Learning And The Brain

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  • Learning And The Brain

    1. 1. Learning and the Brain and Students with Disabilities Frank Stanko Dion Betts June 19, 2007
    2. 2. Schedule The focus of this workshop is on students with various disabilities and difficulties in learning from a brain-based perspective. Instruction strategies for use with these students are given. 8:00 Part 1: How Learning Takes Place in the Normal Brain 9:00 Break 9:15 Part 2: Disability Categories, the Brain, and Effects on Learning 10:15 Break 10:30 Part 3: Instruction and the Brain 11:30 End of Session
    3. 3. Part 1 How Learning Takes Place in the Normal Brain
    4. 4. Learning and the Brain Functions of the Brain
    5. 5. Three Functions of the Brain <ul><ul><li>Detecting Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition of Inappropriate Responses </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Detecting Change <ul><ul><li>Biologically prepared to detect a change in the sensory surround </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To compare an event from the immediate past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use long term knowledge to create a new representation that combines events with existing representation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Sequence of Evoked Potential Waveforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of sensory energy – 100 msec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of change – 200-250 msec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of discrepancy – 300-500 msec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of features stored with existing knowledge – 500-1000 msec </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Establishing Associations <ul><ul><li>Establishing a new association between representations of two events can be created through two means: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus – to – Stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus – to – Response </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Inhibition of Inappropriate Responses <ul><ul><li>One form is automatic habituation of brain reaction to repeated situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One form involves voluntary behavior, involving the prefrontal cortex and develops later </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Phases of Early Development <ul><ul><li>Prenatal Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The First Year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Second Year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Years Two through Eight </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Prenatal Era <ul><ul><li>Sequence of development of brain structures follows a strict time-line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief temporal windows when particular site is especially malleable to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some stressful events during gestation can affect embryo or fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to look at the course of development for system or feature </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. From Structure to Function <ul><ul><li>The motor system – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First signs observed at 4 PFW as twitches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 7 PFW, first large limb movements, including startles and abrupt flexion and extension of arms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth movements which increase from 16-20 PFW emerge earlier in females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal mobility affects brain circuitry </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Cerebral palsy believed to be due to prenatal disturbances in the development of cortico-spinal motor system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular and irregular breathing first observed at 11 PFW and by 24 PFW increases to over 30% of the time. Note, drinking approximately one drink of alcohol can suppress fetal breathing movements for periods of up to 3 hours </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Laterality in movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetuses older than 10 PFW show bias for moving the right rather than left arm, with the preference at 83% of one group studied between 12 and 27 PFW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also a bias of sucking the right thumb over left at ratio of 7:1 at 15 to 21 PFW </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>The Auditory System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to sound can appear as early as 12 to 16 PFW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness to very high and low sounds first noted at 33 to 35 PFW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newborns prefer the sound of their mother’s voices the that of others </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Two important psychological products during first year Liberation from an automatic alerting to events with certain physical attributes to greater reliance on events that are transformations of knowledge and The ability to retrieve schematic representation of the past without relevant clues in immediate present
    17. 17. The First Year <ul><ul><li>Consists of two important transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 – to – 3 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 – to – 12 months </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 2 – to – 3 months <ul><ul><li>Biologically prepared reactions are almost automatic to particular classes of stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infant sucks on fingers inserted into mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasps a finger placed in the palm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixates on a black line on white background </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Ages 7 – to – 12 months <ul><ul><li>Development of Schemata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish in every sense modality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a representation of repeated of the patterned features of an event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the first psychological structure to emerge form neuronal activity provoked by an event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two psychological products of brain growth are liberation from automatic alerting and ability to retrieve schematic representations from past </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>The ability to retrieve the immediate past and compare it with present in working memory renders the 8-month-old vulnerable to fear of the unfamiliar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to detect present event as discrepant but not mature enough to assimilate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include stranger and separation anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Second Year <ul><ul><li>Addition of semantic structures to the schematic structures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain honors the distinction between schematic and semantic representations which have different structures and represented differently in two hemispheres </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Semantic structures organize experiences in unique ways in networks in a hierarchical organization of concepts linked to a context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The notion of essence is feature that language adds to the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to language, similarity is judged by physical features such as shape, size, movement, texture, color, sound, taste, smell </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><ul><li>After language emerges, similarity in semantic meaning is added. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of punishable acts emerges, as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are first component of moral sense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infers adults evaluation or chastisement with feeling of uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be able to infer some of the thoughts of adults </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><li>The second year of life also is initial conscious awareness of self as agent with intentions, feelings, and actions and is the first signs of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is proposed these qualities of the second year of life profit from and are dependent on the more effective communication between the hemispheres </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Years 2 through 8 <ul><ul><li>Characterized by many psychological transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More automatic integration of past with present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can generate reasons why behaved in a certain way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can detect relations shared by semantic categories for dissimilar events </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Although these products emerge in a fixed sequence, the specific contents of the child’s schemata, semantic network, and motor skills are monitored primarily by experience. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Why is That Important? <ul><ul><li>Researchers have noted that since language has no “end organs” that it must team with sensory and motor systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language by ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language by mouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language by eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language by hand </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Each of these is a complex functional system that draws on common as well as unique brain processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are constructed as the child interacts with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children may differ in ability to understand and construct language influenced both by mode of input and output </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Part 2 Disability Categories, the Brain, and Effects on Learning
    30. 30. More Than Half Of Special Education Students Have Specific Learning Disabilities www.infouse.com
    31. 31. Specific Learning Disabilities Specific learning disability. (i) General. Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Disorders not included. Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. United States Department of Education
    32. 32. True learning disabilities are due to anomalies in brain structure or function, which can be inherited. Toxins in utero or in a person’s early environment can also cause learning disabilities. www.helpguide.org/mental/ learning _ disabilities .htm
    33. 33. Dyslexia www.lems.brown.edu/ ~msj/summary/dyslexia.gif
    34. 34. Reading is not automatic but must be learned. The reader must develop a conscious awareness that the letters on the page represent the sounds of the spoken word. To read the word &quot;cat,&quot; the reader must parse, or segment, the word into its underlying phonological elements. Once the word is in its phonological form, it can be identified and understood. In dyslexia, an inefficient phonological module produces representations that are less clear and hence more difficult to bring to awareness. In READING the word (for example, &quot;cat&quot;) is first decoded into its phonological form (&quot;kuh, aah, tuh&quot;) and identified. Once it is identified, higher-level cognitive functions such as intelligence and vocabulary are applied to understand the word's meaning (&quot;small furry mammal that purrs&quot;). In people who have dyslexia, a phonological deficit impairs decoding, thus preventing the reader from using his or her intelligence and vocabulary to get to the word's meaning. (Scientific American, November 1996, page 101) Dyslexia and the Reading and Brain Process www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/ learning/improving_ reading .shtml
    35. 35. Mental Retardation Mental retardation means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. United States Department of Education
    36. 36. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (can lead to MR) www.robynsnest.com
    37. 37. Mental Retardation Effects on Learning The person may have trouble learning. It may take longer for the person to learn many academic and social skills, such as how to be friends or how to communicate with other people. The person also may be less able to care for himself or herself and to live on his or her own as an adult. http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/birth_defect/mental_retardation.html
    38. 38. Hearing Impairment Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. United States Department of Education
    39. 40. Unlike people with normal hearing, deaf people sense vibrations in the auditory cortex of the brain. Image: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) brain activation maps averaged across 11 hearing (left side) and 10 deaf (right side) volunteers while feeling vibrations in the palm of the right hand. Yellow/red foci indicate areas of increased blood flow. depts.washington.edu
    40. 41. The average hearing impaired student shows an ever increasing gap in vocabulary growth, complex sentence comprehension and construction, and in concept formation as compared to students with normal hearing. Hearing impaired students often learn to &quot;feign&quot; comprehension with the end result being that the student does have optimal learning opportunities. Other problems arise because deafness is an invisible disability. It is easy for teachers to &quot;forget about it&quot; and treat the student as not having a disability. http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/hearing.html Hearing Impairment Effects on Learning
    41. 42. Speech or Language Impairment Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. United States Department of Education
    42. 43. Aphasia: Wernicke's (Receptive Aphasia) www.ling.upenn.edu <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I called my mother on the television and did not understand the door. It was too breakfast, but they came from far to near. My mother is not too old for me to be young. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receptive_aphasia </li></ul>
    43. 44. Broca’s Aphasia (Expressive Aphasia) www.tau.ac.il/~naamafr/ more/broca_tomo1.jpg <ul><li>Broca's aphasic patient is trying to explain how he came to the hospital for dental surgery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes... ah... Monday... er... Dad and Peter H... (his own name), and Dad.... er... hospital... and ah... Wednesday... Wednesday, nine o'clock... and oh... Thursday... ten o'clock, ah doctors... two... an' doctors... and er... teeth... yah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broca%27s_aphasia </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Speech/Language Impairment Effect on Learning Affects: a child's academic success, especially if left untreated. Forty to seventy-five percent of the children have problems learning to read. http://merrill.ku.edu/IntheKnow/sciencearticles/SLIfacts.html School success relies on the ability of a student and his teacher to communicate and of the student to build peer relationships. http://www.sunnysideud.k12.az.us/programs/special_ed/speech.asp
    45. 46. Visual Impairment <ul><ul><li>Visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. United States Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Vision
    47. 48. … vision has only partly to do with the retina, lens, and cornea. Understanding what we see mostly happens in the brain , which is why a person with perfect vision is still susceptible to optical illusions. Do we know what the world looks like? We know approximately what it looks like, which is enough to get by, but our perception of the world is not without a certain amount of 'misreading.' Our visual nervous system approximates color, shape, and dimension. (PBS, 2006)
    48. 49. Problems for Students with Vision Impairments eye tracking skills (eyes staying on target, i.e., following a line of print) eye teaming skills (two eyes working together as a synchronized team) binocular vision (simultaneously blending the images from both eyes into one image) accommodation (eye focusing) visual-motor integration (i.e., eye-hand coordination, sports vision, etc.) visual perception (visual memory, visual form perception, visualization, directionality) http://www.covd.org/od/learning.html
    49. 50. Emotional Disturbance <ul><ul><li>Emotional disturbance means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ii) Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. United States Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Anxiety This is the Transverse view of the Brain. The front of the Brain is at the top of the individual pictures. Note the red, white, and black areas in the center images which show significant increased blood flow to the Basal Ganglia area of the Brain. This is a common finding with individuals with anxiety symptoms. braininspect.com
    51. 52. Emotional Disturbance and Effects on Learning Hyperactivity (short attention span, impulsiveness); Aggression/self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting); Withdrawal (failure to initiate interaction with others; retreat from exchanges of social interaction, excessive fear or anxiety); Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level). http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs5txt.htm
    52. 53. Orthopedic Impairment <ul><ul><li>Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). United States Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Some Orthopedic Impairments <ul><ul><li>Bone Diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachial Plexus Palsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral Palsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocephalus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular Dystrophy Poliomyelitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spina Bifida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Muscular Atrophies </li></ul></ul>
    54. 55.   Brain impairments associated with Cerebral Palsy Children with Cerebral Palsy are impaired primarily in the midbrain area. As a result, children who are diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy typically have neurological and developmental issues in the areas of vision, hearing, sensation, language, mobility and manual competence. www.familyhopecenter.org/conditions/ cerebral _ palsy .html
    55. 56. Orthopedic Impairments and Effects on Learning <ul><ul><li>Individuals with these types of impairments…have a limited ability to mobilize themselves, sit in a classroom and/or use materials or equipment for learning because of muscular, skeletal, or neuromuscular impairment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural barriers add to the frustration of having an orthopedic disability and contribute to another serious problem: isolation or lack of inclusion. Because of the special needs orthopedically impaired children typically have, their education time is often spent at special centers where their contact with non-disabled peers is limited. http://kcterc.ksde.org/Pubimages/IncludingPDF/Chapter%209/9Orthopedic.pdf. </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. Autism Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. Autism does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. (ii) A child who manifests the characteristics of autism after age three could be identified as having autism if the criteria in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section are satisfied . United States Department of Education
    57. 58. Autism Figure 1. Brain Activation Scattering in Autism Autistic individuals show less activity, during a movement task, in areas that are normally activated (premotor and superior parietal cortex; blue areas), but unusually increased activity around these normal sites of activation (red areas). Images courtesy of Ralph-Axel Müller. dx.doi.org/ 1 0. 1 37 1 /journal.pbio.0020267
    58. 59. Asperger Syndrome This is the Sagittal view ( side view ) of the Brain. Note the extreme red hyper perfusion (too much activity ) in the entire Brain. This is a common finding with Asperger's Disorder. http://braininspect.com/spect_lib/spid.php?cat=asperger&lang=EN&theme=MOK
    59. 60. Asperger Syndrome (continued) This is the Transverse view of the Brain. The front of the Brain is at the top of the picture and the back of the Brain is at the bottom of the picture. All the red that you see represents significant hyper perfusion ( too much blood flow ) to many important functional areas of the Brain. This over-activity globally is a common finding with Asperger's Disorder and High Functioning Autism.
    60. 61. Autism-Effects on Learning <ul><ul><li>Organization is difficult for each of us and especially for students with autism. It requires an understanding of what one wants to do and a plan for implementation. These requirements are sufficiently complex, interrelated, and abstract. They present formidable obstacles for students with autism. When faced with complex organizational demands, students are frequently immobilized and sometimes never even able to begin their required tasks. </li></ul></ul>
    61. 62. <ul><ul><li>Developing systematic habits and work routines have been effective strategies for minimizing these organizational difficulties. Students with established left to right and top to bottom work routines do not stop working in order to plan where to begin and how to proceed. Organizational difficulties are also minimized through checklists, visual schedules, and visual instructions concretely showing autistic students what has been completed, what remains to be done, and how to proceed. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 63. <ul><ul><li>Distractibility is another common problem of students with autism. It takes many forms in the classroom: reacting to outside car noises, visually following movements in the classroom, or studying the teacher’s pencil on the desk instead of completing the required work. Although most autistic students are distracted by something, the specific distractions differ considerably from child to child. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.sesa.org/newsltr/ref_autism/learn.html </li></ul>
    63. 64. Traumatic Brain Injury <ul><ul><li>An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open and closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas such as: cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual, motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, speech. IDEA 1997 </li></ul></ul>
    64. 65. www.kumc.edu/hoglund/ posters/brooks09.jpg Traumatic Brain Injury
    65. 66. Other Health Impairment <ul><ul><li>Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that-- (i) Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and (ii) Adversely affects a child's educational performance. United States Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
    66. 67. ADHD www.adhdnews.com
    67. 68. Seizure Disorder www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/ science/media/CN-Seizure.jpg
    68. 69. Neurofibromatosis - Type 2 www.emedicine.com
    69. 70. Tourettes Syndrome braininspect.com
    70. 71. Fragile X Syndrome psychology.ucdavis.edu
    71. 72. Other Health Impairments- Effects on Learning <ul><ul><li>Students who are classified as health impaired have chronic or acute health problems that affect their strength, vitality, and ability to participate in regular classes without some special consideration. These students frequently miss school because of their health problems, may have economic problems because of the high cost of medical implication, and may exhibit poor interpersonal relationships because of the amount of time these individuals spend out of school. In addition, these students may appear restless, inattentive, pale, frail, may frequently be hungry or thirsty, and may exhibit a negative self-concept. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://kcterc.ksde.org/Pubimages/IncludingPDF/Chapter%207/7Other.pdf </li></ul>
    72. 73. Multiple Disabilities <ul><ul><li>Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. Multiple disabilities does not include deaf-blindness. United States Department of Education </li></ul></ul>
    73. 74. Part 3 Instruction and the Brain
    74. 75. <ul><li>Three most essential aspects of brain development throughout the years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mental stimulation: novel and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>complex activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Sleep </li></ul></ul>
    75. 76. This …PET image pair highlights the results of an interesting research study by Dr. Marcus Raidle of Washington University (St. Louis). He took a PET scan of the brain of a volunteer that indicates on the top two areas where some rudimentary skill/knowledge functional activity has left its imprint. After that volunteer was trained over four months to modify this skill and develop new capabilities, the bottom PET image shows a shift to new areas where this ability has become stored in the brain. http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Intro/Part2_26d.html
    76. 77. Ten Tactics for a Brain-compatible Class <ul><ul><li>Provide a safe, comfortable learning environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide comfortable furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide water and fruits to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure frequent student responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair physical movement to learning tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual stimuli for increasing novelty in the learning task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use music and rhythms for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate wait time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give students choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use students to teach each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Bender 2002) </li></ul>
    77. 78. Video Clips and Practice <ul><ul><li>The Body as Learning Tool (Visual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Music and Rhythms (Auditory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Mnemonics (Visual, Auditory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Movement as a Learning Tool (Tactile, Kinesthetic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Bender 2002) </li></ul>
    78. 79. <ul><li>Keys to Instruction for Students with Disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAKT - The use of visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile cues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Active Engagement - Students need to be actively engaged for the maximum time possible in successful learning experiences. For reading, this may involve: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Teacher reading selection to student </li></ul><ul><li>b) Teacher and student read together </li></ul><ul><li>c) Student reads to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>3. Patterns - Students need to be taught in patterns (e.g., moon, noon, soon) to develop connections to more difficult skills. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Explicit Instruction - Students need to be taught discrete skills, in small steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction needs to be clear and concise. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Repetition - Mastery of learning is achieved through repetition and fluency building. This means continual reading opportunities in skills already learned. It important that the teacher help the student remain engaged in fluency building activities by having the student read to the teacher frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Data Collection - Fluency can be tracked with the use of a simple spreadsheet. Data collection is important to indicate whether teacher methods are working. A sample spreadsheet and template for teacher use can be downloaded from: http://intranet.swsd.k12.pa </li></ul>
    79. 80. Additional Tips for Teaching Students with Disabilities
    80. 81. Teaching Students with Autism <ul><ul><li>Focus on developing alternative behaviors that are more appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May need explicit assistance in identifying cues for social occasions and responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May require highly structured classroom, clear expectations, fast-paced instruction, positive consequences for acceptable behavior, visual cues to support interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom activities regular and predictable </li></ul></ul>
    81. 82. Teaching Students with Vision Impairments <ul><ul><li>Ask if you can assist moving from place to place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep physical layout consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be familiar with their assistive devices </li></ul></ul>
    82. 83. Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments <ul><ul><li>Speak clearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not cover your mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not talk loudly unless requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become familiar with their methods of communication </li></ul></ul>
    83. 84. Teaching Students with ED <ul><ul><li>Be firm, respectful, supportive, consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands off approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small achievable expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise success sincerely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use de-escalation techniques </li></ul></ul>
    84. 85. Teaching Students with MR <ul><ul><li>Use clear, simple directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need intensive instruction which is persistent and ongoing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide tasks into small parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-care training needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model appropriate social behaviors </li></ul></ul>
    85. 86. Teaching Students with Orthopedic Impairments <ul><ul><li>Physical lifting and transferring often necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct body positioning and handling procedure training for staff is often needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential seating and accommodations for toileting often needed </li></ul></ul>
    86. 87. Teaching Students with a Specific Learning Disability <ul><ul><li>Allow extra time for response to questions and prompts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide lessons into smaller parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review frequently </li></ul></ul>
    87. 88. Teaching Students With Speech/Language Impairment <ul><ul><li>Be supportive and reassuring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit and clear instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper voice tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate with the speech/language clinician </li></ul></ul>
    88. 89. Teaching Students With TBI <ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
    89. 90. Sample Accommodations for Content Area Instruction <ul><ul><li>Study guides for testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outline form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloze worksheet with word banks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page numbers for answers given </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlighted texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use different color for different types of questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer questions to answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate interpretive questions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    90. 91. Sample Accommodations for Content Area Instruction (continued) <ul><ul><li>Partner for projects, assignments, reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunk long-term assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate due dates for each part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Checklist to mark off parts completed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphic organizers for teaching or assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow graphics or projects instead of written assignments </li></ul></ul>
    91. 92. Testing Accommodations <ul><ul><li>Less questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer answer choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribe for essay questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit number of questions in matching sections (chunk sections) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place descriptive part of matching questions on left, single word part on right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use larger print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-space print for questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow more space for answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide lines or bullets equal to expected length or points of answer </li></ul></ul>
    92. 93. Suggested Materials <ul><ul><li>Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities. William N. Bender. Corwin Press. 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice . ASCD. 2001. </li></ul></ul>
    93. 94. <ul><li>I like nonsense; it wakes up the brain cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Seuss </li></ul>

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