZjdf uPsf e'Orfnf] “ !# g]kfndf e'Orfnf]sf] Oltxf; “ !% e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd tyf k"jtof/L “ { !&–@# e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf sf/0f !& hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/L { !* cfGtl/s k"jtof/L { @! e'Orfnf] uPdf ckgfpg' kg]{ zts{tf “ @# kLl8tsf] p4f/ tyf /fxt Joj:yfkg @%–#! e'Orfnf] /f]lsgf;fy ug]{ p4f/ “ @% p4f/ sfo{sf] juL{s/0f / Joj:yfkg @^ pk;+xf/ #! e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷5 “
  6. 6. e'Orfnf]sf] kl/ro tyf o;af/]sf] e|d “ k[i7e"ld k[YjLsf] aflx/L ;txdf x'g] sDkg g} e'Orfnf]] xf] . w]/} ;fgf] :t/sf] e'Orfnf] F F k[YjLdf lg/Gt/ uO/xg] eP klg dflg;n] yfxf kfpg] sDkgsf] ;ªVof sd} x'G5 . dflg;n]] ;fdfGotof rf/ l/S6/:s]neGbf dflysf] e'Orfnf]sf] dfq cg'ej F u5{ . zlQmzfnL e'Orfnf] slxn]sfxLF dfq hfg] eP klg of] Hofb} ljgfzsf/L F x'G5 . !(() ;fn df3 @ ut] lbpF;f] @ ah]/ !% ldg]6df uPsf] *=# l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf] cfw'lgs g]kfnsf] ljgfzsf/L e'Orfnf] dflgG5 . To; e'Orfnf]df k/L F F F g]kfndf *,%!( hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] eg] nfvf}F dflg; 3fOt] / 3/af/ljxLg ePsf lyP . @)$% ;fn ebf} % ut] pbok'/ lhNnfsf] d'sRr] eGg] 7fpFdf s]Gb|laGb' ePsf] {' ^=* l/s6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ klg ljgfzsf/L dflgP klg of] dWod:t/sf] F e'Orfnf] lyof] . ;f] e'Orfnf]df k/L k"jf{~rnsf] w/fgdf dfq &!( hgfsf] Hofg F F uPsf] lyof] . To; e'Orfnf]df g]kfne/ ()) dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] tYofªs F kfOG5 . e'Orfnf] nfdf] ;dodf hfg] 36gf ePsfn] o;n] af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, F cfunfuLn] h:tf] ;w}el/ b'Mv lbFbg, t/ o;n] k[YjLdf PsfPs txNsf dRrfP/ F } hgwgsf] Jofks Iflt u5{ . af9L, klx/f], x'/Latf;, cfunfuLnufotsf k|sf]kn] h:t} s'g} k"j;ªst gb]vfOsg PSsf;L hfg] ePsf]n] klg e'Orfnf]n] Hofbf Iflt { ] F ug]{ u/]sf] xf] . e'Orfnf] cfkm}df k|sf]k eg] xf]Og . e'Orfnf]n] g} dflg; dfb}g, g t 3fOt] g} F F F { agfpFb5 . o;sf] ljkl/t e'Odf PsfPs sDkg x'bf dflg;n] agfPsf 3/, F F lah'nL tyf 6]lnkmf]g ljt/0fsf nflu ufl8Psf vDaf / n67f, k'n, cflb sdhf]/ ;+/rgf tyf ef}lts k"jf{wf/x¿ eTsG5 . o;/L eTs]sf cjz]ifdf lslrP/ dflg; d5{g, 3fOt] x'G5g, wgdfn k'l/P/ jf lylrP/ gi6 x'G5 / k|sf]ksf] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . k[YjLsf] ;txaf6 xhf/f}F lsnf]ld6/leq e"ue{df x'g] ljleGg ultljlw tyf k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f e'Orfnf] pTkGg x'G5 . e'Orfnf] pTkGg x'g] sf/0fdf Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6 F F klg Ps xf] . e"ue{sf] leqL efudf w]/} tftf] x'g] ePsfn] ToxfF 9'ªuf–df6f];d]t klUnP/ plDn/x]sf] n]bf]sf] ¿kdf /xG5, h;nfO{ DofUdf elgG5 . emf]n DofUdfnfO{ To;dfly t}l/Psf r§fgn] lyRb5, h;af6 DofUdfdf rfk kl//x]sf] x'G5 . o;/L kg]{ rfkdf j[l4 x'b} uPdf n]bf] kbfy{sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] DofUdfn] lgsf; vf]Hb5 / F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷6 “
  7. 7. sdhf]/ e"efu x'b} dflylt/ lg:sG5 . sdhf]/ e"efu eP/ aflx/ lg:sg] qmddf F DofUdf tLj| j]udf aflx/ lg:s]/ lj:kmf]6 x'G5, h;nfO{ Hjfnfd'vL elgG5 . o;/L 7"nf] zlQmsf ;fy Hjfnfd'vL k'm6bf ;txdf sDkg eP/ e'Orfnf] hfG5 . F To;}u/L k[YjLsf] leqL dWoefult/ ljleGg cfsf/sf 7"nf r§fgx¿ /x]sf x'G5g . k[YjLsf] e"ue{leq /x]sf tL r§fg ultzLn cj:yfdf /x]sf x'G5g . ultzLn cj:yfdf /x]sf r§fg ha Pscfk;df 3':5g, 7f]lSsG5g jf 5'l' §G5g ta ToxfF 7"nf] zlQm k}bf x'G5 / k|:km'l6t x'g lgsf; vf]Hg] qmddf sdhf]/ ;tx x'b} aflx/ F lg:sG5 . ToxL zlQm aflx/ lg:sg] qmddf e";txdf sDkg k}bf eP/ e'Orfnf] F hfG5 . o;sf cnfjf cf0fljs e§L tyf cf0fljs z:q–c:qsf] lj:kmf]6af6 klg k[YjLsf] ;txdf sDkg eP/ e'Orfnf] hfg] u5{ . F oxfF xfdLn] s] a'‰g' h¿/L 5 eg] ;–;fgf e'Orfnf] lgoldt ¿kdf uO/x] klg F ljgfzsf/L e'Orfnf] nfdf] ;dodf hfG5 / w/ftn kmf6]/, dflg;åf/f agfOPsf F 3/, uf]7, :s"n, ;fj{hlgs ejg, lah'nLsf vDaf cflb eTs]/ / 9n]/ hgwgsf] Jofks Iflt u5{ . e'O“rfnf]sf] cy{ < xfdLn] l:y/ /x]sf] cg'ej ul//x]sf] k[YjLsf] ;txdf PsfPs cfpg] s'g} klg lsl;dsf] sDkgnfO{ e'Orfnf] elgG5 . g]kfn k|1f k|lti7fgsf] a[xt g]kfnL F zAbsf]if tyf x]dfªu/fh clwsf/Lsf] k|wfg;DkfbsTjdf ljBfyL{ k|sfzgåf/f k|sflzt k|of]ufTds g]kfnL zAbsf]ifcg';f/ crfgs e'OF xlNng] k|lqmofnfO{ e'Orfnf] jf e"sDk elgPsf] 5 . lgDg ;dLs/0fn] e'Orfnf]nfO{ cem :ki6 kf5{ M F F e" -e'OF jf hldg_ + rfnf] -rNg' jf xNng'_ = e'Orfnf] F To;}u/L, e" -e'O_ + sDk -sfKg'_ = e'Orfnf] F F o;k|sf/ hldg xlNng] jf sDkg x'g] k|lqmofnfO{ g} e'Orfnf] jf e"sDk elgG5 . F k|sf]ksf cGo 36gfsf t'ngfdf e'Orfnf] cToGt} zlQmzfnL / ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . F slt zlQmsf] e'Orfnf] slxn], s'g ;dodf / s;/L hfG5 eg]/ cg'dfg ug{ F ;lsFbg . jt{dfg ;dosf] cfw'lgs k|ljlwn] ;d]t e'Orfnf]sf] k"j;rgf k|fKt ug]{ } F { " ljlw kQf nufpg ;s]sf] 5}g . e'Orfnf] hfg] ;do / To;sf] zlQmsf af/]df F cufl8 g} hfgsf/L x'g] k|ljlwsf] ljsf; geP;Dd o;af6 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf /lx/xg] x'G5 . To;}n] lj1fgsf] pRr k|ljlwo'Qm ljZjsf] ;Dk"0f{ ;dfh;d]t ;b}j e'Orfnf]sf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] k|sf]kaf6 ;Gq:t /x]sf] 5 . F e'Orfnf];DaGwL e|fds wf/0ff “ e'Orfnf] hfg] qmd jt{dfg o'uaf6 k|f/De ePsf] xf]Og . k[YjLsf] pTklQ ePb]lv F g} e'Orfnf] uO/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] kf}/fl0fs sfndf ;d]t e'Orfnf] hfg] tYosf] F F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷7 “
  8. 8. cg'el" taf6 dflg; aflx/ lyPg . e"ue{zf:qLx¿sf cg';f/ cflbdsfndf k[YjLdf w]/} 7"nf] e'Orfnf] hfg] uYof]{ . ljzfn e'Orfnf] hfFbf k[YjLsf] ef}uf]lns :j¿k;d]t F F kl/jt{g x'GYof] . t/ dfgjsf] pTklQsfndf af}l4s Ifdtfsf] ljsf; eOg;s]sf sf/0f e'Orfnfsf] tYofªs gePsf] x'g ;S5 . w]/} k6s 7"N7"nf e'Orfnf] hfg] F F qmdd} % s/f]8 jif{ klxn] uPsf] k|nosf/L e'Orfnf]af6 blIf0f Pl;ofsf] e"If]q F 6]ly; ;fu/af6 p7]/ ;u/dfyf ag]sf] cWoogaf6 e]l6Psf] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 . k|frLg sfndf dflg; hªunL cj:yfd} /x]sf] tyf hg;ªVof yf]/} ePsf] / cfhsf] h:tf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; klg gePsfn] e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] hgwgsf] F Iflt klg t'ngfTds¿kdf yf]/} g} x'GYof] . cWoog cg';Gwfgsf cfwf/ gePsf sf/0f tTsfnLg dflg;n] O{Zj/sf] >fk jf k[YjL af]Sg] df5f jf s5'jfn] sfFw km]bf{ k[YjL xlNnPsf] cg'dfg u/]sf] x'gk5{ . To;}n] cfh klg xfd|f ufpF3/df ' afnaflnsfnfO{ k/Dk/fut ¿kdf rNb} cfPsf unt syf ;'gfP/ e|fds lzIff lbg] k|rng sfod} 5 . h;n] u|fdL0f e]udf e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf]kk|lt ;r]t eP/ F Iflt Go"gLs/0f ug]{ sfo{df cj/f]w v8f u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] e'Orfnf] hfg] k/Dk/fut F ¿kdf rNb} cfPsf lgDg syg ;To xf]Ogg eGg] a'‰g' h¿/L 5 M yfnh:tf] r]K6f] k[YjL ;fu/dfly cl8Psf] 5 . o;nfO{ ;d'bsf 7"nf df5f | jf uf]xLn] rf/;'/df a;]/ af]ssf 5g . tL hgfj/ yfs]/ r6k6fpFbf k[YjL ] xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfG5 eGg] ljZjf; k|frLg dflg;n] u¥of] / o:t} syf F cfh klg ;'Gg kfOG5 . ;fu/df /x]sf 7"N7"nf s5'jfdfly pleP/ rf/j6f xfQLn] k[YjLnfO{ cfˆgf] sfFwdf af]ls/x]sf 5g . xfQL un]/ ;do–;dodf sfFw km]5g . To;a]nf{ k[YjL xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfg] syf klg ufpF3/df ;'Gg kfOG5 . F k[YjLnfO{ z]ifgfun] af]ssf] 5 / To;n] cfˆgf] z/L/ xNnfpFbf k[YjL ] xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfG5 eg]/ klg syf ;'gfpg] k|rng 5 . F k/Dk/fut ¿kdf dflg;n] h]h:tf cg'dfg u/] klg e";tx xlNng] k|lqmof g} e'Orfnf] xf] eGg] s'/f rfxLF ;To xf] . To; ;dodf 1fgsf] cefj sf/0f dflg;n] F cg'dfg dfq u/]sf] x'gk5{ .' k|frLg sfndf ljsl;t ePsf To:tf wf/0ffnfO{ q'6Lk"0f{ elgxfNg' klg x'bg . F } cWoog–cg';Gwfg x'g g;s]sf] clzlIft ;dodf dflg;n] o:t} sNkgf ug'afx]s { csf]{ ljsNk lyPg . t/ clxn] ljZjdf dflg;n] csNkgLo pGglt u/]sf] 5 . 1fg– lj1fgsf If]qdf pRr:t/sf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . o; cj:yfdf xfdLn] k|frLgsfndf ul/Psf tL cg'dfg 7Ls x'g jf xf]Ogg eg]/ ljZn]if0f ug'{ cfjZos 5 . dfly pNn]v ul/Psf k|frLg wf/0ff e|fds / unt ePsf] tYonfO{ o;/L k'li6 ug{ ;lsG5 M k[YjL ;d'bdfly t}l/Psf] 5}g, of] ;f}od08nsf u|xx¿sf] u'¿Tjfsif{0f | { e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷8 “
  9. 9. ansf cfwf/df z"Go cfsfzdf 3'ld/x]sf] 5 . k[YjL r]K6f] 5}g, of] t pQ/L w|j cln sf]N6f] k/]sf] es'08f]h:tf] uf]nf] 5 . ' O{Zj/ l/;fP/ k[YjLsf] w/ftn xlNng] xf]Og, of] t e"ue{sf] agf]6sf] cj:yfåf/f ToxfF rNg] ljleGg ultljlwaf6 pTkGg zlQm aflx/ lg:sFbf k[YjLsf] ;tx xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfG5 . F o;af6 xfdLn] s] a'‰g'k5{ eg], e'Orfnf] lgtfGt k|fs[lts sf/0fn] hfG5 . o;df F O{Zj/, ;d'b,| df5f, s5'jf, xfQL, z]ifgfu cflb s'g} h}ljs k|f0fLsf] xft 5}g . e|fds wf/0fdflysf] ljZjf; / c;/ e'Orfnf] b}jL zlQmsf sf/0f hfG5 eGg] k/Dk/fut dfGotfsf sf/0f To;af6 F aRg} ;lsFbg eGg] e|d ;dfhdf ljBdfg /x]sf] kfOG5 . e'Orfnf] O{Zj/Lo sf/0fn] } F hfG5 eGg] e|ds} sf/0f ljZjsf clwsf+z ;dfhdf o;af6 aRg ckgfpg'kg]{ zts{tf tyf pkfotkm{ w]/sf] Wofg hfg ;s]sf] 5}g . e'Orfnf] Ps lsl;dsf] } F e"ueL{o 36gf xf] h;sf] k|efj k[YjLsf] ;tx;Dd k5{ / o;af6 x'g] Iflt k"/} /f]Sg g;lsP klg x'g;Sg] Iflt 36fpg] pkfo ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] wf/0ff / ;fx;sf] ljsf; ePdf e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg ;lsG5 . t/ cem} klg o; k|fs[lts F 36gfk|lt /x]sf] unt / e|fds ljrf/ g} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] k|dv tuf/f] ag]sf] ' kfOG5 . To;}n] e'Orfnf] hfg] ;DaGwdf ;dfhdf JofKt k/Dk/fut e|fds wf/0ffnfO{ F Tofu]/ xfd|f 3/, ljBfno jf cGo ef}lts ;+/rgf ;se/ e'Orfnf]af6 geTsg] F k|ljlw / ;'ema'emaf6 lgdf{0f ug'k5{ . ;a}eGbf klxn] e'Orfnf] hfg;Sg] sf/0f { F yfxf kfpg'k5{ / To;cg'¿k ;'/Iffsf pkfo ckgfpg'k5{ . t/ O{Zj/Lo zlQmsf sf/0fn] jf df5f, s5'jf jf xfQLn] af]ssf] k[YjL ltgn] sfFw km]bf{ jf tL hgfj/ ] r6k6fpFbf e'Orfnf] hfG5 eGg] unt wf/0ffnfO{ TofUg'k5{ . F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷9 “
  10. 10. e'Orfnf] hfg] sf/0f / k|sf/ “ k[YjLsf] ;tx ;fdfGotof l:y/ / crn /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ ;txb]lv ;of}F lsnf]ld6/ leqsf] e"ueL{o v08 rnfodfg x'G5 . w]/} rfk / bafasf sf/0f ;of}F lsnf]ld6/ leq xhf/f}F l8u|L ;]G6Lu|8 tfkdf aln/x]sf] n]bf] otfplt 3'ld/x]sf] x'G5, h;nfO{ ] DofUdf elgG5 . ToxL DofUdfdfly 7"nf7"nf r§fg t}l//x]sf x'G5g . To;/L t}l/Psf r§fg Pscfk;df 3':bf jf 5'l§Fbf DofUdf dflylt/ cfpFb5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf xfdLn] sNkg} ug{g;Sg] zlQm pTkGg x'G5 . ToxL zlQmsf] bafa ;tx;Dd cfOk'Ub5 / sDkg k}bf x'G5 . e"ue{df /x]sf] DofUdf a]u;fy rNbf To;n] aflx/lt/ cfpg] sdnf] :yfg e]6df ] 7"nf] lj:kmf]6;fy aflx/ Hjfnfd'vLsf ¿kdf lg:sG5 . o;/L Hjfnfd'vLsf] lj:kmf]6 x'bf klg 7"nf] zlQm pT;h{g eP/ k[YjLsf] ;txdf sDkg k}bf x'G5 / F e'Orfnf] hfG5 . F e'Orfnf] hfg] dfgjLo sf/0f klg b]vf kg{ yfn]sf 5g . 7"nf vfgLaf6 kmnfd, F sf]Onf, t]n cflb pTvgg ubf{ tL j:t'n] cf]u6]sf] 7fpF vfnL x'G5 . To; vfnL 7fpFdf leqL ;txsf] DofUdf lg:sg ;lhnf] x'g] jf aflx/L hldg efl:;g] qmddf ;tx xlNnP/ e'Orfnf] hfg] u/]sf] 5 . o;/L hfg] e'Orfnf]sf] ljgfzsf/L Ifdtf F F eg] k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 hfg] e'Orfnf]sf] t'ngfdf guGo g} x'G5 . F o;sf cltl/Qm cf0fljs xltof/sf] k/LIf0f ubf{ klg To;n] e";txdf sDkg k}bf u5{ . ljgfzsf/L ¿ksf ljzfn klx/f] hfFbf klx/f] uPsf] :yfg 5]p5fpsf] a;f]af; If]qsf] hldg xlNnFbf klg e'Orfnf]af6 x'gh:t} gf]S;fg x'g;S5 . F ] e'Orfnf] hfg] cGo sf/0f h]h:tf eP klg e"ue{leqsf rnfodfg Kn]6sf] F ultzLntf / Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6 g} k|dv e'sDkLo sf/0f x'g . o;/L hfg] ' e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf ljleGg :t/sf] x'G5 . sltko e'Orfnf] uPsf] xfdLn] yfxf g} F F kfpFbgf}F . ljz]ifu/L $ l/S6/:s]neGbf dflysf] e'Orfnf] dfq xfdLn] yfxf kfpFb5f}F . } F g]kfndf e'OFrfnf] hfg] sf/0f g]kfnsf] ef}ule{s :j¿k Hjfnfd'vL hfg] lsl;dsf] gePsf] ljz]if1x¿n] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf 5g . To;}n] g]kfn / l5d]sL d'ns ef/t tyf rLgsf] g]kfnL ;Ldf ' If]qdf Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6af6 e'Orfnf] hfg] s'g} cfwf/ /x]sf] 5}g . xfn;Ddsf F cWoog tyf cg';Gwfgcg';f/ o; If]qdf e"ueL{o r§fgdf /x]sf] ultzLntfs} sf/0f e'Orfnf] hfg]u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . F e"ue{df /x]sf o:tf r§fgnfO{ 6]S6f]lgs Kn]6 eg]/ j}1flgs gfdfs/0f ul/Psf] 5 . oL Kn]6 cfk;df 3':bf, 3if{0f x'bf jf ljkl/t lbzftkm{ 5'l§Fbf ToxfFaf6 ljzfn F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷10 “
  11. 11. zlQm pTkGg x'G5 . To;/L lg:s]sf] zlQm k[YjLsf] ;txtkm{ x'lQP/ cfpFbf sDkg k}bf eP/ e'Orfnf] hfG5 . F g]kfndf blIf0ftkm{ /x]sf]] OlG8og tyf pQ/tkm{ /x]sf]] ltAa]ltog Kn]6sf]aLr x'g] 3if{0f jf ljR5]bgh:tf cGtlqm{ofsf sf/0f e'Orfnf] hfg]u/]sf] e"ue{ljbx¿sf] F egfO /x]sf] 5 . sl/a ;f9] rf/ s/f]8 jif{klxn] OlG8og Kn]6 / o'/l] ;og elgg] ltAa]ltog Kn]6 cfk;df 7f]lSsP/ cfPsf] ljzfn e'Orfnf]af6 6]ly; ;fu/ F ePsf] 7fpFdf clxn]sf] lxdfno kj{tsf] pTklQ ePsf] lj1x¿sf] egfO 5 . g]kfnsf] blIf0ftkm{ /x]sf] ef/tLo Kn]6 @=% ;]lG6ld6/ k|ltjif{sf b/n] pQ/tkm{ /x]sf] ltAa]ltog Kn]6leq 3':g] u/]sf] 5 . o;/L Kn]6 Pscfk;df 3':bf k[YjLsf] aflx/L ;tx klg v'DrFb} hfG5 . of] k|lqmof lg/Gt/ rln/xg] xf] eg] kfFr ;o jif{df g]kfnsf] e"ld !) ld6/;Dd v'Drg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L v'lDrPsf] ;tx Ps}k6s wl:;of] eg] * l/S6/:s]neGbf dflysf] zlQmePsf] e'Orfnf] F hfg;S5 . o;k|sf/ OlG8og / ltAa]ltog 6]S6f]lgs Kn]6sf] ultzLntf g} g]kfndf e'Orfnf] hfg] k|dv sf/0f dfGg ;lsG5 . F ' e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf “ k[YjLdf e'Orfnf] guPsf] ;do g} x'bg . e"ueL{o ultzLntf lgoldt ¿kdf F F } rln/xg] ePsfn] e'Orfnf] klg lgoldt ¿kdf uO/x]sf] x'G5 . ;fdfGotof b'O{ F l/S6/:s]n;Ddsf] e'Orfnf] Ps 306fdf !^) j6f hfg]u/]sf] cg'dfg e"ue{ljbx¿sf] F /x]sf] kfOG5 . lgoldt ¿kdf uO/xg] Ps jf b'O{ l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf] xfdLn] yfxf kfpg F ;Sb}gf}F . ;fdfGotof #=% l/s6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf] ;fdfGo cj:yfdf /x]sf] dflg;n] F yfxf kfpg ;S5 . eL8ef8 jf sfddf Jo:t dflg;n] t $ l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf] klg yfxf kfpg d'l:sn k5{ . o:tf ;fgf e'Orfnf]af6 vf;} Iflt gx'g] F F ePsfn] klg dflg;n] Totflt/ vf;} Wofg lbPsf] x'bg . F } ;fdfGotof $=% l/S6/ :s]nsf] e'Orfnf]n] 3/uf]7 jf ;fwf/0f ;+/rgfdf yf]/} F dfq Iflt k'¥ofpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . e"ue{af6 pTkGg x'g] zlQmsf cfwf/df e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf a9b} hfG5 / hgwgsf] Ifltsf] cg'kft klg To;}cg'¿k F a95 . * l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ ljZjdf lgs} ljgfzsf/L dflgG5 . g]kfndf F @)() ;fnsf] e'Orfnf] *=# l/S6/:s]n Ifdtfsf] lyof] h;df k/]/ * xhf/eGbf F a9L dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] sl/a *) xhf/ 3/ Wj:t ePsf lyP . e'Orfnf]sf] gfkdf lemgf] cGt/ cfP klg To;af6 pTkGg x'g] zlQmdf 7"nf] cGt/ F x'G5 . e'Orfnf]sf] dfk Ps l/S6/:s]n a9bf sDkg !) u'0ff a9b5 eg] #@ u'0ff F a9L pmhf{ pTkGg x'G5 . o; lx;facg';f/ * l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf] hfFbf tLg F l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] sDkgsf] t'ngfdf * l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]sf] F F sDkg !) nfv u'0ff a9L x'G5 eg] zlQmsf] pT;h{g # s/f]8 u'0ff a9L x'G5 . e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf / To;af6 pTkGg x'g] sDkg tyf zlQmsf] :j¿k s:tf] x'G5 F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷11 “
  12. 12. eGg] hfgsf/L tflnsf g+= ! af6 ldNb5 . e'Orfnf]sf] k|sf/ “ oGqLo M dflg;n] ) b]lv @=$ l/S6/:s]n;Ddsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ cg'ej ug{ F ;Sb}g . o:tf] e'Orfnf] uPsf] k|df0f oflGqs clen]vaf6 dfq yfxf kfpg F ;lsG5 . e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf gfKg] oGq l;:df]ufkmåf/f dfq yfxf kfOg] ePsfn] F | o; :t/sf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ oGqLo e'Orfnf] elgG5 . F F IfL0f M o;k|sf/sf] e'Orfnf] jf sDkgsf] cg'ej ;+jbgzLn dflg;n] dfq cg'ej F ] ug{;S5g . IfL0f e'Orfnf]sf] dfk @=$ b]lv #=$ l/S6/:s]n;Dd x'G5 . F xNsf M #=% b]lv $=@ l/S6/:s]n dfksf] o;:t/sf] e'Orfnf] glhs}af6 6«s F jf a; rNbf pGkGg x'g] sDkg tyf ysf{x6h:t} x'G5 . xNsf dflgg] o; :t/sf] e'Orfnf]sf] cg'ej cf/fd ul//x]sf jf ;fdfGo cj:yfdf sfd ul//x]sf F dflg;n] dfq u5{g . ;fdfGo M $=# b]lv tflnsf M ! e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf, sDkg / zlQm pT;h{g “ $=* l/S6/ :s]n;Dd dfksf] e'OFrfnf]sf] tLj|tf jf dfkg w/ftnLo zlQm j[l4 cg' e j lxF l 8/x] s f] -l/S6/:s]n_ sDkgdf j[l4 -cg'dflgt_ dflg;n] klg )=! !=# u'0ff !=$ u'0ff ug{;S5g . ;fdfGo e'Orfnf] (Moderate )=@ F !=^ u'0ff @=) u'0ff earthquake) af6 )=# @=) u'0ff #=) u'0ff 3/leq jf hldgdf )=$ @=% u'0ff $=) u'0ff ePsf j:t' klg )=% #=@ u'0ff %=% u'0ff xlNnG5g . zlQmzfnL M ¿v, )=^ $=) u'0ff %=% u'0ff 3/df em'l08Psf )=& %=) u'0ff !!=@@ u'0ff ;fdfg lgs} /fd|/L )=* ^=# u'0ff !%=*% u'0ff xlNnG5g . ;fdfGo¿kdf )=( &=( u'0ff @@=#* u'0ff 78ØfOPsf j:t' !=) !) u'0ff #@ u'0ff 9Nb5g eg] @=) !)) u'0ff !,))) u'0ff oftfoftsf ;fwg #=) !))) u'0ff #!,^@@ u'0ff klN6g] ;Defjgf klg x'G5 . $=( b]lv %=$ $=) !),))) u'0ff !),)),))) u'0ff l/S6/:s]n;Ddsf] %=) !),nfv u'0ff #,!^,@@,&&^ u'0ff dfkg x'g] o;:t/sf] ;|f]tM uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn, kof{j/0f dfl;s, k"0ff{ªs %(, e'Orfnf]nfO{ F k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ljz]if, @)^@ . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷12 “
  13. 13. zlQmzfnL e'Orfnf] elgG5 . F w]/} zlQmzfnL M %=% b]lv ^=! l/S6/:s]n dfk /xg] o; :t/sf] e'Orfnf] vt/fo'Qm F x'G5 . 3/sf] ufx|f] rls{g,] Knf:6/ plKsg], plePsf] dflg; :jod xlNng] cj:yf pTkGg x'G5 . w]/} zlQmzfnL e"SDk Hofb} sdhf]/ 3/ elTsg] ;Defjgf ePsfn] To;df lylrP/ dflg; 3fOt] x'g] jf dg]{ ;Defjgf klg /xG5 . vt/gfs M o; :t/sf] e'Orfnf] lgs} ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . dflg;nfO{ lxF8g F sl7g x'G5 / rnfO/x]sf] ;jf/L;fwg;d]t lgoGq0faflx/ hfg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . ^=@ b]lv ^=( l/S6/:s]n dfksf] x'g] vt/gfs e'Orfnf]af6 kSsL 3/sf] F ;d]t ufx|f] n85 . ;fdfGo / s'g} s'g} ;dodf 7"nf 3/x¿;d]t n8g] x'bf F hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf /xG5 . ljgfzsf/L M & b]lv &=# l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ ljgfzsf/L elgG5 . 3/ F n8g,] hldg lrl/P/ b/f/ aGg], ;8s, k'n elTsg] tyf Hofb} le/fnf] kxf8L If]qdf klx/f] hfg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . ljgfzsf/L e'Orfnf] hfFbf ;+/rgf elTsP/ F lylrFbf lgs} dflg; dg{ ;S5g / 3fOt] x'G5g . ;j{gfzL M lgs} alnof jf ejg lgdf{0fdf Wofg k'¥ofP/ lgdf{0f ul/Psf afx]s w]/h;f] 3/ elTsP/ gi6 x'G5g . o:tf] cj:yfdf t'ngfTds ¿kn] u|fdL0f } e]usf sf7sf 3/ a9L ;'/lIft /xG5g . hldg k'm6]/ kfgL aflx/ lg:sg], klx/f] uP/ gbL y'lgg] / af9L cfpg], cfunfuL x'g] / 7"nf] dfqfdf hgwgsf] Iflt x'G5 . &=$ b]lv * l/S6/:s]n dfksf] ;j{gfzL e'Orfnf]af6 ;alt/ F xfxfsf/ dlRrG5 . k|nosf/L M * l/S6/:s]neGbf dflysf] Ifdtf ePsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ k|nosf/L F e'Orfnf] elgG5 . o; Ifdtfsf] e'Orfnf] lj/n} hfG5 t/ () k|ltzteGbf F F a9L ef}lts ;+/rgf Wj:t x'G5g . o; Ifdtfsf] e'Orfnf] uPdf hldg lrl/g], F pynk'yn x'g,] kxf8 g} efl;g] jf pTklQ x'g,] kfgLsf d'xfg k'm6gh:tf ] 36gfn] k|nosf/L ¿k lng] ;Defjgf /xG5 . o:tf] e'Ornf] uPdf hgwgsf] F ckf/ Iflt x'g;S5 . e'Orfnf]sf] clen]vg “ e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf gfKg] k|lqmofnfO{ clen]vg elgG5 / ;fdfGotof o;nfO{ F e'Orfnf]sf] dfkg elgG5 . e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf tyf tLj|tf dfkg ug]{ oGqnfO{ F F l;:df]uf| km elgG5 . l/S6/:s]nn] e'Orfnf] hfFbf pT;h{g ePsf] pmhf{sf] kl/0ffdsf F cfwf/df o;sf] Ifdtf kQf nufpg l;:df]ufkmn] b]vfPsf] t/ªusf] ljZn]if0f | u/]/ Ifdtfsf] lgwf{/0f ug]{ k|rng 5 . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷13 “
  14. 14. e'Orfnf]sf] Oltxf; F e'OFrfnf]sf] pTklQ k[YjLsf] aflx/L kq lrl:;P/ 7f]; ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 . o;n] e"ue{df plDn/x]sf] DofUdfnfO{ aflx/ lg:sg glbP/ lgoGq0f u/]sf] 5 . e"ue{ljbx¿sf cg';f/ xfd|f] w/ftnaf6 a9Ldf Ps xhf/ lsnf]ld6/ leq /x]sf] Dofudfdfly ljleGg cfsf/k|sf/sf $ b]lv %) dfOn;Dd df]6fOsf ljzfn r§fg t}l//x]sf 5g . oL Pscfk; jf ljk/Lt lbzftkm{ ;':t ultdf lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ultzLn /xG5g . oL Kn]6sf] ;ªVof k[YjL ;]nfpg] qmd;Fu} a9b} uPsf] dflgPsf] 5 . @) s/f]8 jif{klxn];Dd …kf]lGhofÚ elgg] Pp6} dfq Kn]6 /x]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] eP klg clxn] ;Dddf ;of}F Kn]6 alg;s]sf 5g . ljz]if1x¿sf cg';f/ e'Orfnf]sf] pTklQs]Gb|nfO{ cGtMs]Gb| jf xfOkf];G6/ F ] (Hypocenter) elgG5 . of] s]Gb| e";txaf6 a9Ldf & ;o lsnf]ld6/ leq;Dd /x]sf] x'G5 . t/ lxdfno If]qdf pTklQ:yn @) b]lv #) lsnf]ld6/s} ulx/fOdf /x]sf] pNn]v 5 . cGtMs]Gb|af6 pTkGg phf{ dflylt/ cfpFbf k/]sf] r§fgL lr/f (Foult) df 7f]lSsg] s]Gb|nfO{ clws]Gb| (Epicenter) elgG5 . e'Orfnf]af6 pTkGg x'g] zlQmsf] lg;h{g x'g] qmddf d"n jf cGtMs]Gb| x'b} F F clws]Gb|af6 alx/ lgl:sG5 . o;/L pTkGg x'g] e'Orfnf]af6 tLg k|sf/sf] t/ªu F pTkGg x'G5, h;nfO{ k|yflds t/ªu (P Waves), cg'k:y t/ªu (Tranverse/S | Waves) / bL3{ t/ªu (L Waves) elgG5 . oLdWo] kL t/ªs lgs} zlQmzfnL / ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . e'Orfnf]sf] t/ªu l;:df]ufkmdf clen]lvt tYofªssf] ljZn]if0f F | af6 ug]{ k|rng 5 . ljZjdf uPsf e'O“rfnf] aL;f}F ztfAbLdf uPsf e'Orfnf]dWo] To;af6 ePsf] Iflt, k|efj If]q / dfkgsf F b[li6n] d] @@, !(^) df blIf0fL lrnLdf s]Gb|laGb' eP/ uPsf] e'Orfnf] ;a}eGbf F 7"nf] / k|nosf/L dflgPsf] 5 . cl3Nnf] lbg cyf{t @! d] sf lbg * l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]n] lrnLsf] sG;]K;g ;x/df Ps ;o dflg;sf] Hofg lnFb} 7"nf] Iflt F k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . To;sf] ef]lnkN6} cyf{t d] @@ sf lbg k'gM ;f]xL If]qdf (=% l/S6/:s]n dfkgsf] ztfAbLs} ;a}eGbf 7"nf] e'Orfnf] uof] . To; e'Orfnfsf] F F ljgfzsf/L wSsf hfkfg / lkmlnlkG;;Dd k'usf] lyof] . o; e'Orfnf]af6 ;of}F ] F ;x/ / ufpF Wj:t x'bf %,&)) dflg; dfl/Psf lyP . To;kl5sf s}of}F lbg;Dd F klg e'Orfnf]sf 7"nf–7"nf wSsf uO/x]sfn] k|efj If]q klg a9b} uof] . ljleGg F b]zdf y'k}| dfG5] d/]sf] / s/f]8f}F 8n/sf] cfly{s gf]S;fgL ePsf]] @) cf}F ztfAbLs} e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷14 “
  15. 15. ;aeGbf 7"nf] ;f] e'Orfnf]sf] wSsf * ldg]6;Dd /x]/ klZrdL cd]l/sf, c:6«l] nof, F Go'lhNofG8, hfkfg, lkmlnlkG;, ¿;sf] sfd56sf k|foåLk / xjfOåLknfO{ ;d]t k|efljt agfPsf] lyof] . cd]l/sL /fHo cnf:sfsf] klZrddf s]Gb|laGb' eO{ uPsf] ;g !(^$ dfr{ @* sf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ @) cf}F ztfAbLsf] bf];f] 7"nf] e'Orfnf] dflgG5 . tLg ldg]6;Dd F | F wSsf dx;'; ul/Psf] (=@ l/S6/:s]nsf] ;f] e'Orfnf]sf] wSsf @ nfv *% xhf/ F ju{lsnf]ld6/ If]q;Dd km}lnPsf] lyof] . To;}u/L ( dfr{ !(%& df cd]l/sL cflG8«gkn åLkdf s]Gb|laGb' /x]sf] (=! l/S6/:s]nsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ klg 7"nf] g} dflgG5 . oBlk o;af6 hgwgsf] w]/} F Iflt ePsf] lyPg . e'Orfnf] 7"nf] eP klg o;n] sl/a %) nfv cd]l/sL F 8n/a/fa/ dfq Iflt k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . hgwgsf] Ifltsf lx;fan] x]g{] xf] eg] h'nfO{ @* df !(&^ df rLgdf uPsf] e'Orfnf] ;a}eGbf ljgfzsf/L dflgPsf] 5 . ;f] e'Orfnf]df k/L & nfv %) xhf/ F F dflg;sf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] sl/a % ca{ ^) s/f]8 cd]l/sL 8n/a/fa/sf] cfly{s Iflt ePsf] lyof] . e'Orfnf]sf] ljZjJofkL cj:yf lgs} kL8fbfoL /x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf uPsf ljgfzsf/L F e'Orfnf]sf af/]df ;fdfGo hfgsf/L tflnsf g+= @ af6 k|fKt x'G5 . o;af6 s] F :ki6 x'G5 eg] hgwgsf] Iflt ug{;Sg] e'Orfnf] lgs} nfdf] ;dosf] cGt/fndf F hfg] eP klg To;n] Iflt eg] Hofb} ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . tflnsf g+= @ M la;f}“ ztfAbLsf ljgfzsf/L e'Orfnf] “ qm ;+= ldlt dfk :yfg != d] @@, !(^) (=% blIf0f lrnL @= dfr{ @@, !(^$ (=@ blIf0fL cnf:sf, cd]l/sf #= dfr{ (, !(%& (=! PlG8«gs åLk, cd]l/sf $= gf]eDa/ $, !(%@ (=) ] sfdrf6sf, ¿;L dxf;ª3 % gf]eDa/ #!, !()^ *=* ] OSj]8f]/ ^ k]ma|c/L $, !(^% *=& ' Hof6 åLk, cd]l/sf & cu:6 !%, !(%) *=^ cf;fdsf] ef/t / rLgsf] l;dfIf]q * k]ma|c/L #, !(@# *=% ' sfdfrf6sf, ¿;L dxf;ª3 ( k]ma|c/L !, !(#* *=% ' jfG8f ;d'b, OG8f]gl;of | ] !)= cS6'a/ !), !(^# *=% s'l/nåLk, tTsfnLg ;f]leot ;ª3 e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷15 “
  16. 16. g]kfndf e'OFrfnf]sf] Oltxf; g]kfndf e'Orfnf]sf] P]ltxfl;s b:tfj]hsf] cefj 5 . k|ljlw / 1fgsf] sdL / F tYofªs /fVg] k/Dk/fsf] cefsf sf/0f P]ltxfl;s e'Orfnf]sf] lnlvt b:tfj]h F pknAw x'g g;s]sf] b]lvG5 . ls+jbGtLsf / k|fKt cgf}krfl/s tYofªssf] cWoogsf glthfsf cfwf/df ljz]if1x?n] s'g ;dodf sqf] e'Orfnf] uPsf] F lyof] eg]/ cg'dfg nufPsf 5g -tflnsf g+= #_ . xfn;Dd g]kfndf uPsf e'Orfnf]sf] lnlvt b:tfj]hsf ¿kdf !(() ;fnsf] e'Orfnf]sf] dfq k|df0f F F kfOG5 . tTsfnLg d]h/ a|DxzD;]/sf] dxfe'Orfnf] !(() gfdsf] k':tsdf ;f] F dxfe'Orfnf]sf] Oltj[QfGt k9g kfOG5 . To;}u/L @)$% ;fn ebf} % ut] uPsf] F e'Orfnf]sf] klg k|fdfl0fs tYofªs pknAw 5 . F P]ltxfl;s clen]v cg';f/ !@%% ;fndf uPsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ g} g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf +F k'/fgf] 1ft ePsf] e'Orfnf] dflgG5 . To; e'Orfnf]df k/L tTsfnLg /fhf ceo F +F dNn;lxt w]/} dflg;sf] Hofg uPsf] / hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . g]kfndf uPsf cGo 7"nf e'Orfnf]df !*!), !*##, !*^^ ;fndf F tLgj6f dxfe'Orfnf] uPsf] Oltxf;df pNn]v 5 . To;}u/L, g]kfndf aL;f}F F ztfAbLdf dfq e'Orfnf]df k/L emG8} !! xhf/ dflg;n] csfndf Hofg u'dfpg'k/]sf] +F lyof] . lj;+ !(() ;fnsf] dxfe'Orfnf] af/Daf/ rrf{ eO/xg] kl5Nnf] ;dodf F uPsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] e'Orfnf] xf] . ;f] e'Orfnf]df k/L g]kfndf *,%!( hgfsf] +F F Hofg uPsf] lyof] h;dWo] sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf dfq $,@(^ hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] . o; dxfe'Orfnf]n] y'k}| 3/, dlGb/, kf6Lkf}jf, b]jfno cflb g/fd|/L eTsfPsf] +F lyof] . g]kfndf ljleGg ;dodf ljleGg Ifdtfsf e'Orfnf] uPsf] kfOG5 . () F ;fnkl5 klg ;fgf tyf demf}nf :t/sf y'k}| e'Orfnf] uO;s]sf 5g . @)$% +F ;fndf k"jL{ g]kfndf uPsf] e'Orfnf]nfO{ klg sd ljgfzsf/L dfGg ;lsFbg . F } To; e'Orfnf]df k/L k"jf{~rnsf] k|l;4 ;x/ w/fgdf ;a}eGbf a9L Iflt k'usf] F ] lyof] . P]ltxfl;s sfnb]lvsf e'Orfnf]sf] cWoog ubf{ g]kfndf x/]s *) b]lv !)) F jif{df 7"nf] / $) b]lv %) jif{df demf}nf vfnsf] e'Orfnf] hfg] u/]sf] b]lvG5 . +F o; oyfy{nfO{ x]bf{ g]kfndf casf] s'g} klg ;do 7"nf] e'Orfnf] hfg ;Sg] +F ;Defjgf 5 . o; ;Gbe{df ljleGg ;+:yfx?n] u/]sf] cWoogn] g]kfndf !(() ;fnsf] Ifdtfsf] e'Orfnf] uPdf sf7df8f}df dfq $) xhf/eGbf w]/} dflg;sf] +F + d[To x'g;Sg], Ps nfveGbf w]/} dflg; 3fOt] x'g;Sg] / ^) k|ltzteGbf w]/} 3/ k"0f{ ¿kdf Ifltu|:t x'g] cg'dfg 5 . To;}u/L pkTosfsf vfg]kfgL, lah'nL, 6]lnkmf]g, c:ktfn, af6f]nufotsf ;+/rgf Ifltu|:t eP/ hLjg si6k"0f{ aGg] cg'dfg ljz]if1x?n] u/]sf 5g . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷16 “
  17. 17. tflnsf g+ # M g]kfn s]Gb|laGb' eO{ uPsf P]ltxfl;s e'Orfnfx¿ “ qm;+ ldlt -lj;+_ Iflt != @)!# c;f/ /fhf ceo dNn;d]t xhf/f}“ pkTosfaf;Lsf] d[To' / w]/} dlGb/ tyf 3/x¿sf] Iflt @= !#!^ hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt / To;sf] k|efjaf6 clgsfn nfu]sf] #= !$^$, ebf} hgwg / kz'sf] 7"nf] Iflt / /ftf] dlR5Gb|gfysf] dlGb/ klg Ifltu|:t $= !&#&, k'; hgwgsf] w]/} Iflt ePsf] %= !&#*, h]7 hgwg / 3/x¿sf] 7"nf] Iflt ePsf] ^= !*@$, c;f/ Ps lbgd} @! k6s uPsf] e'Orfnf]af6 “ hgwgdf Jofks Iflt ePsf] &= !*^^, h]7 P]ltxfl;s ;Dkbfsf ¿kdf /x]sf dlGb/x¿ Ifltu|:t *= !**), odk~rdL 7"nf] e'Orfnf] cfPsf] eP klg hgwgsf] sd Iflt “ (= !*(), ebf} sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf ;x/x¿ k|efljt ePsf !)= !*(! c;f/b]lv w]/} e'Orfnf] uP klg hgwgsf] Jofks Iflt ePsf] “ ebf};Ddsf !!= !(&# g]kfnsf] ;'b/klZrddf w]/} 7"nf] Iflt " !@= !(*# df3 ef/tsf] k6gf / laxf/ k|efljt eO{, g]kfndf Go"g k|efj k/]sf] !#= !((), df3 #,*%) k'?if / $,^^( dlxnf;lxt *,%!( sf] d[To', w/x/f, 3G6f3/;lxt xhf/f“} dlGb/, 3/ gi6 eP/ w]/} 7"nf] Iflt ePsf] !$= @)@#, c;f/ ;'b/klZrddf @$ dflg;sf] d[To' / !,#)) eGbf a9L 3/ " eTs]/ 7"nf] Iflt !%= @)#&, ;fpg aemfª lhNnfj/k/ 7"nf] Iflt ePsf] . !)# hgfsf] d[To' tyf @,%)) eGbf a9L 3/ Ifltu|:t ePsf !^= @)$%, ebf} pbok'/ lhNnfdf s]Gb|laGb' ePsf] e'Orfnf]af6 &@! “ hgfsf] d[To' tyf ^%,))) eGbf a9L 3/x¿df Iflt k'usf] ] ;|f]tM 8f= d]3/fh lwtfn, kof{j/0f dfl;s, k"0ff{ªs %(, k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ljz]if, @)^@ . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷17 “
  18. 18. e'OFrfnf]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"j{tof/L e"sDkLo hf]lvdsf sf/0f e'Orfnf]n] dflg; dfb}g t/ e'OF xlNnFbf dflg;n] agfPsf ef}lts ;+/rgf elTsFbf F { To;df lslrP/ dflg; dg]{ / 3fOt] x'G5g / wg;DklQ klg gi6 x'G5 . dfgjlgld{t ;+/rgf alnof, Jojl:yt / e/kbf]{ ePdf jf e'Orfnf]sf] ;fdfGo wSsfn] Iflt F ug{ g;Sg] Ifdtfsf ePdf hgwgsf] Iflt ck]Iffs[t Go"g x'G5 . hfkfg, cd]l/sfh:tf ljsl;t d'nsdf ejg, ;8s, k'n cflb ;+/rgf e'Orfnf]sf] dfkb08cg'¿k ' F lgdf{0f ePsf sf/0f ToxfF 7"nf] e'Orfnf] uP klg dfgjLo Iflt sd x'gu5{ . t/ F ] g]kfn / g]kfnh:tf ljsf;zLn d'nssf] kL8f km/s 5 . sdhf]/ ef}lts ;+/rgf, ' ul/aL, clzIffh:tf sf/0fn] g]kfndf ;fg} e'Orfnf] uPdf klg hgwgsf] Ifltn] F sxfnLnfUbf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g] ;Defjgf b]lvPsf] 5 . g]kfndf e'Orfnf]sf] F hf]lvdsf s]xL sf/0f lgDgcg';f/ 5g M ;fdflhs ;f]r g]kfn / g]kfnh:tf cNkljsl;t tyf clzlIftsf] ;ªVof w]/} /x]sf d'nsdf ' e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd a9fpg] sfo{df k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs ;f]rn] klg 7"nf] e"ldsf F v]nsf] 5 . e'Orfnf] ef}ule{s sf/0fn] hfg] geP/ b}jL sf/0fn] hfG5 eGg] e|fds ] F wf/0ff g} o;sf] hf]lvd a9fpg] sf/0f xf] . ;dfhaf6 o; k|sf/sf e|d gx6];Dd ;'/lIft :yfgdf e'Orfnf] k|lt/f]wL 3/ jf cGo ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ug]{ tyf agfpg] F b[9tf dflg;df pTkGg x'g ;Sb}g . cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0f g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] ;d:of cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0f b]lvPsf] 5 . ;fF3/f] af6f] ' tyf uNnLdf dfkb08ljxLg cUnf 3/sf] lgdf{0f hf]lvdo'Qm /x]sf] 5 . To;}u/L lah'nL, 6]lnkmf]g, s]an 6]lnlehgsf tf/ 6fFluPsf vDafn] ;x/L If]qdf ;jf{lws ' hf]lvdnfO{ a9fpg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf clwsf+z lgdf{0f sfo{ ubf{ tTsfnLg cfjZostfsf] k"lt{ ug{df dfq Wofg lbg] k|rng 5 h;n] e'Ornf]sf] ;fdfGo F wSsf klg y]Ug ;Sb}g / c:jefljs ¿kdf hgwgsf] Iflt x'G5 . e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] F Iflt ;x/ ahf/ tyf 3gfa:tLdf s]lGb|t /x]sf] kfOG5 . cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0fsf sf/0f e"pkof]u ;dfg'kflts / ;d'lrt ?kdf x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . ;fF3/f af6f3f6f, ' sdhf]/ 3/ tyf ef}lts ;+/rgfn] e'Orfnf] cfPsf] ;dodf bdsn, PDa'nG;nufot F ] e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷18 “
  19. 19. /fxt tyf p4f/sfo{df afwf pTkGg x'G5 . v'nf rf}/ jf rf]s gx'bf cfkTsfnLg F p4f/ tyf /fxt sfo{df emg Jojwfg pTkGg x'G5 . c;'/lIft lgdf{0f k4lt g]kfndf @)^! ;fnb]lv ejglgdf{0f ;+lxtf nfu" eP klg Tof] s]xL ;x/L If]qdf dfq ;Lldt 5 . To;df klg ;+lxtfsf] sfof{Gjog Hofb} sdhf]/ / cg'udgljxLg /x]sf] 5 . sltko k'/fgf 3/ 6]sf nufP/ c8ofOPsf] kfOG5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf e'Ornf] uOxfn]df hgwgsf] ck"/0fLo Iflt x'g] oyfy{nfO{ gsfg{ ;lsFbg . F } g]kfndf ;fdfGotof *) b]lv !)) jif{df 7"nf] tyf $) b]lv %) jif{df demf}nf :t/sf] e'Orfnf] hfg] u/]sf] tYofªsn] lghL, Jofkfl/s tyf ;fj{hlgs 3/sf] F jt{dfg lgdf{0f k4ltn] lgs} 7"nf] hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] b]lvG5 . cfw'lgs lgdf{0f ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]uaf6 g} 3/ alnof] x'G5 eGg] wf/0ff tyf ;fdu|L k|of]usf] k|jl[ Qn] klg sdhf]/ ejg lgdf{0f x'g] u/]sf] 5 . To;}u/L xfd|f] ;dfhdf ] k'/fgf] lgdf{0f ;fdu|L / k4ltaf6 alnof] 3/ agfpg} ;lsFbg eGg] ;f]rfO klg } 5 . lgdf{0f ;fdu|Ldf u'0f:t/ x'gk5{ eg] tL ;fdu|Lsf] pkof]u;DaGwL k|fljlws ' 1fg klg x'g' h?/L 5 . o;sf nflu ejg tyf cGo ef}lts ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ubf{ k|fljlwssf] ;Nnfx lng'kg]{ x'G5 . of] k|jl[ Q xfdLsxfF gePsfn] sdhf]/ 3/x¿ lgdf{0f x'g] u/]sf] sf/0f e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd cTolws /x]sf] 5 . F hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k"j{tof/L g]kfn ef}ule{s ¿kn] e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvddf /x]sf eP klg ejg / cGo ljsf;sf F ;+/rgfnfO{ e'Orfnf] k|lt/f]wL k|ljlwaf6 lgdf{0f ul/Pdf Iflt Go"gLs/0f x'G5 . F e'Orfnf] s'g} klg ;dodf hfg] ljgfzsf/L 36gf ePsfn] o;af6 x'g;Sg] Iflt F Go"g ug{ ;b}j ;ts{tf ckgfpg' k5{ . e'Ornf]n] Ps–b'O{ JolQm, 3/–kl/jf/ jf F ;d'bfonfO{ dfq geO{ 7"nf] If]q, b]z jf w]/} d'nsnfO{ k|efljt kfg{;S5 . of] ' slxn] cfpF5 / slt Ifdtfsf] x'G5 eGg] yfxf kfpg ;lsFbg g t To;nfO{ /f]Sg } g} ;lsG5 . t/ ;Defljt dfgjLo tyf ef}lts ;DklQsf] IfltnfO{ sd ug{ eg] ;lsG5 . o;/L hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f / k"jtof/Lsf sfo{nfO{ ;/sf/, u}/;/sf/L { ;+:yf / gful/s ;dfhn] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf lgldQ kxn ug'k5{ . oBlk { kl/jf/ / ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iffsf nflu 3/fo;L / :yfgLo txsf] k"jtof/Ln] dxTjk"0f{ { e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{ . kfl/jfl/s tyf :yfgLo txaf6 ug'kg]{ k"jtof/Lsf s]xL { { kIfnfO{ ;+If]kdf k|:t't ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] ;+/rgfTds ;'/Iff e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd Go"g ug]{ k|dv pkfo eg]sf] cfkm" a:g] 3/nfO{ alnof] F ' agfpg' xf] . a;f]af; ug]{ 3/, cf}Bf]lus jf Jofkfl/s ejg / ljBfno tyf e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷19 “
  20. 20. c:ktfn jf :jf:Yorf}sLsf ejg s:tf] :yfgdf s;/L agfpFbf a9L ;'/lIft x'G5g eGg] hfgsf/L /fVg'k5{ . lgDg cj:yfsf 3/ / ef}uf]lns If]q e'Orfnf]sf F b[li6n] ;ªs6fled'v x'g] x'bf ;d'bfon] cTolws hf]lvd axg ug'kg]{ x'G5 M F { cUnf], w]/} sf};L lgsflnPsf], hueGbf dflysf] efu 7"nf] agfP/ lgdf{0f ul/Psf] 3/ e'Orfnf]sf] ;fdfGo wSsfn] ;d]t elTsg ;Sg] x'bf To:tf 3/ F F lgdf{0f ug'xbg . 3/ agfpFbf ;s];Dd rf/ s'gf ldn]sf] agfpg' /k5{ . { F' } husf] cfwf/ / If]qkmneGbf dflyNnf] tnfsf] If]qkmn klg w]/} agfpg'xbg F' } cyf{t dflyNnf] tnfsf] 9nfg aflx/;Dd lgsfn]/ 3/ lgdf{0f ug'xbg .{ F' } afªuf]–l6ªuf] jf gfua]nL cfsf/sf 3/ klg e'Orfnf]sf b[li6n] hf]lvdk"0f{ x'g] F x'bf To:tf] 3/ agfpg' a'l4dfgL x'bg . F F } elTsg nfu]sf k'/fgf 3/n] e'Orfnf]sf] ;fdfGo wSsfnfO{ ;d]t ;xg ug{ F g;Sg] x'bf To:tf 3/df a;f]af; ug'{ vt/fk"0f{ x'G5 . F bnbn] hldg ;fdfGo e'Orfnf] uPdf klg efl;g], e"ljv08g eP/ gbLsf] F axfjdfu{ kl/jt{g x'g] ;Defjgf w]/} x'G5 . To;}u/L tnfp jf kf]v/L ljikmf]6 x'g] x'bf o:tf If]qdf agfOPsf] 3/ jf a;f]af; ;b}j ;ªs6fled'v x'G5 . F Hofb} le/fnf] kfvf]df klx/f] hfg;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] x'bf le/fnf] kfvf] / F kfvf]sf]] km]bL klg a;f]af;sf lx;fan] hf]lvdk"0f{ x'G5 . 3/ agfpFbf klx/f] ghfg], gbLsf] af9Ln] ge]6g,] ;'Vvf / ;'/lIft hUufdf agfpg'k5{ . o;sf nflu pknAw cfˆgf] glhssf] ;x/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f sfof{no jf cGo ;DalGwt lgsfosf k|fljlws;Fu ;Dks{ u/L pgLx¿sf] ;Nnfxcg';f/ 3/ lgdf{0f ug'k5{ . o;sf ;fy} g]kfn ;/sf/n] nfu" u/]sf] { ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtfcg';f/ 3/ lgdf{0f ug'k5{ . { 3/ agfp“bf Wofg lbg' kg]{ ljifo ;x/L If]qdf OF6f, l;d]G6 / kmnfd] /8 k|of]u u/]/ ejg lgdf{0f ug]{ k|rng 5 . sªlqm6 9nfg u/L lkn/jfnf 3/ ;fdfGotof 9'ªufdf6f]sf] uf/f]jfnf 3/eGbf alnof] x'G5 . oBlk lkn/jfnf 3/ agfpFbf klg pko'Qm / ;xL tl/sf ckgfOPg eg] 3/ alnof] x'bg . To;}n] kmnfd] /8, OF6f / l;d]G6sf] lkn/jfnf 3/ agfpFbf F } lkn/, aLdsf 808L /fVg] tl/sf, 808Lsf] uF;fO, lkn/df nufpg] /8nfO{ l/ªn] afFWg] ljlw tyf 9nfgsf] u'0f:t/h:tf ljifodf Wofg k'¥ofpg'k5{ . lkn/jfnf 3/nnfO{ e'Orfnf]sf] wSsfaf6 arfpg 808L tyf l/ªn] dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . F To;}n] 808L] ufF:bf k|z:t vK6ofpg], l/ª nufpFbf hfnL cfsf/sf] agfP/ s:g] ug'k5{ . ljz]if1x?sf cg';f/ ahf/df kfOg] rf/ nfOg jf !@ ldldsf] 808L { hf]8bf sl/a &@ ;]ldhlt vK6ofpg'k5{ . To;}u/L aLdsf] 808Lsf] 5]pnfO{ nueu TolQ g} dfqfdf lkn/leq 3';fpg'k5{ eg] aLd / lkn/sf hf]gL{sf] e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷20 “
  21. 21. 5]p5fpsf efudf rf/ OGreGbf w]/} b"/Ldf l/ª afFWg'xbg . aLd / lkn/sf] F' } hf]gL{sf] efudf klg l/ª rflxFbf] dfqfdf /flvPsf] x'gk5{ . lkn/jfnf 3/df klg ' hf]gL{ g} ljz]if dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5g . To;}n] lad / lkn/sf] hf]gL{df ljz]if Wofg lbg'k5{ . 3/sf] 9nfg ubf{ To;sf] u'0f:t/df klg ljz]if Wofg lbg'k5{ . 9nfgsf lgldQ k|of]u ul/g] l;d]G6, lu§L, afn'jf /fd|f] u'0f:t/sf] x'gk5{ . luvf{ k/]sf] l;d]G6 / ' df6f] ldl;Psf] afn'jf, km/s–km/s cfsf/sf lu§L k|of]u x'bf 9nfg sdhf]/F x'G5 . To;sf ;fy} l;d]G6, afn'jf / lu§Lsf] ld>0f agfpFbf /fd|/L 3f]Ng'k5{ . o:tf] ld>0fsf] cg'kft !M@M$ eGbf sd x'gxbg . o:tf ljifodf ;fdfGo Wofg lbP dfq ' 'F } klg 3/ alnof] x'G5 / t'ngfTds ¿kdf e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd Go"g x'G5 . F To;}u/L ufpF3/df 9'ªuf / df6f]sf] hf]8fOaf6 uf/f] nufP/ 3/ agfpg] k|rng 5 . o;/L 3/ agfpFbf uf/f]aLrsf] hf]gL{ alnof] agfpg]tkm{ ljz]if Wofg lbg'k5{ . b'Oj6f uf/f] hf]8gsf lgldQ bfFtL 5f8g] / kl5 To;df uf/f] nufpg] rng /x]sf] { 5 . o;sf] ;f6f] v'8l snf 5f8]/ uf/f] nufpg' /fd|f] x'G5 hxfF csf]k6Lsf] { ufx|fnfO{ ;lhn} t/ alnof];u hf]8g ;lsG5 . To;}u/L, uf/f]nfO{ e'Orfnf]af6 ] F F gn8g] agfpg / ‰ofn9f]sfsf] s'gfaf6 lr/f kg{ glbg 7fpF–7fpFdf sf7, afF; jf sªlqm6 9nfgsf] k§L lbg'k5{ . uf/f]sf s'gfdf ‰ofn9f]sfsf] 5]plt/sf] efudf 7f8f] afF;, sf7 jf kmnfdsf] 808L /fVg' cem >]o:s/ x'G5 . u}/;+/rgfTds j:t'sf] ;'/Iff e'Orfnf]sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu 3/ agfpg] 7fpF / 3/ alnof] eP/ dfq F x'bg . esDkLo hf]lvdaf6 ;'/lIft /xg xfdL a:g] 3/leq /flvPsf j:t'nfO{ klg F } " Jojl:yt / ;'/lIft lx;fan] /fVg'k5{ . b}lgs cfjZostfsf 3/fo;L ;fdfgnfO{ u}/;+/rgfTds j:t' elgG5 . h;df sf]7fdf /flvg] b/fh, leQfdf ;hfOPsf kmf]6f] k|md, l;lnª–kªvf, ¥ofs, afb{nL ] jf sf};Ldf /flvPsf km"nsf udnf, 5tsf] kfgL 6ofªsLh:tf ;fdu|L k5{g . 3/leq /xg] To:tf j:t' e'Orfnf] uPsf ;dodf xlNnP/ v:g jf 6'6gkm'6g F ;S5g . TolQ dfq xf]Og, dflyaf6 v:g] tL j:t'n] kl/jf/sf ljz]ifu/L afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, lj/fdL / czQm ;b:onfO{ a9L xflg k'¥ofpF5g . To;/L v:g] j:t'af6 7"nf / alnof dflg;sf] klg Hofg hfg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . ctM To:tf j:t'nfO{ gv:g]u/L 8f]/L, lsnf sf6f, sAhf cflbn] alnof] u/L a]// /fVg'k5{ . To;f] u/]df ] /flvPsf j:t' v;]/ Ifltu|:t x'g] jf gf]S;fg x'g] qmddf sdL dfq cfpFbg, ltgn] } lsr]/ dflg; dg]{ jf 3fOt] x'g] ;Defjgf klg Go"g x'G5 . e'Orfnf] cfPdf 3/leqsf u}/;+/rgfTds j:t'sf] gf]S;fgL x'gglbg ;'/IffTds F pkfo ckgfpg' h?/L x'G5 . To:tf ;'/Iff pkfo lgDgcg';f/ 5g M b/fh, k':ts /fVg] ¥ofsh:tf cUnf / ux|fF} j:t'nfO{ leQfdf sfF6L jf sAhf e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷21 “
  22. 22. 7f]s/ ;fdfGo wSsf jf sDkgn] gxNnfpg] u/L /fVg'k5{ . b/fh jf ¥ofssf] ] tNnf] v08df ux|fF} a:t' /fVg] / dflyNnf v08df t'ngfTds ?kdf xn'sf j:t' /fVg' pko'Qm x'G5 . o;sf ;fy} b/fh / ¥of;ssf] dfly ux|fF} / ;lhn} n8g] j:t' /fVg' x'bg . F } 3/df /x]sf sL6gf;s cf}iflw, Uof;, d§Lt]n, k]6fn, l8h]n jf To:t} «] k|HHjngzLn kbfy{ j:t' hyfefjL /fVg x'bg . To:tf j:t'nfO{ ;fdfGo F } wSsfn] c;/ gkfg]{ / cGo j:t'n] lyRg] jf lsRg] ;Defjgf sd ePsf] 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ . leQfdf ;hfOg] kmf]6f] k|md, P]gfnufotsf j:t'nfO{ alnof];u afFWg] jf ] F lsnf–sfF6Lsf] d2tn] v:g g;Sg] u/L c8ofpg'k5{ . l;lnª kªvfh:tf 5tdf em'G8ØfP/ /flvg] j:t'nfO{ cªszdf alnof];u ' ] F em'G8Øfpg'k5{ . ¥ofsdf /flvPsf ;fdfgnfO{ v:g glbg 8f]/L jf lkmQfn] afw]/ /fVg'k5{ . ;'Tg] cf]5Øfg, 6]an, s';L{sf] 5]pdf cUnf / ux|ªuf j:t' /fVg' x'bg . ' ' F } sf};Lsf udnf v'nf ¿kdf g/fv]/ 8f]/Ln] afFw/ jf gn8g] u/L /fVg'k5{ . ] sf};Lsf] kfgLsf] 6ØfªsLnfO{ bfofFafofFaf6 6]jf lbO{ gxlNng] u/L /fVg'k5{ . cfGtl/s k"j{tof/L e'Orfnf]af6 x'g;Sg] Iflt Go"g ug{ ;+/rgfTds / u}/;+/rgfTds ;'/Iffsf] F k|aGwn] dfq x'bg . e'Orfnf] sltv]/ s'g Ifdtfsf] cfpF5 eGg] hfgsf/L x'g F } F g;Sg] ePsfn] o;af6 cfk"m ;'/lIft /xg / kl/jf/ tyf 5/l5d]snfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg s]s:tf sfd ug'k5{ eGg] hfgsf/L lng' cfjZos x'G5 . o; qmddf { e'Orfnf] hfg'eGbf cl3, e'Orfnf] hfFb} ubf{ / uO;s]kl5 s] ug]{ eGg] hfgsf/L F F /fVg' h?/L x'G5 / To;} cg'¿k k"jtof/L ug'k5{ . { { ;fd'bflos tyf kfl/jfl/s of]hgf e'Orfnf] hfg'cl3 o;af/]df ;fd'bflos 5nkmn rnfpg' cfjZos 5 . o:tf] F 5nkmn kl/jf/leq klg rnfpg'k5{ . e'Orfnf] uPdf s;/L aRg ;lsG5 eGg] F hfgsf/L cfk"mn] lng], kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:onfO{ hfgsf/L lbg] / ug'kg]{ sfd { l;sfpg] tyf ;d'bfodf klg To:t} hfgsf/L lbg' ;r]t gful/ssf] st{Jo x'G5 . o:tf] hfgsf/L lng] jf lbg] ljifo lgDg cg';f/ x'g;S5g M e'Orfnf] uOxfn]df cfˆgf], kl/jf/sf ;b:o / l5d]sLnfO{ s;/L ;'/Iff k|bfg F ug]{ eGg] ljifodf 5nkmn u/L cfkTsfnLg of]hgf agfpg'k5{ . e'Orfnf]sf] F klxnf] wSsf /f]lsgf;fy aflx/ lgl:sg g;s]sf jf Ifltu|:t 3/df y'lgPsf e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷22 “
  23. 23. JolQmsf] p4f/ u/L ;'/lIft :yfgdf Nofpg] of]hgf klxn] g} agfpg'k5{ . e'Orfnf] uOxfn]df kLl8tsf] p4f/ / /fxtsf] nflu :yfgLo txdf cfjZos F of]hgf agfpg'k5{ . cfkTsfnLg a;f]af;sf lgldQ v'nf 7fpFsf] lgSof]n, { cf}iflwsf] k"j{ Joj:yf, cfkTsfnLg cf>osf] lgldQ cfjZos kg]{ kfn jf 6]G6, lkpg] kfgLsf] ;|ft, vfBfGg / cfKtsfnLg lzIffsf af/]df of]hgf tof/ ] u/L ;d'bfosf ;b:oaLr sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug'k5{ . { 3/leqsf] ;'/lIft :yfgsf] klxrfg u/L /fVg] / kl/jf/sf ;b:onfO{ e'Orfnf] F uOxfn]df ;s];Dd To:tf] ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g cEof; u/fpg] . 3/sf] leqL uf/f] jf lkn/sf ;Fusf 7fpF, 3/leqsf /flvPsf 7"nf / alnof } kmlg{r/sf] 5]p5fpsf efu t'ngfTds ¿kn] ;'/lIft dflgG5g . t/ e¥ofª, aflx/L uf/f]sf] 5]p, l;;fo'Qm ‰ofn jf glhssf efu c;'/lIft x'G5g . 3/df o:tf ;'/lIft / c;'/lIft :yfg sxfF–sxfF 5g eGg] kQf nufO/fVg] / e'Orfnf] F uPsf] ;dodf ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g] of]hgf tyf cEof; ug'k5{ . { e'Orfnf]kl5sf] b'O–tLg lbgsf] ;do ;a}eGbf cK7of/f] ;do xf] . Tolta]nf F { vfgf, kfgLnufot cTofjZos j:t'sf] 7"nf] cefj x'g;Sb5 . To;}n] e'Orfnf]kl5sf tLg lbg;DdnfO{ k'Ug]u/L glau|g] tof/L vfg]s/f, cTofjZos F ' cf}iflw, lkpg] kfgL, ;/;kmfOsf ;fdfg, 6r{nfO6, /]l8of] OToflbsf] klxn] g} aGbf]a:t u/L /fVg'k5{ . o:tf] ;fdfg /flvPsf] emf]nfnfO{ e'Orfnf]sf] ;dodf F ;lhn} lnP/ aflx/ hfg ;lsg]u/L 3/sf] ;lhnf] :yfgdf /fVg' pko'Qm x'G5 . sfdljz]ifn] kl/jf/sf ;b:o 3/aflx/ x'g' gf}nf] s'/f xf]Og . e'Orfnf] uPsf] F ;dodf kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:o Ps} 7fpFdf gePdf s;/L / sxfF e]6g ;lsG5 jf s'g ;b:o sxfF uPsf] 5 eGg] hfgsf/L lnO/fVg' /fd|f] x'G5 . cfktsfnLg ;dodf cfjZos ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ bdsn, /]8qm;, k|x/Lh:tf ;+:yfsf] 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ 3/sf ;a} ;b:onfO{ /fVg nufpg'k5{ / To:tf lgsfodf ;Dks{ ug]{ tl/sf klg l;sfpg'k5{ . cfkTsfnLg j:t'sf] Joj:yf e'Orfnf] uPdf ef}lts ;+/rgf 9Nbf lslrP/ jf lylrP/ dflg; dg],{ 3fOt] x'g] F tyf 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ / wg;DklQsf] Iflt x'g;S5 . To:tf] cj:yfdf kLl8tnfO{ cTofjZs ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg'kg]{ x'G5 . To;sf ;fy} cfˆg} lgldQ klg cfkTsfnLg j:t'sf] cfjZostf k5{ . To;}n] cfkTsfnLg ;dodf rflxg] dxTjk"0f{ ;fdfg Pp6} emf]nfdf /fVg'k5{ . o:tf] ;dosf nflu rflxg] s]xL ;fdfg Pp6f emf]nfdf /fv]/ ;lhn} e]6g ;lsg] 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ / 5/l5d]snfO{ ;d]t To;f] ug{ k|l] /t ug'k5{ . o:tf ;fdfg :yfgLo 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t klg x'g { ;S5g . oBlk cfkTsfnLg emf]nfdf lgDg k|sf/sf ;fdfg /fVg'k5{ M e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷23 “
  24. 24. k|fylds pkrf/sf nflu rflxg] dnxdk§L jf AofG8]h, l86f]n, PG6L;]lK6s lqmd, l;6fdf]n, ;kmf ?jf / sk8fsf] Kofs]6 agfP/ cfkTsfnLg emf]nfdf /fVg'k5{ . cfktsfnLg ;dodf cfjZos ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ bdsn, /]8qm;, k|x/Lh:tf ;+:yfsf] 6]lnkmf]g gDa/ 3/sf ;a} ;b:onfO{ /fVg nufpg'k5{ / To:tf lgsfodf ;Dks{ ug]{ tl/sf klg l;sfpg'k5{ . cfkTsfndf rflxg] rfprfp, lrp/f, la:s'6h:tf xn'sf vfg]s/f, 6r{nfO6, ' nfO6/ jf ;nfO, lknf;, k]rs;h:tf cf}hf/ /fVg] . pk/f]Qm cfkTsfnLg emf]nfsf ;fy} e'Orfnf]sf] wSsfn] 3/sf ‰ofn jf 9f]sf F c8lsP/ aflx/ lg:sg sl7g x'G5 . To;sf nflu 9f]sf jf ‰ofn vf]Ng ;lhnf] x'g] kmndfsf] 58 e]l6g] :yfgdf /fVg] . e'OFrfnf] uPdf ckgfpg' kg]{ zts{tf e'Orfnf] nfdf] ;do hfFbg . clwsf+z e'Orfnf]sf] wSsf a9Ldf b'O{ ldg]6 dfq F } F hfG5 . olt 5f]6f] ;do dfq hfg] e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf jf zlQm eg] lgs} ljgfzsf/L F x'G5 . 5f]6f] ;do hfg] / 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofpg] e'Orfnf]sf] ;dodf ;a}n] cfk"mnfO{ F w}o{ agfP/ cfkTsfnLg ;'/Iffsf Joj:yf ug'{ lgs} ufx|f] klg x'G5 . To;}n] w]/} dflg; e'Orfnf]sf] ;dodf cflQg] / hyfefjL bf}8g] / 3/af6 aflx/ efUg] jf F dflyNnf] tnfaf6 xfdkmfn]/ aRg] k|of; u5{g . t/ To;f] ubf{ emg} vt/f x'g] oyfy{nfO{ xfdLn] la;{g x'bg . ;s];Dd w}otf;fy cfk"m;lxt dlxnf ;b:o, F } { afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / la/fdLsf] ljz]if Vofn ug'k5{ . pgLx¿nfO{ 3/df { klxn] g} ;'/lIft eg]/ klxrfg u/]sf :yfgdf k'¥ofpg] k|oTg ug'k5{ . e'Orfnf] { F uPsf] ;dodf lgDg cg';f/sf zts{tf ckgfpg' a'l4dfgL x'G5 M e'Orfnf] hf“bf ug{ gx'g] sfd “ bf}8/ e¥ofª cf]ln{g' jf dflyNnf] tnfdf pSng' x'bg, ] F } ‰ofn tyf sf};Laf6 xfdkmfNg' x'bg F } l;;fsf] ‰ofn tyf xlNnP/ n8g ;Sg] b/fh, ¥ofs, leQfsf] P]gf, k|mdh:tf j:t'sf] 5]p5fp a:g' x'bg, ] F } 3/aflx/ lgl:sPsf] cj:yf jf aflx/ lxFl8/x]sf] cj:yfdf n8g ;Sg] 7"nf ¿v, lah'nL jf 6]lnkmf]g ljt/0fsf vDaf, k'/fgf / cUnf 3/sf] 5]p5fp tyf k'ndfly jf d'lg a:g' x'bg . F } e'Orfnf] hf“bf ug'kg]{ sfd “ { klxn] g} ;'/lIft eg]/ lrlgPsf 9f]sfsf] rf}sf]; d'lGt/, 6]an', vf6h:tf e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷24 “
  25. 25. kmlg{r/sf] d'lg jf To:t} ;'/lIft :yfgdf a:g'k5{ . e'Orfnf]sf] ;dodf ;s];Dd cfˆgf] 6fpsf] / ;+jbgzLn cªunfO{ F ] hf]ufpg'k5{ . tlsof jf c? s'g} j:t'n] 6fpsf] 5f]Kg], s]xL ;fdfg ge]l6P cfˆgf] xft / kfv'/f hf]8/ 6fpsf] / cfFvfsf] /Iff ug'k5{ . ] { e'Orfnf] uPsf] ;dodf ;s];Dd 3f]K6f] k/]/ a:g' /fd|f] x'G5 . F efG5fdf cfuf] afn]/ sfd ul//x]sf] a]nf e'Orfnf] uof] eg] cfuf] tTsfn} F lgefpg'k5{ . ;s];Dd Uof; r'nf]sf /]un6/ klg aGb ug'k5{ . ' ] { ;fF3/f] uNnLdf lxFl8/x]sf] cj:yfdf e'Orfnf] hfFbf sdhf]/ 3/sf] 5]p5fpsf] ' F If]qaf6 hf]lug'k5{ / ;'/lIft v'nf :yfglt/ hfg'k5{ . ;jf/L;fwg rnfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf e'Orfnf] uP ;jf/Lsf] ult la:tf/} sd F ub}{ af6f]sf] 5]plt/ nu]/ /f]Sg'k5{ . ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ PSsf;L /f]Sbf emg 7"nf] b'36gf x'g;S5 . ;jf/L /f]Sbf jf pleFbf cfsfz]kn, 7"nf lah'nLsf kf]n j { ' n¶f, cUnf ¿v, ;fOgaf]8{ OToflbsf] 5]pdf a:g' jf /f]Sg' x'bg . F } sy+sbflrt, e'Orfnf]af6 3/ elTsP/ To;n] k'l/xfNof] eg] w}otfsf ;fy F { cfkm" afFRg] s'/fdf ljZj:t eP/ vf]hL tyf p4f/ 6f]nLsf] k|tLIff ug'k5{ . { cflQP/ lrRofpg], s/fpg] ubf{ d'6' / lbdfudf cgfjZos bafa kg]{ x'bf F ;s];Dd zfGt /xg] k|of; ug'k5{ . o:tf] cj:yfdf l;¶L, ;';nL ahfP/ { ] tyf aHg] ;fdfg e]l6P To;nfO{ ahfP/ p4f/sdL{nfO{ yfxf lbg] k|of; ug'k5{ . { e'Orfnf] uO;s]kl5 ckgfpg' kg]{ zts{tf “ klxnf]k6s e'Orfnf] uO;s]kl5 km]l/ klg cGo ;fgf 7"nf wSsf nfUg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . F e'Orfnf]sf] clwsf+z 36gfn] klxn] 7"nf] e'Orfnf] uPkl5 w]/} k6s ;–;fgf wSsf F F nfUg] / ;fgf] e'Orfnf] uPsf] s]xL ;dod} 7"nf] e'Orfnf] hfg;Sg] kfOG5 . To;}n] F F e'Orfnf]sf] klxnf] wSsf zfGt ePkl5 b]xfosf sfd ug'k5{ M F { 3/leqsf]] cfuf], Uof;, lah'nL tTsfn} aGb ug],{ cfkTsfnLg emf]nf / cGo cfjZos 7flgPsf j:t' af]s/ t'?Gt} aflx/ lg:sg], ] dlxnf, afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / la/fdLnfO{ 3/af6 aflx/ Nofpg k|fyldstf lbg], 3/af6 aflx/ lgl:sPkl5 klxn] lgwf{l/t v'nf / ;'/lIft :yfgdf hfg], e'Orfnf] cfpFbf aflx/ ePdf tTsfn 3/leq gk:g], k:g} kg]{ ePdf kl5Nnf F wSsfn] 3/ gelTsg] osLg u/]/ dfq leq k:g], e'Orfnf] uPkl5 ljleGg k|sf/sf xNnf rNg;S5g , To;}n] tL xNnfsf] kl5 F gnfuL jf:tljstf a'‰g] k|of; ug]{ . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷25 “
  26. 26. kLl8tsf] p4f/ tyf /fxt Joj:yfkg 7"nf] e'Orfnf] uPdf clwsf+z ef}lts ;+/rgf Ifltu|:t x'G5g . lah'nL, 6]lnkmf]g, F vfg]kfgL ljt/0fsf] k|0ffnLdf ;d]t Iflt x'g] ePsfn] vfg] kfgL, lah'nL / ;~rf/nufot vfBfGgsf] cefj x'G5 . 3/ n8]/ vfBfGg / b}lgs cfjZostfsf j:t' k'l/P/ pkef]usf nflu cg'ko'Qm x'g] cj:yf cfpF5 . sltko 3/df dflg; y'lgP/, lylrP/ dg]{ / 3fOt] ePsfsf] ;d]t ;dod} p4f/ / pkrf/ x'g g;Sbf Hofg hfg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . To;}n] e'Orfnf] /f]lsPkl5 ;'/lIft /x]sf ;a}n] p4f/ F / /fxtsf sfo{df ;lqmotfsf ;fy nfUg'k5{ . cfk"m / cfˆgf] kl/jf/ ;'/lIft eO;s]kl5 6f]nl5d]sdf p4f/ sfo{df d2t k'¥ofpg ;lqmo /xg'k5{ . jf:tjdf 6f]nl5d]ssf JolQmn] g} ;a}eGbf klxn] cfˆgf] l5d]ssf dfG5]nfO{ d2t k'¥ofpg ;Sb5g . ;]gf, k|x/L jf /]8qm;sf :jo+;js p4f/sf nflu cfOk'Ug ;do nfU5 . To;}n] ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:o ] ldn]/ 5/l5d]ssf] p4f/df nfUg'k5{ . o;/L p4f/ ubf{ ;a}eGbf klxn] 3fOt] ePsf / ljz]ifu/L dlxnf, s]6fs6L, j[4j[4f, czQm, la/fdLnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' dfgjLo st{Jo x'g cfpF5 . e'OFrfnf] /f]lsgf;fy ug]{ p4f/ e'Ornf]af6 Iflt ePsf ;+/rgfleq y'lgPsf jf k'l/Psf kLl8tnfO{ tTsfn aflx/ F NofP/ ;'/lIft cf>o:yn jf pkrf/s]Gb| / c:ktfn k'¥ofP/ ltgLx¿sf] hLjgsf] /Iffug]{ sfo{nfO{ e"sDkLo p4f/ elgG5 . o:tf] p4f/df JolQm, kl/jf/, ;d'bfo, gful/s ;dfh / ;/sf/ ;lxt ;du| /fli6«o ;+oGqs} dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xG5 . p4f/df hgzlQm, ;|ft / ;fwgsf] pknAwtf, ;'/Iff, p4f/sf k|ljlwsf] k|of]un] ] k|efj kfl//x]sf] x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf p4f/sfo{;u ;DalGwt ;Dk"0f{ kIfaLr F ;+jbgzLn, k|efjsf/L Pj+ ;fjfwfgLk"0f{ ;dGjo / ;befjsf] cfjZostf k5{ . ] p4f/sf qmddf ;fd'bflos 5nkmnaf6 tof/ kfl/Psf] cfkTsfnLg lj:yfkg of]hgfcg';f/ sfd ug'k5{ . o:tf] of]hgf 7"nf ljzfnahf/, Jofkfl/s tyf { cf}Bf]lus k|lti7fg, c:ktfn, xf]6n, ;/sf/L tyf ;fj{hlgs ejgdf ;d]t ] ul/Psf] x'gk5{ . e"sDksf ;dodf kLl8tsf] p4f/sf nflu tof/L cj:yfdf ' e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷26 “
  27. 27. /flvPsf] un, 6r{ nfO6, xyf}8f, k|fylds pkrf/sf ;fdu|Lh:tf cfjZos cf}hf/sf] pkof]u ug'k5{ . :yfgLo txdf x'g] o:tf k"jtof/Ln] e"sDksf] kL8faf6 { { tTsfn} p4f/ u/L /fxt k|bfg ug{ ;lsG5 . o:tf JolQmut k|of;n] ;Defljt 7"nf] Ifltsf] Go"gLs/0fdf ;xof]u ldN5 . p4f/ sfo{sf] juL{s/0f e'Orfnf] hfg;fy bIf p4f/ 6f]nL 36gf:yndf k'Ug sl7g x'G5 . To; cj:yfdf F :yfgLo ;d'bfo jf :jo+;jsfåf/f ul/g] p4f/n] 7"nf] e"ldsf v]N5 . To;}n] p4f/ ] sfo{nfO{ p4f/df kx'r / cGo b[li6sf]0faf6 ljleGg r/0fdf juL{s/0f u/]/ F cWoog ug{ ;lsG5 . oxfF p4f/ sfo{nfO{ p4f/sf If]qdf dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ ;'/Iff lgsfosf ljlwnfO{ ;d]t k|:t't ug'{ pko'Qm ePsfn] Osf]– g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt kof{j/0f dfl;ssf] jif{ !$, cªs *, df3 @)^#, k"0ff{ªs &! df k|sflzt k|x/L lg/LIfs >L ljZj clwsf/Låf/f lnlvt …g]kfndf e"sDkLo p4f/ M ;Defjgf tyf r'gf}tLÚ n]vaf6 ;fef/ ul/Psf] 5 . h;cg';f/ p4f/k|lqmofnfO{ lgDgcg';f/ cufl8 a9fpg' ;fGble{s b]lvG5 M cfkm}F jf l5d]sLn] ug]{ p4f/ e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] Ifltsf] :t/nfO{ e'Orfnf]sf] Ifdtf, s]Gb|laGb', ;do, :yfg / F F ;+/rgfut lgdf{0fsf :j?kn] lgwf{/0f u5{ . lbpF;f] uPsf] e'Orfnf]sf] t'ngfdf F /flt uPsf] e'Orfnf]af6 w]/} Iflt x'G5 . To;}u/L labfsf] lbgdf e'Orfnf] uPdf F F :s'n, sfof{noh:tf ;fj{hlgs ;+/rgfdf Iflt k'u] klg dfgjLo Iflt sd x'G5 . g]kfndf ljutdf ePsf e"sDkLo c;/, cWoog / cg'ejcg';f/ ;fdfGotof e"sDksf] rk]6fdf kg]{ hLljt JolQmx¿dWo] %) k|ltzt dflg; ;fdfGo 3fOt] x'g] kfOPsf] 5 . o:tf JolQm cfFkm} jf kl/jf/sf] s'g} ;b:osf] tyf l5d]sL / ;'/IffsdL{sf] ;fdfGo ;xof]uaf6} ;'/lIft x'g ;S5g . o;sf nflu ljz]if bIftf / ;fdu|Lsf] cfjZostf kb}g . ufpF3/d} pknAw sDan, 8f]/L, pkrf/ k4lt { cflbsf] k|of]u u/L 3fOt]sf] p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 . ;fd'bflos p4f/stf{n] ug]{ p4f/ jt{dfg ljZjdf p4f/sf nflu ;fd'bflos p4f/–;d"xsf] ljsf; tyf k|of]u ;a}eGbf k|efjsf/L ;+oGqsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t eO/x]sf] 5 . oBlk e"sDkåf/f ;8s oftfofth:tf kx'rdfu{ Ifltu|:t x'g] / Joj;flos p4f/stf{sf] ;ªVof hlxn] F klg cToGt} Go"g x'g] x'bf p4f/df ;d:of b]lvg] u/]sf] 5 . oftfoftsf] cefj F ePdf ;Lldt ;ªVofdf /x]sf Joj;flos p4f/stf{ rfx]/ klg kLl8t;Dd ;dod} e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷27 “
  28. 28. k'Ug ;Sb}gg . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;d'bfodf /x]sf p4f/sdL{ g} ;a}eGbf pQd ;xof]uL / p4f/stf{ x'g ;S5g . o; tYon] p4f/stf{sf] pTkfbg ;d'bfodf x'gkg]{ ts{nfO{ an lbG5 . ' e"sDkLo ;'/Iffsf nflu ;fd'bflos ¿kd} p4f/;DaGwL cfwf/e"t 1fg tyf ;Lk ePsf hgzlQmsf] pTkfbg ug'{ k5{ . o; cy{df txut ¿kdf cf}krfl/s tflnd tyf k|lzIf0f / cgf}krfl/s lzIffsf] lj:tf/ :jo+;jssf] ljsf;sf] cfwf/e"t ] zt{ xf] . To:t} cfwf/e"t p4f/ tyf /fxt ;fdu|L ;fj{hlgs jf ;fd'bflos ¿kdf Joj:yf ug'k5{ . o; lsl;daf6 k|lzlIft :jo+;jsn] e"sDksf] k|efjaf6 hLljt { ] /xg] JolQmx¿dWo] u}/;+/rgfut lgdf{0fdf jf xNsf¿kdf r]lkP/ /xg] #) k|ltzt JolQmx¿sf] p4f/ ug{;S5 . o:tf p4f/ ;d"xnfO{ cfwf/e"t vf]h tyf p4f/;DaGwL k|lzIf0f k|bfg ug'k5{ . o:tf] k|lzIf0fdf 36gf:ynsf] 3]/faGbL, { vt/fsf] klxrfg, 3fOt] jf x/fPsfsf] vf]hL tyf :t/ lgwf{/0f, cfwf/e"t p4f/ ;fdu|Lx¿sf] k|of]u tyf 3fOt] Joj:yfkg;DaGwL 1fg tyf ;Lk k5{g . o:tf] :jo+;jsf] ;d"xn] bIf p4f/stf{sf] pkl:ylt ePkl5 36gf:ynsf] 3]/faGbL, ] 3fOt]sf] vf]hLdf 7"nf] ;xof]u lbG5 . eUg ;+/rgfdf vf]h tyf p4f/ eUg ;+/rgfdf 3fOt]sf] vf]hL tyf p4f/ ug'{ cToGt} k|fljlws, ;fxl;s / r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{ xf] . ;g !(*% df d]lS;sf] ;x/df uPsf] e'Orfnf]kl5 eUgfjz]ifaf6 F hlt dflg;sf] p4f/ ePsf] lyof] To;eGbf a9L p4f/stf{x¿n] Hofg u'dfpg' k/]sf] lyof] . To:t} ;g @))! df cd]l/sfsf] 6jLg 6fj/df p4f/ ug{ uPsf ;of}F p4f/stf{x¿sf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] . p4f/stf{ cfkm}F hf]lvddf k/]df kLl8tsf] p4f/ x'g ;Sb}g . To;}n] o:tf] p4f/df vl6g] p4f/stf{sf] lgldQ cfkmgf] ;d"xsf] ;'/Iff g} klxnf] k|fyldstf x'G5 . e"sDksf] c;/kl5 hLljt /xg] ;ªVofsf] nueu !% k|ltzt ;ªVof eUg ePsf ;+/rgfleq k/]sf, k'l/Psf jf RoflkPsf x'G5g . ltgLx¿sf] p4f/sf nflu ljlzi6 tflnd k|fKt hgzlQm tyf p4f/ ;fdu|Lsf] cfjZostf k5{ . p4f/stf{sf] kl/rfngb]lv lnP/ p4f/stf{ :jo+ / kLl8tsf] ;'/IffnfO{ s]Gb|laGb' dfgL ;+/rgfut eUgfjz]ifdf kLl8tsf] vf]hL, kLl8t;Dd kx'r, kLl8tsf] Joj:yfkg / eUgfjz]ifaf6 F kLl8tnfO{ aflx/ lgsfnL pkrf/:yn;Dd k'¥ofpg] sfo{ p4f/cGtu{t kg]{ sfo{x¿ x'g . oL k|To]s sfo{sf nflu lglZrt sfo{ljlw / ;|ft–;fwgsf] k|of]u ug'kg]{ ] { x'G5 . eUgfjz]ifdf kl/0ft ePsf ;+/rgfsf] leQf, 5t jf cGo s'g} efunfO{ sf6L ToxfFleqaf6 kLl8tsf] p4f/ ul/g] o; k|sf/sf] sfo{df vf]h tyf p4f/;DaGwL e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷28 “
  29. 29. cGt/f{li6«o :t/df k|rlnt ;femf ;ªst / ljlwsf] k|of]u ul/G5, h;n] ubf{ cGo ] /fi6«af6 cfPsf p4f/sdL{n] ;d]t ;lhn} sfd ug{ ;S5g . ljkbsf cj:yfdf p4f/;DaGwL sfo{sf nflu ePsf Joj:yfaf/] cfk;df hfgsf/L lng jf lbg ;femf ;ªstljlwsf] k|of]u ul/G5 . International Search and Rescue Advisory ] Group åf/f tof/ kfl/Psf] tyf ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3åf/f cjnDag ul/Psf] of] ' ;ªst–k|0ffnLnfO{ INSARAG raking System elgG5 . ] e"sDkLo vf]h tyf p4f/sfo{df cGt/f{li6o ;ªst–k|0ffnL] k|efjsf/L ePsfn] ] of] ljZjsf ;a} d'nsdf k|of]u x'G5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df o:tf] vf]h tyf p4f/ ' tflnd o"P;PcfO8L / cf]Pkm8LP sf] cfly{s ;xof]u tyf Pl;og l8hf:6/ lk|k8g; ;]G6/sf] kxndf ;g !((* b]lv k|f/De ePsf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] tflnd ] { ] cfkTsfnLg p4f/ tyf vf]hsf] If]qdf /fli6«o tyf If]qLo Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ nIocg'¿k ;~rfng ug]{ ul/G5 . o; sfo{qmdn] xfn;Dd g]kfn k|x/L, g]kfnL ;]gf, ;z:q k|x/L, g]kfn /]8qm; / ljleGg c:ktfnsf hjfg tyf :jo+;jsnfO{ ] ;d]6sf] 5 . o;/L pTkflbt hgzlQmdWo] s]xLn] If]qLo :t/df k|lzIfs, kf7oqmd ] ;+of]hs tyf kf7oqmd lg/LIfssf] e"ldsf ;d]t lgjf{x ul//x]sf 5g . cTofw'lgs p4f/ 6f]nL ;+/rgfsf eUgfjz]ifleq hLljt /xg] cf};t ;ªVofdWo] 5 k|ltzt dflg; p4f/sf] b[li6sf]0faf6 cToGt} cK7of/f] / ;+jbgzLn cj:yfdf /x]sf x'G5g . ] eUggfjz]if ag]sf ;+/rgfsf] k|sl[ t, vt/fsf] cj:yf tyf k|fljlws ;fwgsf] cfjZostfsf kg]{ x'bf hl6n cj:yfdf /x]sf kLl8tsf] p4f/ ;fdfGo :t/sf F p4f/stf{ / p4f/ ;fdu|Lsf] k|of]uåf/f ;Dej x'bg . o;sf nflu >Job[io k|:t't } ug{;Sg] ljB'tLo vf]h pks/0f, qm]g, x]lnsK6/h:tf ;fwg / To;}adf]lhd k|lzlIft hgzlQmsf] cfjZostf k5{ . eUg ;+/rgfaf6 hLljt p4f/ / ;do;Ldf e"sDkLo k|sf]ksf sf/0f eUgfjz]ifdf k/]sf kLl8t JolQm hLljt /xg] ;Defjgf ;+/rgfsf] Ifltu|:t cj:yfdf lge{/ u5{ . olb ;+/rgf k"0f{¿kdf gi6 ePsf] 5 jf ejgsf] dflyNnf] tnf csf]{ tnfdfly k'0f{¿kn] ba]sf] 5 eg] ToxfF k'l/Psf dflg; hLljt /xg] ;Defjgf lgs} sd x'G5 . olb ;+/rgf cf+lzs ¿kdf dfq elTsPsf] jf aLraf6 wl;Psf] tyf Psflt/sf] efu elTsP/ csf]l{ t/ v;]sf] 5 eg] To:tf] ;+/rgfdf k'l/Psfsf] hLljt} p4f/ x'g] ;Defjgf a9L x'G5 . eUg ;+/rgfleq klg ;a}eGbf a9L hLljt /xg] ;Defjgf cGt/s'Gt/df x'G5 . eUgfjz]ifsf cGt/s'Gt/sf ;+/rgfut jf u}/;+/rgfut j:t' jf lgdf{0fsf e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷29 “
  30. 30. sf/0f aGg] vfnL 7fpFdf eg] kLl8t JolQm nfdf] ;do;Dd klg hLljt /xg ;S5 . To;}n] e"sDk cfPdf leQfsf] glhs, vf6, 6]ansf] d'lg, zf}rfno jf ' Zgfgfuf/h:tf :yfgnfO{ t'ngfTds ¿kdf ;'/lIft dfGg] ul/G5 . eUg ;+/rgfdf k'l/Psf kLl8tsf] hLljt /xg] ;Defjgfsf] dxŒjk"0f{ cfwf/ eg]sf] g} p4f/sfo{sf] ;do;Ldf xf] . e"sDkLo p4f/ eUg ;+/rgfleq hlt l56f] k|f/De ug{ ;Sof] Tolt g} a9L dflg;sf] hLljt} p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 . cGt/f{li6«o :t/df ul/Psf] Ps cWoog cg';f/ e"sDk uPsf] cfwf 306fleq p4f/ ug{ ;lsPdf eUgfjz]ifdf k'l/Psf dWo] (! k|ltzt / @$ 306f;Dddf *! k|ltztnfO{ hLljt} p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 . To;}u/L $* 306f;Dddf ^&=& k|ltzt, &@ 306f;Dddf ##=& k|ltzt, (^ 306f;Dddf !( k|ltzt / !@) 306f;Dd &=$ k|ltzt kLl8tsf] dfq hLljt} p4f/ ug{ ;lsG5 . o;/L kLl8t;Dd p4f/stf{sf] kx'r F hlt l9nf] xFb} hfG5, Tolt g} hLljt p4f/sf] ;Defjgf sd x'b} hfG5 . o;sf/0f ' F klg p4f/stf{sf] Ifdtf ljsf; / kof{Kt ;fwgsf] hf]xf] ug]{ sfo{nfO{ :yfgLo tx;Dd ug'{ cfjZos 5 . p4f/sf] If]q / p4f/ lgoGq0f p4f/stf{sf] b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g{] xf] p4f/sfo{sf] If]q s]xL 3/ jf s]xL kLl8tx¿df dfq ;Lldt /xg;S5 t/ Joj:yfks jf lgoGqssf nflu e"sDkLo p4f/sf] If]q ufpF, ;x/, c~rn, If]q / ;du| /fi6« g} x'g;S5 . ut jif{ kfls:tfg / ef/tdf uPsf] e"sDkdf p4f/sf] If]q Jofks lyof] eg] OG8f]gl] ;ofsf] ;'gfdLn] t p4f/sf] If]qnfO{ ljZjJofkL g} agfOlbPsf] lyof] . To;}n] e"sDkLo p4f/sf] If]q klg e"sDksf] zlQm, km}nfj6 / Ifltsf] tTsfnLg cg'dfgn] lgwf{/0f u5{ . p4f/sfo{ /fli6«o Ifdtfn] gEofpg] eO{ cGt/fli6«o If]qsf] ;xof]u lng'kg]{ x'g;S5 . To;}u/L e"sDkn] kf/]sf] k|efjsf] If]qn] p4f/sfo{sf] lgoGq0f–z[ªvnf lgwf{/0f u5{ . g]kfnsf] sfg'gL Joj:yf cg';f/ e"sDksf] c;/cg'¿k :yfgLo ;+oGq, lhNnf:t/Lo ;+oGq, If]qLo ;+oGq jf /fli6«o ;+oGqn] e"sDkLo p4f/df sdf08 tyf lgoGq0f u5{g . t/ g]kfndf cg'dfg ul/P adf]lhd g} e'Orfnf] uPdf F /fi6«sf] ;Dk"0f{ ;+oGq kl/rflnt x'gkg]{ cj:yf cfpF5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf lgoGq0fsf] ' z[ªvnf / ltgLx¿sf] sfd– st{Jo tyf clwsf/ lgDgfg';f/ x'g] Joj:yf 5 M s]Gb|Lo sdf08 of] sdf08 cfkTsfnLg cj:yfdf /fi6«df ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] :t/df /xg] sdf08 xf] . o;df /0fgLlts lgb]zs jf s]Gb|Lo cfkTsfnLg lgb]zssf] ¿kdf /fi6«fWoIf { { :jo+ jf k|wfgdGqL jf u[xdGqL k|dv /xg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . o; sdf08df ' ;DalGwt If]qsf /fli6«o ;+oGqsf ;a} k|dv kbflwsf/Lx¿ /xG5g . ' e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷30 “
  31. 31. s]Gb|Lo sdf08n] p4f/sf nflu tTsfn /0fgLlts of]hgf tyf gLltsf] lgdf{0f, k|fyldstfsf] lgwf{/0f, ;fwg ;|ftsf] Joj:yf, cGo lgsfo jf ljb]zL /fi6«;u ] F ;dGjo ug'sf ;fy} s]Gb|Lo :t/af6 ;Dk"0f{ p4f/sfo{nfO{ kl/rfng, lgb]zg / { { lgolGqt u5{ . tNnf OsfOn] cf–cfkmgf] sdf08 z[ªvnfsf] dfWodaf6 eP– u/]sf sfd sfjf{xL, j:t'l:ylt / cfjZostfsf ;DaGwdf of] sdf08nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpF5g . If]qLo sdf08 If]qLo p4f/ tyf lgoGq0f sdf08df If]qLo :t/sf ;/sf/L ;+oGqsf pRr kbflwsf/Lx¿ /xG5g . o;n] p4f/sf nflu /0fgLlts sfo{of]hgf agfP/ p4f/sfo{nfO{ kl/rflnt, lgb]l{ zt tyf lgoGq0f ug],{ ;|ft ;fwgsf] Joj:yf Pj+ ] ljt/0f ug]{ / s]Gb|Lo sdf08n] agfPsf /0fgLlts of]hgfnfO{ sfof{Gjog ug]{ sfo{ u5{ . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] ;dodf of] sdf08n] /0fgLlts lgoGq0f sIfsf] e"dLsf ;d]t lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 . p4f/ sdf08 kf]i6 e"sDkLo p4f/sfo{df cToGt} dxŒjk"0f{ / p4f/sfo{df k|ToIf e"ldsf p4f/ sdf08 kf]i6n] lgjf{x u5{ . To;}n] k|sf]ksf] ;dodf p4f/sf nflu of] lgsfo sfof{Gjog sdf08 (operation command) sf] ¿kdf /x]sf] x'G5 . o;df d'Vo ¿kdf p4f/stf{x¿ / :yfgLo lgsfosf JolQmx¿sf] ;+nUgtf /x]sf] x'G5 . of] sdf08cGt/ut ljleGg OsfO{ sdf08/x¿ /xG5g / ltgn] k|ToIf ¿kdf p4f/sf] sfo{ u5{g . ;fdfGotof p4f/ sdf08n] lgDg sfo{x¿ u5{ M • :yfgLo If]qsf] p4f/sfo{nfO{ kl/rfng ug],{ • p4f/sfo{sf] lgoGq0f k|ToIf ¿kn] u/L cfjZos lgb]zg lbg], { • p4f/ If]qsf] Joj:yfkg ub}{ / ;'/Iffsf] k|aGw ldnfpg], • p4f/ If]qnfO{ ;]S6/, s8{gdf ljefhg u/L cfjfudg, ;~rf/, :jf:Yo;]jfh:tf cTofjZos ;]jfnfO{ Jojl:yt agfpg], • kLl8tsf] vf]hL / kLl8t;Dd kx'r agfO{ p4f/ ug],{ F • 3fOt]x¿nfO{ cfjZostf cg';f/ 36gf:ynd} k|fylds pkrf/ ug]{ / cfjZos k/]df c:ktfn;Dd k'¥ofO{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug],{ • 3fOt] tyf d[t JolQmsf] nut /fVg], • 3fOt] jf d[tssf ;DaGwdf kl/jf/ tyf cfkmGtnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg], • ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf lbg], • k|;;Fu ;Dks{ / hfgsf/L k|sfzg tyf k|zf/0f ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfpg], ] e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷31 “
  32. 32. • em'6f] xNnf tyf cftªs km}lng glbg], • cfjZos ;fwg / ;|ftsf] Joj:yfkg ug],{ ] • :yfgLo lgsfox¿;Fu ;Dks{ / ;dGjo /fVg], • p4f/sfo{;u k|ToIf ;DaGw /fVg] cGo ;Dk"0f{ Joj:yfx¿ ldnfpg], F • p4f/sfo{sf] ljj/0f, j:t'l:ylt af/]df dflyNnf] sdf08df hfgsf/L u/fpg] . cfkTsfnLg p4f/sf] ;dodf of] sdf08cGt/ut p4f/stf{x¿n] jf:tljs p4f/sf] sfo{ u5{g . cfjZostf cg';f/ o:tf sdf08–kf]i6sf] ;ªVof hlt klg x'g;S5 . sdf08 z[ªvnfsf] lgod cg';f/ p4f/:yndf sfo{/t p4f/stf{nfO{ k/]sf] ;d:of, cfjZostf jf j:t'l:ylt p4f/stf{n] OsfO sdf08/ (unit commander) nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpF5 . OsfO sdf08/n] To:tf hfgsf/L jf k|fKt ;"rgf cfkm}dfF ;Lldt /fvL ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg u5{ . t/ cfjZostf cg';f/ sdf08 kf]i6nfO{ hfgsf/L u/fpF5 . To;}u/L To:tf] hfgsf/L sdf08 kf]i6af6 If]qLo sdf08 kf]i6 x'b} s]Gb|Lo sdf08;Dd k'U5 . o;/L sdf08 z[ªvnf dfkm{t cfPsf] ;d:of F ;dfwfgsf] lgldQ pko'Qm sdf08df k'ukl5 To;sf] ;dfwfg jf j}slNks ] Joj:yfsf] lg0f{o lbOG5 . sf7df8f}df 7"nf] e"sDk uOxfn]df p4f/sfo{sf] If]qut ljefhg s;/L ug],{ + sltj6f o:tf sdf08 kf]i6x¿ /fVg], To:tf sdf08 kf]i6cGt/ut slt sltj6f p4f/ OsfOx¿ kl/rfng ug],{ k|To]s p4f/ OsfOdf slt ;ªVofdf p4f/stf{ v6fpg], ltgLx¿nfO{ s]–s:tf p4f/ ;fdu|Lx¿ pknAw u/fpg] eGg]tkm{ ;'Id cWoog ug'{ cfjZos 5 . pk;+xf/ e'Orfnf] k|fs[lts sf/0fn] x'g] ljgfzsf/L k|sf]khGo 36gf xf] . hnpTkGg F k|sf]ksf 36gf, dxfdf/L, x'/Latf;h:tf k|sf]ksf 36gf lgoldt ¿kdf eO/xg] / hgwgsf] lgoldt Iflt eO/xg] eP klg 7"nf] e'Orfnf]n] To:tf 36gfnfO{ uf}0f F agfOlbG5 . e'Orfnf] sltv]/ sqf] Ifdtfsf] hfG5 eGg] k"j{ ;"rgf gx'g] / Psfw F ldg]6d} ljgfzsf/L ¿k lnP/ cfpg] ePsfn] tTsfnLg ;'/Iffdf dflg;sf] Wofg hfg g;Sg] ePsfn] g} o; 36gfnfO{ ljgfzsf/L dflgPsf] xf] . ljZjsf ljleGg d'nsdf uPsf e'Orfnf] / tL d'nsdf ePsf sfdsf] cg'ejn] ' F ' o;sf] hf]lvd w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] l;4 ul/;s]sf] 5 . alnof tyf e"sDkk|lt/f]wL ;+/rgf lgdf{0f u/L u}/;+/rgfTds j:t'sf] /fd|f] Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsPdf hgwgsf] Iflt sdx'G5 eGg] k|dfl0ft eO;s]sf] 5 . ;g @))% df O/fgsf] afd ;x/df uPsf] e'Orfnf]af6 sl/a rfnL; xhf/ dflg;sf] d[To' x'g' F e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷32 “
  33. 33. t/, To;sf] Ps dlxgfcl3 cd]l/sfsf] Soflnkmf]l{ gofdf To:t} :t/sf] e'Orfnf]af6 F b'O{ hgfsf] dfq d[To' x'gn] klg o; tYonfO{ k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 . t/ o;sf lgldQ ' ;/sf/sf] dfq d'v gtfs]/ ;dod} cfkm"n] plrt sfo{ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . vf;u/L { ;fd'bflos txdf ul/g] of]hgf / k|lta4tfn] o:tf 36gfaf6 x'g] IfltnfO{ Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 . To;}n] …e'Orfnf]n] dflg; dfb}g t/ dflg;åf/f lgld{t ;+/rgf F { elTsP/ dflg; d5{gÚ eGg] oyfy{nfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ ;Sg'k5{ . ;Gb{e;fdu|L a|xdzdz]/ ha/f– …gAa] ;fnsf] dxfe'Orfnf]Ú F e"sDkaf6 ;'/lIft /xg ug'{ kg]{ k"j{tof/L, xft] k'l:tsf tyf cGo k|sfzg, e"sDk k|ljlw /fli6«o ;dfh– g]kfn . Earthquake Praperedenss Handbook, National society for Earthquake Technology- Nepal. ljZj clwsf/L, g]kfndf e"sDkLo p4f/ M ;Defjgf / r'gf}tL, kof{j/0f dfl;s, jif{ !$, cªs *, @)^#, k"0ff{ªs &! . Websites of USGS and www.gcrio.org ;ljGb| l;+x, kof{j/0f e"uf]n, k|ofu k':ts ejg, Onfxafb, @))! . ISDR, Global plateform for Disaster Risk Reductio, 2007 Global Review jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf– g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) kof{j/0f dfl;s jif{ !#, cltl/Qm cªs, k"0f{ªs %#, @)^@ h]7 . e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷33 “
  34. 34. e'Orfnf] tyf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f÷34 “

×