Pragmatics and Indirectness


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Pragmatics and Indirectness

  1. 1. Group 6 <ul><li>Anya Pritafania (0902401) </li></ul><ul><li>Dini Yahdini Nurhasanah (0902376) </li></ul><ul><li>Mayang Setrawulan ( 0 906 259 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Putri Dwi Annisa (0902 381 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rima Putriani (0902 417 ) </li></ul><ul><li>English Language and Literature B 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Pragmatics and Indirectness
  3. 3. Intentional indirectness <ul><li>In pragmatics intentional indirectness is examined. Nevertheless, sometimes it cannot be decided if an implicature is intentional or unintentional. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes : </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic inadequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Performance error. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Indirectness is costly and risky <ul><li>Indirectness is costly and risky . It is costly in the sense that an indirect utterance takes longer for the speaker to produce and longer for the hearer to process/understand/interpret. It is risky in the sense that the hearer may not understand what the speaker is getting at. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex ample: </li></ul><ul><li>An American woman was visiting Israel. One evening a woman went to the flat of some friends and her host asked her what she would like to drink. She replied, ' Well, I've been on whisky all day .' </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Assumption of rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Indirectness is used in certain occasions </li></ul><ul><li>We are more likely to conclude that people obtain some advantage or avoid some negative consequence by employing indirectness </li></ul><ul><li>The use of indirectness is perfectly rational </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>BBM display name. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Principle of Expressibility </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that can be meant can be said </li></ul><ul><li>No one was able to define the concept without resorting to various forms of indirectness: poetry or figure of speech (metaphor and similes) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Indirectness – An Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Not explicitly stated </li></ul><ul><li>An indirect approach succeeded where a direct order would certainly have failed </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Open page 123 </li></ul>
  8. 8. How do we know how indirect to be? <ul><li>The main factors of indirectness : </li></ul><ul><li>The relative power of the speaker over the hearer </li></ul><ul><li>The social distance between the speaker and the hearer </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which X is rated an imposition in culture Y </li></ul><ul><li>Relative rights and obligations between the speaker and the hearer </li></ul>
  9. 9. Power <ul><li>The general point is that we tend to use a greater degree of indirectness with people who have some power or authority over us than to those who do not. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Spencer – Oatey discusses the different types and component of power at some length. </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate power : One person has the right to prescribe or request certain things by virtue of role, age, or status. </li></ul><ul><li>Referent power : One person has power over another because the other admires and wants to be like him/her in some respect </li></ul><ul><li>Expert power : One person has some special knowledge or expertise which the other person needs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Distance <ul><li>Social distance is a composite of psychologically real factors (status, age, sex, degree of intimacy) which together determine the overall degree of respectfulness within a given speech situation. (Leech, 1938) </li></ul><ul><li>In an unequal power relationship [e.g. between students and their teacher in the case of p.129 Aeginitou (1995)], there remains a quite close relationship to one another </li></ul>
  12. 12. Size of Imposition <ul><li>Goffman’s Notion of Free and non-Free goods (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can use without seeking permission in a given situation in free goods: ‘ask for extra sauce when purchasing catfish pecel’ </li></ul><ul><li>Requesting free goods requires a minimal degree of indirectness </li></ul><ul><li>Lakoff (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of free and non-free goods can be extended to information, not necessarily material </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rights and Obligations What is important is whether or not the speaker has the RIGHT to make a particular demand and whether the hearer has the OBLIGATION to comply.
  14. 14. The Negotiation of Pragmatic Parameters <ul><li>Negotiate the size of imposition : </li></ul><ul><li>A : Hey, you still have a sandwich, don’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>B : Yup. </li></ul><ul><li>A : It looks delicious. </li></ul><ul><li>B : I know. </li></ul><ul><li>A : Are going to eat the sandwich? </li></ul><ul><li>B : No, I’m full. </li></ul><ul><li>A : Can I have it then? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Continue… <ul><li>Change the social distance : </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A: Dr. Galasinski? </li></ul><ul><li>B : Darek. </li></ul><ul><li>A : Darek. </li></ul>