This is a presentation on Nanotechnology, presented to you for a Personality Development Project.
It is bought to you by Dipanshu Gupta and Ramkumar, aka Walter and Jesse respectively.
Now, what is even Nanotechnology? Lets start with a brief overview.
Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating and rearranging individual atoms and molecules to create useful materials, devices and systems.It’s unique because it’s Star Trek stuff! We can build entirely new materials and machines we have only imagined in the past! But, Nanotechnology is fast redefining those boundaries. It literally makes you think ‘Out of the Box’!It’s applications are so diverse that there is some serious money going in it for R&D.
Lets take a look at the origins of this science.
Richard Feynman, the famous physicist, first envisaged this idea. He thought of synthesis by manipulating atoms.Since the dawn of this century, this field has garnered significant interest in the scientific community and elsewhere. It wasn’t spontaneously accepted and many debates took place about it.
Commercial progress did begin, but only at nano-scale, which is 10^-9. The atomic-scale manipulation was yet to come.The use government started a program called the NNI (National Nanotechnology Initiative), which, as the stats show, has received serious funding over the years.Scientists have drawn Timelines and hope to reach the atomic manipulation of matter in the near future.
One question that you might be wondering at the back of year head is, “Why Nanotechnology?” Why is it so special that people talk so excitedly over it? Lets flip and see.
Rephrase and explain the above mentioned ideas.
Lets now go to the main part of this presentation, the various applications of Nanotechnology. See The Enterprise back over there? Even that is possible. Now that I have already had your curiosity, I hope I will now have you attention.
Read out the table. Dazzle people.
Clothing can act as a computer. TV’s that use Carbon Nanotubes – vibrant pictures at any angle, much thinner and use less energy.Flooring tiles that can never be scratched, and can change color and pattern on demand.Nanolubricants that can withstand and work at very high temperatures.Building tiles coated with Titanium Dioxide Nano Particles that never need repainting or washing.Car windows that can’t be broken and dented materials that fix themselves.Anything you can dream, watch it come alive.
Fuel cells – very high efficiency.Batteries will begin to use Carbon Nanotubes instead of graphite, increasing storage and battery life. Now you might run every day to your charger for juice but in 10-15 years, it will be a whole new ball game.
The medicine department is taking huge strides forward in this technology. It can be seen from the obvious emergence of big Pharmaceutical companies that invest billions of dollars in research. The above mentioned points are the things that could be a reality very soon. Talk about re-growing organs, thanks to nanotechnology!
Moore’s Law, stated by Gordon E. Moore, co-founder of Intel. According to it, the number of transistors in a chip would double every year. This has come up to 18 months now, and the law is fast becoming obsolete. The microprocessor timeline for Intel experience a Tick and a Tock every cycle. Every Tick represents the shrinking of a previous architecture, as with the new Haswell Processors by Intel and every Tock is a new Microarchitecture, as with the Broadwell processors expected in early 2015.With electronic paper comes bright, vivid images and it looks like regular paper. It’s light and flexible. And unlike the screens today, the screen is perfectly visible under direct sunlight!
There are a few special terms in Nanotechnology that I would love to acquaint you with. Lets have a look at them.
Read all out. Say a line or two. We shall look at BuckyBalls, Carbon Nanotubes and MEMS& Quantum Dots briefly.
Talk a bit of chemistry nigga.
MOSFET, which expands to Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) takes 1000 electrons to turn on or off. Quantum Dot based SETs can do with a single electron. 1000 times faster and much more efficient computing!A 64 bit Q bit computer is roughly 18 billion times more powerful as a 64 binary. What would take a Pentium class digital computer pulling 2 billion calculations a second to solve a 64 bit encryption key 292 years, a 64 Q bit computer just one operation!You have no idea the kind of computers we can have within a decade!
Nanotechnology, being the amazing science it is, has faced obstacles throughout its run. You might expect people to fancy it but when real life comes, there are a number of problems this science faces. Lets have a look at this section.
Research at such a scale needs huge sums of money and government support, in abundance. What is the spending figure and scheme? It’s all here.
Talk a bit. Tough to explain.
Same here. Do mention the last point slowly and let that sink in.
Here is the NNI Budget, for 2012-2014. Though it’s receding slightly, it definitely is receding.
This project wasn’t a brainchild of mine. This took some serious research and extensive reading. Here’s a compilation of a few websites which helped us throughout the project.
Read out the sites.
Read the quote. Duh! Read it slowly. Make it look like a conclusion.
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
B. SC. PHYSICS
Dipanshu Gupta (3201310001)
• Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on
an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description
of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of
precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macro
• The associated research and applications are diverse, ranging from
extensions of conventional device physics to completely new
approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing
new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of
matter on the atomic scale.
• Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial
and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in
• The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by
renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the
Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct
manipulation of atoms. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio
Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.
• In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and
commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress.
Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications
of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society's report on
nanotechnology. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of
applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology.
• Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in
nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk
applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter.
• Governments moved to promote and fund research into
nanotechnology, beginning in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology
Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and
established funding for research on the nanoscale.
• By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish.
Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on
atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and
projected capabilities, goals, and applications.
After all, what is even the need for Nanotechnology?
• Small Particles - More surface area, more atoms to contact a surface.
• Extremely Precise – Materials can be made close to perfection to the point
that exact number of atoms can be measured.
• The development of more effective energy-producing, energyabsorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient
devices is possible with this technology.
• Radically improved formulation of drugs, diagnostics and organ
• Atomically engineered food and crops resulting in greater agricultural
productivity with fewer labor requirements.
Various application of Nanotechnology. It makes Star Trek come alive.
Fiber that is stronger than spider web.
Metal 100 x’s stronger than steel, 1/6 weight.
Catalysts that respond more quickly and to more agents.
Plastics that conduct electricity.
Coatings that are nearly frictionless –(Shipping Industry)
Materials that change color and transparency on demand.
Materials that are self repairing, self cleaning, and never need
• Nanoscale powders that are five times as light as plastic but provide
the same radiation protection as metal.
• Fuel cell technology becomes cost effective within 3 years.
• Batteries that store more energy and are much more efficient.
• Plastics and paints that will store solar power and convert to energy for
$1 per watt.
Cosmetics that can penetrate the skin.
Cures for AIDS, Cancers, Alzheimer's, Diabetes.
Ability to view cells In vivo - Fast Drug Creation.
Nanomaterials that can see inside vessels for plaque buildup.
Technology that can re-grow bone and organs.
Nano Sensors for disease detection – 10x’s faster and 100,000 x’s more
• Nano Filters will help create impurity free drugs.
• Silicon is hitting its size limit, Moore’s Law suspected to be obsolete
• Super Chips – Combination of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide create
• Plastic semiconductors manufactured by regular printing devices –
• Electronic Paper.
KEY TERMS YOU OUGHT TO KNOW
Important terms in the field of Nanotechnology.
• 4 nm width (smaller diameter than
• 100x’s stronger than steel 1/6 weight.
• Thermal/electrically conductive.
• Metallic and Semi-Conductive.
BUCKYBALLS – C
• Roundest and most symmetrical molecule
known to man.
• Compressed – becomes stronger than
• Third major form of pure carbon.
• Heat resistance and electrical conductivity.
MEMS AND QUANTUM DOTS
• A quantum dot is a nano crystal made of
semiconductor materials that are small
enough to display quantum mechanical
• MEMS is as a new manufacturing
technology, a way of making complex
electromechanical systems using batch
fabrication techniques similar to those used
for integrated circuits, and uniting these
electromechanical elements together with
OBSTACLES AND HURDLES
Why isn’t Nanotechnology expanding as rapidly as it should?
Throughput and cost constrains.
Funding requires long-term investment.
Theft of intellectual property.
Potential danger if technology falls in wrong hands.
Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology.
• Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the
• Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological
devices will have on politics and human interaction.
• Speculative issues - the specific risks associated with the speculative
vision of molecular nanotechnology, such as "Grey goo“.
How much are countries investing in the future of science?
• With US government funding of nanotechnology receding slightly in
2011, Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) estimates indicate that for the first
time, China will spend more than the US to fund nanotechnology.
• In the last 11 years, governments around the world have invested more than
US$67.5 billion in nanotechnology funding. When corporate research and
various other forms of private funding are taken into account, nearly a
quarter of a trillion dollars will have been invested in nanotechnology by
• Corporate research and private funding were thought to have surpassed
government funding figures as far back as 2004. But this year, according to
Cientifica’s estimates, in PPP terms China will spend US$2.25 billion in
nanotechnology research while the US will spend US$2.18 billion. In real dollar
terms, adjusted for currency exchange rates, China is only spending about
US$1.3 billion to the US’s $2.18 billion.
• This appears to be a temporary hiccup in US dominance in public funding of
nanotechnology with the US again taking the lead next year even in PPP
terms, spending $2.46 billion with China allotting $2.2 billion.
• Cientifica’s index of countries’ ability to take advantage of emerging
technologies indicates the US, Germany, Taiwan and Japan have the
combination of academic excellence, technology-hungry
companies, skilled workforces and the availability of early stage capital to
ensure effective technology transfer.
• When combined with levels of nanotechnology funding, the US is still the
place to be, although China and Russia are increasingly attractive. The UK
and India struggle at the bottom of the league.
This project would be impossible without external sources.