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Autism Presentation


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Autism Presentation

  1. 1. ASPERGER’S SYNDROME IN THE HOME, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY Through the Life Span <ul><li>Nancy Patrick, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Dion Betts, Ed.D. </li></ul><ul><li>With special presentations by: </li></ul><ul><li>Stacey Betts </li></ul><ul><li>Joshua Betts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steven Collier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Knauss </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to state several of the unique challenges expressed for each age group covered in the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to state several strategies to address the challenges presented for each age group covered in the presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to state general proactive strategies that increase the likelihood that preschoolers, children, teens and adults with AS will live with greater success and satisfaction. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Workshop Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>What is Asperger Syndrome? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges, Accommodations, and Successes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joshua Betts, 9 th Grade Student with AS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stacey Betts, Parent of Child with AS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steven Collier, College Student with AS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community, Adulthood, Work, and Marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>David Knauss, Adult with AS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Resources for Parents, Professionals, and Carers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD’s) <ul><li>A distinct group of neurobiological </li></ul><ul><li>conditions characterized by a greater or </li></ul><ul><li>lesser degree of impairment in language </li></ul><ul><li>and communication skills, social interaction, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior.  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prevalence Data for Autism Spectrum Disorders <ul><li>Fourteen communities participating in an </li></ul><ul><li>autism spectrum disorder surveillance project revealed an average finding of 6.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds with ADS’s. This translates to approximately one in 150 children. </li></ul><ul><li>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) February 8, 2007 Press Release </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevalence of ASD’s <ul><ul><li>The third most common developmental disability - more common than Down's Syndrome (1 out of every 800 births). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASD’s are four times more prevalent in boys than girls. (1 out of every 94 boys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASD’s are present in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is Asperger Syndrome?
  8. 8. Hans Asperger (1906-1980) Hans Asperger identified a group of his patients who appeared to be weak or lacking in social relatedness, empathy, and ability to form friendships. His patients, who ranged in age from 5 to 35 years, also engaged in one-sided conversations; demonstrated intense, self-absorbed special interests and preoccupations; and displayed clumsy motor movements. He observed that the intense preoccupations provided pleasure, yet interfered with many other functions in life. Asperger was convinced that people diagnosed with AS could use their special interests and talents successfully in adulthood (Asperger 1991, first published 1944 ).
  9. 9. Asperger Syndrome (AS) is one of several conditions found in a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities known as autism spectrum disorders (Klin, Volkmar and Sparrow 2000).
  10. 10. Individuals who have AS display qualitative impairment in social interactions in addition to having a tendency to engage in restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. (DSM-IV-TR 2000)
  11. 11. Diagnosis In order for these difficulties to warrant a diagnosis of AS they must significantly interfere with the ability of the individual to function in one or more of the major areas of life including social, learning, self-care, independence or work.
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Interpreting and expressing nonverbal communication through eye contact, facial expression, body posture, and gestures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social or emotional reciprocity. </li></ul></ul>Impaired Social Interaction
  13. 13. Restricted and Stereotyped Patterns of Behavior <ul><li>Enthusiastic preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals such as stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Motor and Sensory Many people with AS also experience physical problems that may include motor awkwardness, clumsiness and strong reactivity to sensations such as touch, sound, taste, smell, temperature, pain and movement. These problems occur despite the gift of an average or above-average intellect.
  15. 15. Preschool
  16. 17. School
  17. 18. Academic Issues <ul><li>Organization skills are weak </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge based subjects may be a strength </li></ul><ul><li>Math may or may not be weak </li></ul><ul><li>Clumsy </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting is often poor </li></ul><ul><li>Writing creative sentences is difficult. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Joshua Betts, 9 th Grade Student
  19. 20. Home
  20. 21. Stacey Betts, Esq. Stay at Home Mom
  21. 22. College
  22. 23. Steven
  23. 24. Employment
  24. 25. <ul><li>‘ People with Asperger Syndrome can make a positive contribution, particularly in the workplace if their disability is properly understood and they are helped in a positive way’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Person with AS) </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>‘ He is in and out of work. Quite frequently he is capable of a wide range of jobs but usually comes unstuck due to communication problems’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Parent) </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>‘ Failure to transfer the skills acquired through education to the workplace is a clear waste of resources. Continuing unnecessary reliance on state benefits is also extremely expensive, as are the costs of treating psychiatric disorders relating to long term unemployment…’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Mawson & Howlin 1997) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Vocational strengths <ul><li>Attention to detail / accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>No time lost to ‘office chat’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sticking to the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent good performance on repetitive tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuality and reliability </li></ul>
  28. 29. Vocational difficulties <ul><li>Interview skills </li></ul><ul><li>Peer relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Communication deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritising, staying on task, and managing time effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Working to deadline, dealing with interruptions and changes </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions arising from quality Vs quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory hypersensitivities </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of anxiety </li></ul>
  29. 30. Overcoming recruitment barriers <ul><li>Clearly worded unambiguous job postings </li></ul><ul><li>Use of work trials instead of a verbally based interview </li></ul><ul><li>Basing interview questions on past experiences rather than hypothetical situations </li></ul><ul><li>Extra time in selection tests to allow for additional ‘processing time’ </li></ul>
  30. 31. Providing effective support <ul><li>Awareness raising for workplace managers and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate job matching (skills & sensory issues) </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual introduction to the work place </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, effective and unambiguous workplace communication </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Rule and boundary setting early on </li></ul><ul><li>Task break-down and clear written instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Clear honest and consistent feedback about performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing problem solving (periodic support) </li></ul><ul><li>A workplace mentor that is accessible and AS aware </li></ul>
  32. 33. Job matching <ul><li>Complexity: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the job require: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex sequencing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual dexterity? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex decision making and prioritisation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the task: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve repetition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level social skills? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the sensory impact of the work environment? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the person have communication deficits? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Practical strategies to overcome barriers <ul><li>Written guidelines in the skills acquisition phase </li></ul><ul><li>Work timetable (what to do when and in what order of priority) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for dealing with unbearable stress </li></ul><ul><li>Use of visual cues </li></ul><ul><li>Workspace organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing aids if appropriate </li></ul>
  34. 35. AS and Marriage
  35. 36. AS Features Causing Difficulties <ul><li>Lack of Empathy? </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to mind-read </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of stress on the AS partner </li></ul><ul><li>Communication difficulties– personal and work relationships </li></ul>
  36. 37. Effects of AS <ul><li>Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Severe depression </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly ended a marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely unhappy relationship with parents </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to succeed at interviews – so career and job opportunities curtailed </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in employment </li></ul>
  37. 38. Verbal Communication <ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AS partner: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has a lack of ability to initiate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has literal understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has no innate understanding of structure of conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simply does not know what to say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unaware of when to speak sometimes </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Communication <ul><li>Conversation structure difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turn-taking slow or absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need for processing time causes delay in replying, particularly noticeable over abstract issues, e.g. emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in beginning and ending conversations </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Non-verbal Communication <ul><li>A real problem: lack of facial expression and other non verbal communication leads to much mutual misunderstanding </li></ul><ul><li>Mood, or attitude of the person with AS is easily misread </li></ul>
  40. 41. Coping Strategies <ul><li>Awareness of differences in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Non-AS partner must not become emotional in conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss one issue at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid using metaphorical language </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Wait for a reply – it will usually come </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for a reply if it doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>The intent of the person with AS should be appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Use Instant Messaging and emails </li></ul>
  42. 43. Social Issues <ul><li>Separate social lives need not be detrimental to a marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Social occasions based on an activity – concert, theatre or quiz more successful </li></ul><ul><li>Purely social occasions should be limited to small groups of quiet people in quiet surroundings </li></ul>
  43. 44. What Works
  44. 45. What’s In A Name? <ul><li>Asperger Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>High Functioning Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Language Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Deficit Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Pragmatic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlexia </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Processing Disorder </li></ul>
  45. 46. Definition of Asperger Syndrome <ul><li>Language, self-care skills and adaptive behavior and curiosity about environment show normal development up to 3 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative abnormality in reciprocal social interaction and circumscribed interests and repetitive, stereotyped patterns of activities. </li></ul>
  46. 47. In Summary <ul><li>They do not know what to say </li></ul><ul><li>Rule and routine bound </li></ul><ul><li>Want things their way </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul><ul><li>Have narrow interests </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety increases quickly </li></ul><ul><li>They are smart </li></ul><ul><li>Uncoordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Issues </li></ul>
  47. 48. Evaluation <ul><li>Academic Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Play Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and Language Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Motor and Sensory Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Evaluation </li></ul>
  48. 49. Classroom Accommodations <ul><li>From </li></ul><ul><li>ASPERGER SYNDROME AND THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EXPERIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>BY SUSAN THOMPSON MOORE </li></ul>
  49. 50. 3-Ring Binder <ul><li>Students with AS need more time than other students to learn how to keep track of work, due dates, notes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the following in the binder: Assignment Notebook, Take-Home folder, Give to the Teacher folder, Homework folder, Extra’s pocket, labels, reinforcements, paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Take to school and home every day! </li></ul>
  50. 51. The Assignment Notebook <ul><li>Keeps the student organized </li></ul><ul><li>Informs parents </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a routine </li></ul><ul><li>Provides for planning ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Notifies of schedule changes </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone checks it!!!!! </li></ul>
  51. 52. Homework <ul><li>Busy work </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul><ul><li>Written directions </li></ul><ul><li>Check for understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into sections </li></ul>
  52. 53. Tests <ul><li>See directions prior to test date </li></ul><ul><li>Look at test before test day </li></ul><ul><li>PRACTICE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Matching, Multiple Choice, True-False, </li></ul><ul><li>Fill-in-the-Blank, Essay, Recall </li></ul>
  53. 54. Tests Preparation, Preparation, Preparation <ul><li>Teacher-provided outline </li></ul><ul><li>List of topics and terms </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of test </li></ul><ul><li>Practice test </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing NEW! </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice </li></ul><ul><li>No Fill-in or T/F </li></ul><ul><li>Oral exams </li></ul>
  54. 55. Handwriting <ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce emphasis on neatness </li></ul><ul><li>Try Handwriting Without Tears program </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to formulate ideas and transfer to written form may be impaired </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to assess your child’s actual knowledge of a subject or proficiency in self-expression may be to write for him/her or use assistive technology </li></ul>
  55. 56. Writing is difficult <ul><li>Fine motor problems and difficulty creating language make writing creative sentences difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Use Assistive Technology </li></ul><ul><li>1. Be his secretary </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use tape recorders or computers </li></ul><ul><li>3. Alphasmart </li></ul><ul><li>4. Co Writer </li></ul><ul><li>5. Write: Out Loud </li></ul><ul><li>6. Voice activated problems </li></ul>
  56. 57. Cut & Enlarge <ul><li>Enlarge worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into sections </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to graph paper </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t do all at once </li></ul>
  57. 58. Home-School Communication <ul><li>Communication Notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Support Services </li></ul><ul><li>Change in Routine Notification </li></ul>
  58. 59. Speech and Language Evaluation <ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul><ul><li>Language skills-syntax and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Speech-articulation, voice and fluency </li></ul>
  59. 60. Pragmatic Disorder <ul><li>Lack of understanding about the reciprocity of verbal and nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased understanding and use of gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased use of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty maintaining a conversation </li></ul>
  60. 61. Tests <ul><li>Test of Pragmatic Language </li></ul><ul><li>Test of Problem Solving </li></ul>
  61. 62. Language Disorder <ul><li>Sometimes language learning is precocious </li></ul><ul><li>There must be words by 2 years and phrases by 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Style of learning language may be like an autistic child: echolalia, difficulty learning pronouns, difficulty understanding verbal explanations </li></ul>
  62. 63. Tests <ul><li>Preschool Language Scale-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Evaluation of Language </li></ul><ul><li>The Test of Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive One Word Vocabulary Test </li></ul><ul><li>Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test </li></ul>
  63. 64. Language Test Scores Show an Unusual Profile <ul><li>Highest scores are in expressive vocabulary, </li></ul><ul><li>Next highest are in receptive vocabulary, </li></ul><ul><li>Next are in grammatical structures, </li></ul><ul><li>Often below average are tests of problem solving, </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest area is in pragmatic language skills. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Difficulty with Higher Level Language Functions <ul><li>Understanding idioms, figurative language </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding sarcasm </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding what is being asked in When, Why, How, What if questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding verbal explanations. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Speech Disorders <ul><li>Often there is a prosody difference in the melody and intonation and pitch </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation disorders – same as in all children </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency – same as in all children </li></ul>
  66. 67. Do Speech Therapy If the child with Asperger Syndrome: <ul><li>Has low language scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not understand what is being asked by “where,” “who,” and “when.” </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty carrying on a reciprocal conversation. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Effective Strategies to Teach Higher Level Language Skills <ul><li>Traditional language therapy to teach specific language skills including questions, pronouns, and direction concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Fast ForWord to speed up auditory processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Use materials such as Linguisystems to teach idioms, problem solving, etc. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Effective Strategies to Teach Pragmatic Language <ul><li>Social Language Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Gray’s Social Language Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Conversation with Therapist </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Videotaping </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching During Social Times </li></ul>
  69. 70. Techniques That Work in Social Language Groups <ul><li>Scripting and Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Give Visual Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Question Asking </li></ul><ul><li>Use Their Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Anxiety Low </li></ul>
  70. 71. Scripting and Rehearsal <ul><li>Give the child the exact words to say: </li></ul><ul><li>Say, “Dad, I want to go to the store,” </li></ul><ul><li>Say, “Teacher, I need help.” </li></ul><ul><li>Say, “Joe, it’s my turn.” </li></ul>
  71. 72. Coaching <ul><li>Show and tell the child what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the protocol of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the child practice. </li></ul>
  72. 73. Coaching <ul><li>Getting Points </li></ul><ul><li>Make it very clear what he is to work on in the group such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Following someone else’s rule </li></ul><ul><li>Give compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Be explicit about getting points means you are doing it right </li></ul>
  73. 74. Teach Flexibility <ul><li>“ I HAVE TO BE RED!” </li></ul><ul><li>Let him be red and explain to the others that maybe next time he can let someone else be red, but it is too hard to change today. </li></ul><ul><li>If two want RED, let them share turns </li></ul><ul><li>If the argument persists then you can either give in or let him wait until it is his turn to be RED. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Teach Flexibility <ul><li>“ I have to win!” </li></ul><ul><li>Make losing, fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Make winning not fun. </li></ul>
  75. 76. Teach Flexibility <ul><li>“ I HAVE TO HAVE IT MY WAY!” </li></ul><ul><li>Announce that we can either argue for a long time or play. Which would you rather do? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you having fun yet? </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever “compromises” gets a star. </li></ul>
  76. 77. Teach Flexibility <ul><li>COMPROMISING </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the rule: If you compromise, you are doing right. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise means letting the other guy have his way. </li></ul><ul><li>If you let the other guy have his way, you get a point. </li></ul>
  77. 78. Teach Flexibility <ul><li>BEING BOSSY </li></ul><ul><li>They turn the other children off by being bossy, controlling and judgmental. </li></ul><ul><li>They lose a point (or a turn) for teasing criticizing another child. </li></ul><ul><li>They get extra points for saying something nice. </li></ul><ul><li>If the child starts out saying several nice things, he is not teased as much. </li></ul>
  78. 79. Use Visual Aids <ul><li>Visual Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Written Lists </li></ul><ul><li>Plan It Together </li></ul><ul><li>This Takes Away The Unexpected </li></ul><ul><li>Be Sure To Include “Things might change.” </li></ul><ul><li>Get Them Hooked On Lists </li></ul>
  79. 80. Hyperlexia <ul><li>Children with obsessive interest in reading and a diagnosis of autism or Asperger’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension level is at the level of their language comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>IT DOES NOT EXIST </li></ul><ul><li>UNLESS IT IS WRITTEN </li></ul>
  80. 81. What To Do with Anxiety <ul><li>STOP the activity, </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure safety, </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the causes of the anxiety, </li></ul><ul><li>Reestablish calmness, </li></ul><ul><li>Then REHEARSE it using coaching, enticing, and “sweeten it up.” </li></ul><ul><li>BROADEN HIS INTERESTS AND SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul>
  81. 82. Social Language Groups Goal: Engage in Reciprocal Communication <ul><li>Talk to each </li></ul><ul><li>Play together </li></ul><ul><li>Make friends </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE FUN! </li></ul>
  82. 83. SETTING UP SOCIAL LANGUGE GROUPS <ul><li>Select 3 or 4 children who are compatible in age and language level and interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Find a time to meet regularly, usually once a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse game protocol in individual sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the child participate in the decisions. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Beginning the Groups <ul><li>Start by saying that we will make a list of activities for the day. </li></ul><ul><li>First they sit at the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the list is written (or pictured) and activities are crossed off as they are finished. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end we often summarize the activities emphasizing the good behaviors they displayed. </li></ul>
  84. 85. Determine the Level of Social Communication <ul><li>What Do They Do When They Play? </li></ul><ul><li>Play by themselves or next to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Has to win </li></ul><ul><li>Argue and are bossy and gives commands </li></ul><ul><li>Monologues </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty understanding feedback </li></ul>
  85. 86. Level One <ul><li>They Start Out With Parallel Play </li></ul><ul><li>Use Scripting and Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Rule: Take Turns. </li></ul>
  86. 87. Level Two <ul><li>They Start With Simple Turn Taking Games </li></ul><ul><li>Use Activities With Simple Winning </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Rule: Sometimes You Win, Sometimes You Lose. </li></ul>
  87. 88. Level Three <ul><li>They Have To Control, Argue, Are Bossy </li></ul><ul><li>Use Activities That Need A Little Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Rule: Say Things That Invite A Response – Talk To Make Friends. </li></ul>
  88. 89. Level Four <ul><li>They Monologue </li></ul><ul><li>Use Structured Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Rule: Say Two Things and Then Ask A Question. </li></ul>
  89. 90. Level Five <ul><li>They Do Not Give Or Get Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Teach Rule: Look At Your Listener. Learn What The Other Person Is Feeling. </li></ul>
  90. 91. Tasks that will need adaptation <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Staying on task </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Circle of friends </li></ul><ul><li>Recess </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with parents </li></ul>
  91. 92. BE A TEAM PLAYER <ul><li>The key to academic and social success for students with Asperger Syndrome is TEAM WORK! </li></ul>
  92. 93. Contact Information <ul><li>Nancy J. Patrick, Ph.D. Dion Betts, Ed.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor of Assistant to the </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Messiah College South Western S.D. </li></ul><ul><li>One College Ave. 225 Bowman Road </li></ul><ul><li>Grantham, PA. 17027 Hanover, PA </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>717-766-2511 717-371-8225 </li></ul>
  93. 94. New Books August, 2008 November 2008