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如何Motivate students

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How you can motivate students with good class design?

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如何Motivate students

  1. 1. How to Inspire students to Excellence 如何激励学生追求卓越 Presented by 丁宏 Newtown High School Guest Teacher Webinar, 2010
  2. 2. Motivation 学生动机 <ul><li>Enduring understanding 基本要点 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most students will not disrupt a class when they are engaged. 大多数学生有事可做时不会捣乱。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most disciplinary problems can be solved by good class planning 。大多数纪律问题可以通过合理的课堂安排解决。 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For learning a language a good way to engage students is to create meaningful activities to keep them communicating with each other to obtain useful information. 学习语言时吸引学生的方式就是要创造 有意义 的课堂活动,让学生之间不断交流,获取必要信息。 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Basic questions 基本问题 <ul><li>What is engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the teacher engage students? </li></ul><ul><li>How can backward design be used ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should the textbook be treated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are meaningful activities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the learning activities be designed? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How can you tell that the students are engaged? 学生怎样才算是投入学习 ? <ul><li>Rebellion 叛逆不羁 </li></ul><ul><li>Retreatism 望而却步 </li></ul><ul><li>Passive 被动接受 </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual 例行公事 </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic 真心学习 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Mr. Dumais, NHS Principal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What are genuine engagement? 怎样才是真正投入? <ul><li>Students are able to make connections between lesson and related content or personal experiences 学生能将 课程与相关内容或自身经历 相联系 </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop and communicate opinions about lesson content or related ideas 学生之间 就课程内容或相关想法 进行交流 </li></ul><ul><li>Students ask relevant questions and continue interaction after completion of the lesson 学生 问相关问题 ,下课后依然后 继续交流 </li></ul><ul><li>Students respectfully challenge presented material 学生会就提供的材料有礼貌地 提出质疑 </li></ul><ul><li>Students behave as critical friends, giving constructive feedback to others 学生对其他学生给出有 建设意义的反馈 ,是 诤友 </li></ul><ul><li>Students show interest and excitement about the material/lesson 学生对教学内容激动而乐于接受,并兴味盎然 </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are genuine engagement? 怎样才是真正投入? <ul><li>In World Languages, students employ the target language in an unsupervised and spontaneous manner 在语言课上学生 无需老师要求 就 自发使用目的语 </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate growth and understanding on performance based assessments 学生理解需要 </li></ul><ul><li>Students are self-directed 学生 自我指导 ,无需别人监控 </li></ul><ul><li>Students participate in opportunities to self-evaluate 学生 自我评估 </li></ul><ul><li>Students make choices based on personal interest and passion 学生根据个人兴趣与爱好 自由选择 </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are genuine engagement? 怎样才是真正投入? <ul><li>Students participate in discourse and content-related arguments/debates 学生参与课程相关 讨论 / 争辩 </li></ul><ul><li>Students anticipate higher level thinking questions 学生期待提出 高级思考 的问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Students can identify their own learning-related strengths and weaknesses 学生能 自我评价 学习相关的 长处与弱点 </li></ul><ul><li>Students make choices about the task or activity 在任务与活动中,学生 自主选择 </li></ul><ul><li>Students contribute freely and genuinely in collaborative activities 学生在合作活动中 出力 </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is engagement ? <ul><li>Engagement does not result from students’ desire to learn. Engagement results form students’ desire to do things they cannot do unless they learn. </li></ul><ul><li>学生之所以被吸引不是因为学生有想学的愿望,而是学生想做事情,这些事情如果不学习就无法完成! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Philip Schlechty, Creating Great Schools </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How do we engage students? <ul><li>The basics for engaging students is to design student activities with meaningfulness </li></ul><ul><li>吸引学生参与的基本要点就是要设计 有意义 的学生活动 </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is meaningfulness 何谓 有意义 <ul><li>According to Helena Curtain, meaningful activities should be </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsically interesting 真正有趣 </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitively engaging 从认知意义上说吸引人 </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally connected 文化上有所联系 </li></ul><ul><li>Communicatively purposeful 交际功能上有实际用途 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Meaningful Meaningfulness Culturally connected Cognitively engaging Communicatively purpose Intrinsically interesting By Helena Curtain
  12. 12. <ul><li>They are an integrated whole. These are the measurements that we use to assess an activity 。 这四点是有机整体,我们评估活动,就要看这四点。 </li></ul>
  13. 13. What do you mean by intrinsically interesting? <ul><li>Attentive to the student needs 注意学生需要 </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualize the learning 要有背景及语境 </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt learning to the student cognition development 适合学生认知发展 </li></ul><ul><li>Resort to multiple channels 多通道同时进行 </li></ul><ul><li>use themes rather than textbook units 围绕主题展开,而非根据课本单元 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Student needs <ul><li>The students needs to access the language through the language (ACTFL statement) 学生需要通过语言来学习语言。 </li></ul><ul><li>Balance oral and written languages 要均衡口语和书面语 </li></ul><ul><li>Competition/ playing 竞争 / 比赛 </li></ul><ul><li>Playfulness 玩中学习 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Context 语境 <ul><li>Games 游戏 </li></ul><ul><li>Stories 故事 </li></ul><ul><li>Music /Songs 歌曲音乐 </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme 韵律 </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry 诗歌 </li></ul><ul><li>Role play 角色扮演 </li></ul>
  16. 17. Flapper 苍蝇拍游戏 <ul><li>我 想送 ____ 一个 / 件 / 副 / 条 / 双 _____ 。 </li></ul><ul><li>我 想买 一个 / 件 / 副 / 条 / 双 _____ 。 </li></ul><ul><li>我 想要 一个 / 件 / 副 / 条 / 双 ______ 做 礼物。 </li></ul>
  17. 18. 讲故事 <ul><li>The first students think of a sentence around a topic 第一个学生想出一句话 </li></ul><ul><li>Then the second students continue according to the first sentence 第二个学生接着向下说 </li></ul><ul><li>Continue and form a TRAGEDY/COMEDY/SURPRISE etc. 继续,构成一个 喜剧 / 悲剧 / 意料之外 的戏剧 </li></ul><ul><li>Student Sample: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>小明妈妈买了两张电影票 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>妈妈生病了 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>小明给小龙一张 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>小龙明天有中文考试 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>小明给小丽电影票了 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>小明开车不知道路 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>小丽问路了,到了电影院 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>电影结束了 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Rhyme 韵律歌谣 <ul><li>你是哪国人?你要去哪里? </li></ul><ul><li>你们从哪儿来?会说啥外语? </li></ul><ul><li>From Let the Words Flow ,© Jenny Gao </li></ul>
  19. 20. Rhyme 押韵诗 <ul><li>动物园,真热闹, </li></ul><ul><li>有公鸡,有海豹, </li></ul><ul><li>兔子耳朵长,猪眼睛小 </li></ul><ul><li>狮子吼,老虎啸 </li></ul><ul><li>猩猩爬树鹿胆小。 </li></ul><ul><li>一只小猫喵喵叫, </li></ul><ul><li>两头小牛在吃草, </li></ul><ul><li>三条大鱼水里游 </li></ul><ul><li>四只猴子蹦蹦跳, </li></ul><ul><li>五只小鸟天上飞, </li></ul><ul><li>六匹马儿地上跑 </li></ul><ul><li>七只山羊爬山坡 </li></ul><ul><li>八只熊猫睡大觉 </li></ul><ul><li>九只乌龟慢慢爬 </li></ul><ul><li>十头大象鼻子摇 </li></ul><ul><li>© Ding Hong & Hou Yan </li></ul>
  20. 21. Poems 诗歌 <ul><li>一去二三里 </li></ul><ul><li>烟村四五家 </li></ul><ul><li>亭台六七座 </li></ul><ul><li>八九十枝花 </li></ul>
  21. 22. 一二三四五六七 <ul><li>一二三四五六七 </li></ul><ul><li>我的朋友在哪里 </li></ul><ul><li>在北京,在上海 </li></ul><ul><li>我的朋友在这里 </li></ul>
  22. 23. Police and Drunken Driver 警察与醉驾者 <ul><li>A drunken speeding driver was driving a car without plate. After he is caught, you try get the most information out of him. </li></ul><ul><li>Please take notes of all the information that you have obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>The one who is asked tries to pick any mistakes in the questions. If there is any mistake, you can refuse to answer, but you have to tell what is wrong with the sentences by saying “ 我不懂 wǒ bùdǒnɡ”(I don’t understand) </li></ul><ul><li>If you are the police and you can get 85% of correct answers, you can give the ticket to the violating driver. If you can answer 85% of all the questions, then you are exempted. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Sample Q&A for P&D <ul><li>早上 好 。 </li></ul><ul><li>zǎoshɑnɡ hǎo 。 </li></ul><ul><li>早 上 好 / 下午 好 / 晚 上 好 </li></ul><ul><li>zǎoshɑnɡ hǎo/xiàwǔ hǎo/wǎnshɑnɡ hǎo </li></ul><ul><li>你好吗? </li></ul><ul><li>nǐ hǎo mɑ ? </li></ul><ul><li>我不好 wǒ bùhǎo/ 我很好 wǒ hěn hǎo </li></ul><ul><li>你 叫 什么 名字? </li></ul><ul><li>nǐ jiào shénme mínɡzi ? </li></ul><ul><li>我叫 Nimo. Wǒ jiào Nimo. </li></ul><ul><li>你 的 生日 是 什么 时候 ? </li></ul><ul><li>Nǐde shēnɡrì shì shénme shíhou ? </li></ul><ul><li>我的 生日 是 1887 年 2 月 29 日 </li></ul><ul><li>Wǒde shēnɡrì shì 1887 nián 2yuè 29 rì </li></ul>
  24. 25. Cognitive development 认知发展 <ul><li>Emotionally: young adults, </li></ul><ul><li>情感上 : 小大人,希望得到认可,希望成就感 </li></ul><ul><li>Academically: logical thinking , logics </li></ul><ul><li>学习上:逻辑思维日渐成型,需要有联系的内容,单独教一句话学生很容易忘掉。 </li></ul><ul><li>Socially: enjoying socializing </li></ul><ul><li>社会角色上 : 喜欢社交,因此需要一些真正能用在社交中的,比如说,过年说什么、过节说什么、生日说什么等等 </li></ul>
  25. 26. Multichannel 多通道 <ul><li>listening 听 </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking 说 </li></ul><ul><li>Doing 做 </li></ul><ul><li>Touching 触摸 </li></ul>
  26. 27. Themes 主题 <ul><li>Create a meaningful unit centered around one theme, rather than isolated sentences, patterns, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>根据一个主题创建一个有意义的单元,而不是让学生记孤立的句子、句型等,更不是单独的所谓分类词汇 </li></ul>
  27. 28. Why Thematic Unit 为什么用主题单元 <ul><li>Walking dictionary vs. talking person 活字典与说话的人 </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of language, content, and culture 语言、内容和文化 浑然一体 </li></ul><ul><li>Use language in meaningful context 在 有意义 的语境中 使用 语言 </li></ul>
  28. 29. Anatomy of a Thematic unit 主题单元剖析 <ul><li>A spread “web” 宽泛的网 </li></ul><ul><li>A major theme 主题 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-themes 小主题 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topics 话题 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-topics 小话题 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual lessons 单独课程 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Discussion: what can you teach with this picture?
  30. 31. Cognitively engaging <ul><li>Connecting to regular curriculums 与学生所学学科相关联 </li></ul><ul><li>Use their knowledge and pre-knowledge 使用学生的知识和以前已有的知识 </li></ul><ul><li>Using academic skills such as classifying, sequencing, comparing, contrasting, etc. 利用学习技能,如分类、排序、比较、对比等 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. teaching time: ask the students to sequence all activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying: find out the one that doesn’t belong 分类:找出不是同一类的内容 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>枕头 书包 床单 床 </li></ul><ul><li>zhěntou shūbāo chuánɡdān chuánɡ </li></ul><ul><li>毛巾 马桶 喷头 沙发 </li></ul><ul><li>máojīn mǎtǒnɡ pēntóu shāfā </li></ul><ul><li>厨房 餐桌 客厅 卧室 洗手间 </li></ul><ul><li>chúfánɡ cānzhuō kètīnɡ wòshì xíshǒujiān </li></ul><ul><li>空调 冰箱 灯 镜子 电视 </li></ul><ul><li>kōnɡtiáo bīnɡxiānɡ dēnɡ jìnɡzi diànshì </li></ul><ul><li>熊 海报 章鱼 企鹅 </li></ul><ul><li>xiónɡ hǎibào zhānɡyú qǐé </li></ul><ul><li>电脑桌 椅子 餐桌 垃圾桶 沙发 </li></ul><ul><li>diànnǎozhuō yǐzi cānzhuō lājītǒnɡ shāfā </li></ul><ul><li>桌布 窗帘 床单 电脑 </li></ul><ul><li>zhuōbù chuānɡlián chuánɡdān diànnǎo </li></ul><ul><li>楼梯 门 墙 暖气 </li></ul><ul><li>lóutī mén qiánɡ nuǎnqì </li></ul>
  32. 33. Information Gap
  33. 34. Culturally connected 与文化相连 <ul><li>Use authentic Chinese realia 使用地道的中国东西, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food, menu from China 食物,中国菜单 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money, Chinese bills 钱 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tickets 车票 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receipt 收据 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use authentic Chinese languages rather than TEXTBOOK Chinese 使用地道的中国语言,而非 书本式 的语言。 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like/dislike 不喜欢 讨厌、烦 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation 好、棒、酷、帅、 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Communicatively purposeful 有实际交际用途 <ul><li>Language functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socializing 寒暄 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greetings 打招呼 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>which of the following have you taught? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>幸会 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>您好 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>很高兴认识您 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging info 交换信息 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which of the following should we teach more? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WH-questions 一般问句 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/No questions 特殊问句 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Communicatively purposeful 有实际交际用途 <ul><li>Language functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting things done 让人做事 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Please /is it ok if you…/may I … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>请… /… 好吗 / 我可以… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing attitude 表态 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like/dislike 喜欢 / 不喜欢 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agree/disagree 同意 / 反对 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Construct Communicatively purposeful sentences 设计有交际用途的句子 <ul><li>Teach the students sentences that they can use in their communication for a specific purpose 教给学生的句子,应该是他们能根据交际目的实际使用的 </li></ul><ul><li>Open questions preferred 多使用开放性问题,少用简单回答的问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Complete answers encouraged 鼓励学生多用完整的句子回答 </li></ul>
  37. 38. Sample questions <ul><li>which of the following questions are more communicatively purposeful? </li></ul><ul><li>你喜欢红色吗 ? </li></ul><ul><li>你喜欢红色还是绿色? </li></ul><ul><li>你最喜欢什么颜色? </li></ul><ul><li>你最喜欢什么颜色?为什么? </li></ul><ul><li>你喜欢什么颜色的衣服?为什么? </li></ul>
  38. 39. Section conclusion 段落结论 <ul><li>To engage students, learning activities must be meaningful in that they are 如果想吸引学生,学习活动必须是有意义的,必须 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsically interesting 本身有趣 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitively engaging 认知上吸引人 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally connected 文化上与目的语有联系 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicatively purposeful 符合实际交际目的需要 </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Textbook Disillusion <ul><li>If we examine our textbooks, we may find quite a disappointing scene: </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks are not an ideal source for learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>Since textbooks are not an ideal source for learning activities, what should we do? </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the teachers should move away from textbooks and design their own learning activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Backward Design offers an ideal method for designing learning activities </li></ul>
  40. 41. Basic BD Process 基本逆向设计过程 <ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe </li></ul>确定想要达到的目标 backward 确定达到目标的证据 规划学习体验与教学活动
  41. 42. Starting point 出发点 <ul><li>Where will you go? 向何处去? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards 需要遵守哪些标准? : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five Cs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>国际汉语能力标准 by Hanban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K-16 Chinese Language Curriculum by Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In identifying desired result, What do you expect them to KNOW about the language and be able to DO with the language? 确定达到的目标时,哪些是你期待他们能了解的,哪些是他们能够 使用 的? </li></ul><ul><li>What standards are addressed in the result? 希望达到的目标中, 符合哪些标准 ? </li></ul>
  42. 43. Setting goals <ul><li>What is a good goal? 什么样的目标是好的目标? </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary? 词汇? </li></ul><ul><li>Structure? 结构? </li></ul><ul><li>Language functional use should be the goal of our teaching. 语言的功能性应用才是语言教学的本质目标 </li></ul><ul><li>At the airport, however you are familiar with the numbers, if you couldn’t identify announcement for your flight, or departure time, the knowledge is just a failure. 在机场,不管对数字多熟悉,能数多少数字,如果不能听出自己的航班号以及起飞时间,所有的知识只不过是失败 </li></ul>
  43. 44. Discussion: 讨论 What language functional goals can you set for the following :下列内容你希望达到哪些使用功能? <ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Family members </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>animals </li></ul>
  44. 45. Expectations 期望效应 <ul><li>Students only perform as high as you expect them to. 你期待多高,学生能飞多高 </li></ul><ul><li>American students are strong-willed. They need challenge 美国学生很渴望挑战 </li></ul><ul><li>Setting higher expectations at the beginning may be helpful for you in the long run. 欲求其中,必求其上; 欲求其上必求其上上 </li></ul><ul><li>An important expectation: You expect them to USE CHINESE in a functional way rather then REMEMBER rules about Chinese language 最重要的期待:让学生能够将 中文 作为交际工具 使用 ,而不是 记住 中文语言的规则 </li></ul>
  45. 46. Determining acceptable evidence 确定达到目标的证据 <ul><li>What are acceptable evidences 什么样的是达到目标的证据 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orally 口头上 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written 书面上 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What evidence will show that the students meet your goals? 如何确定学生达标? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance task and projects 操作性的任务和项目 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiz, test, speaking or writing prompts 测试 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other evidences 其他证据 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student self-assessment 学生的自我评估 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted From Deborah W. Robinson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All the evidences should be measurable 证据应该是可以测量的 </li></ul>
  46. 47. Determine acceptable evidence <ul><li>Consider a range of methods for frequent assessment --formal and informal 考虑使用多种评估方式,包括正式的、非正式的,不一定很多,但要经常性评估,以便及时修正。 </li></ul><ul><li>Put yourself in the shoes of The assessors AND the students 要从 学生 和评估者两个角度来考虑,我们习惯把自己放在评估者的位置上,但也要经常从学生角度来思考,怎样学生自己才能知道已经学会了呢 ? </li></ul>
  47. 48. Planning learning experiences 规划学习体验 <ul><li>What activities will you use? 使用什么活动? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the relationship between the learning activities and your goal? 学习活动和目标之间有什么关系? </li></ul><ul><li>What languages, realias, manipulatives, videos will you use? Are they adequate? 你会使用哪些语言内容、实物、模拟物、视频等 ? 资源够吗? </li></ul><ul><li>What technologies will you employ? 你会使用哪些技术? </li></ul>
  48. 49. Basic questions 基本问题 <ul><li>What pre-knowledge/skills should the students have before they can perform effectively and achieve desired results 学生需要哪些必备知识 / 技能才能有效达到预定效果? </li></ul><ul><li>what activities will equip the students with the pre-knowledge/skills? 哪些活动能让学生掌握这些必备知识 / 技能? </li></ul><ul><li>What need to be taught, what can the students learn individually? 哪些是学生可以自学的?哪些必须教? </li></ul><ul><li>what can be done in team, how will the team work? 哪些活动可以小组活动,小组如何活动? </li></ul>
  49. 50. Pre-knowledge 前提知识 SPONGE activity <ul><li>S hort, intense vivid activities, which provide </li></ul><ul><li>P ractice of learned materials which students do </li></ul><ul><li>O n their own , and which include </li></ul><ul><li>N ew arrivals or those finishing an assignment early, by keeping the </li></ul><ul><li>G roup involved, and designed to </li></ul><ul><li>E licit an immediate response </li></ul><ul><li>短暂但密集的活动,学生自己练习所学材料,能够让全体学生参与进来,包括新来者也能受益,需要学生能立即响应 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Deborah Blaz,” Language teachers’ Guide to Active Learning”, 1999 </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Types of SPONGE Activities 活动类型 <ul><li>Say to yourself 自言自语 </li></ul><ul><li>Say to another person 对另一个人说 </li></ul><ul><li>Say in chorus 齐说 </li></ul><ul><li>Write a response 写下来 </li></ul><ul><li>Signal (e.g. Raise hand, move to a spot actions) 示意 </li></ul><ul><li>Tell-Your-Partner: 告诉伙伴 </li></ul>
  51. 52. Performance Task 操作性任务 <ul><li>Relate the language to the students’ individual experience 将知识与学生的个人经历相关联,并充分利用学生的个人体验 </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended 开放式的 </li></ul><ul><li>FOR a purpose 有目的 </li></ul>
  52. 53. 操作性任务 Performance Task based on RAPP Explain your family to your hosts Posters with family members Your host students visiting China Performance Product 产品 Audience 受众 ROLE 角色
  53. 54. RAFT Assignment Describe basic family members. Letter Chinese penpal American student Topics Format Audience ROLE
  54. 55. Resources Cited <ul><li>Dumais, Charles , Engaging students, New Teacher Orientation, NPS, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Helena Curtain, How to Deepen the Impacts of Our Classroom Activities , CLTA-NCR 2010, University of Maryland, </li></ul><ul><li>ACTFL, ACTFL Statement on Foreign language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Deborah Robinson, Chinese Guest teacher Summer Institute, 2009&2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Janice Dowd, Jigsaw Reading, StarTalk Summer Institute 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Philip Schlechty, Creating Great Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Deborah Blaz,” Language teachers’ Guide to Active Learning ”, 1999 , From GTSI 2009 </li></ul>
  55. 56. Section Conclusion <ul><li>Plan with the end in mind 规划前要先想着结果 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a theme 选择想要处理的主题 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Align the standards 使主题目标与标准保持一致 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what students should know and be able to do 决定学生应该了解哪些,能够 使用哪些 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify how students will demonstrate their knowledge 确定学生如何能 展现知识 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan learning experiences and instructional methods 规划学习活动和教学方法 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose resources 选择可用资源 </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. What teaching contents, goals and activities can you create from the following page?
  57. 58. 宾 馆 bīnɡuǎn 书 店 shūdiàn 商 场 shānɡchǎnɡ 医院 yīyuàn 高 中 ɡāozhōnɡ 中 学 zhōnɡxué 中 餐 店 zhōnɡcāndiàn 麦 当 劳 màidānɡláo 肯 德基 kěndéjī 银 行 yínhánɡ 电影院 diànyǐnɡyuàn 比萨饼 店 bǐsàbǐnɡdiàn 第 一 街 dì yì jiē 第 二 街 dì èr jiē 第 三 街 dì sān jiē 东 路 dōnɡlù 西 路 xīlù 小学 xiǎoxué 药店 yàodiàn 水果店 shuíɡuǒdiàn 第 四 街 dì sì jiē
  58. 59. Some General Thoughts <ul><li>Below are some general thoughts, which is not part of the presentation. You can treat it as a supplement. </li></ul><ul><li>以下内容纯属个人的一孔之见,可以将其作为补充材料来自己看,谢谢! </li></ul>
  59. 60. How to ? <ul><li>Use sentences, rather than a list of isolated words 使用句子而不是孤立的单词 </li></ul><ul><li>Use authentic languages, rather than textbook languages 使用地道的语言,而不是书本用语 </li></ul><ul><li>Use living language, rather than language seldom used 使用鲜活的语言材料,而非千年一叹的句子。 </li></ul><ul><li>Use self-created contents, rather than sticking to textbooks 使用自编内容而非死读书本 </li></ul><ul><li>Use contents relevant to the students and ask them to tell THEIR STORY. 使用与学生相关的内容,让他们讲自己的故事 </li></ul>
  60. 61. How to? (Continued) <ul><li>Apply technology wherever possible and necessary 可能用技术的地方就用技术 </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt teaching contents to student needs. 针对学生需要调整教学内容 </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt the best practices from other disciplines 积极吸取其他科目的最佳做法 </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate instructions to meet individual needs 对症下药,细分教学内容 </li></ul><ul><li>Devote yourself to work-The students can feel it. 热爱教学,全心投入,学生可以感受到 </li></ul>
  61. 62. How to(Continued) <ul><li>Believe in student success 相信学生要成功 </li></ul><ul><li>Set high expectations: the students will do as you expected. 要有高期望值,学生会如你所愿 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pygmalion Effect 皮格马利翁效应 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get the students out of their comfort zone 将学生推出舒适区,让学生探索未知 </li></ul>
  62. 63. 一节课的分析 Anatomy of A Class <ul><li>Start with bellwork so that the students will not wait for you to start the class; otherwise they will start their own conversation. 上课铃响前给学生一些任务,别让学生等老师开口,否则学生就会开口了。 </li></ul><ul><li>Bellwork should be both meaningful and interesting. The most important thing is that it connects the previous lesson and the coming lesson. Bellwork 应该有意义、有趣味。最重要的是要能承接上节课、开启下节课。 </li></ul>
  63. 64. Middle 中间 <ul><li>During lecture, pace properly and switch tasks often so that the lecture is conducted in a rapid yet orderly fashion 注意节奏安排,经常更换任务,快速而有序 </li></ul><ul><li>Pace your class so that it is conducted in a quick-paced manner 课堂安排时要注意快节奏 </li></ul><ul><li>Intermingle oral, written, active tasks 要口头、书面和肢体活动性任务相结合 </li></ul>
  64. 65. End 结尾 <ul><li>Reflect on what have been learnt 回忆本堂所学内容 </li></ul><ul><li>Tell the students the future contents 告诉学生下节课的内容 </li></ul>

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