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L 4-5


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L 4-5

  1. 1. L-4/5 Types of leadership, Leadership theories and styles
  2. 2. Leadership selection <ul><li>Appointment or election? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Leadership selection <ul><li>Appointmentship rather than leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant difference between the two. Appointmentship concerns the granting of power (through an external authority) over other people, whereas leadership is concerned with inner processes, where people recognize and are ready and willing to be influenced by another person. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theories of Leadership <ul><li>Trait models (Great man theories) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>contingency theories (Situational) </li></ul><ul><li>transformational leadership model (Relationship Theories) </li></ul><ul><li>Invitational leadership (Participatory theories) </li></ul><ul><li>transactional model (Management theories) </li></ul><ul><li>Others opinion: </li></ul><ul><li>Great man theories, Trait models, Behavioural perspective, Contingency theories, Situational theories, Relationship theories, Participatory theories, Management theories </li></ul>
  5. 5. Great man theories <ul><li>assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term &quot;Great Man&quot; was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Learn more about the </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trait models <ul><li>Trait theories: </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance and personal presence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charisma? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self confidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to formulate a clear vision? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Trait theories <ul><li>Similar in some ways to &quot;Great Man&quot; theories, theses theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behavioral Theories <ul><li>Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Contingency theories <ul><li>Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contingency Theories: <ul><li>May depend on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History of the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture of the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of the relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the changes needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted norms within the institution </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Transformational Leadership <ul><ul><li>Widespread changes to an institutions or organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading by example – walk the talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency of systems and processes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transformational/Relationship Theories <ul><li>Relationship theories (also known as &quot;Transformational theories&quot;) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transformational leadership <ul><li>Transformational leadership is a form of leadership that occurs when leaders “broaden and elevate the interests of their employees, when they generate awareness and acceptance of the purposes and the mission of the group and when they stir their employees to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of the group” (Bernard Bass, 1990). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Invitational Leadership <ul><ul><li>Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the institutions both externally and, crucially, internally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review internal processes to reduce these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to stakeholders </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Participative Theories/Invitational <ul><li>Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Transactional/Management Theories <ul><li>Management theories (also known as &quot;Transactional theories&quot;) focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transactional Theories <ul><ul><li>Focus on the management of the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on procedures and efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on working to rules and contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing current issues and problems </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Quiz Test
  19. 19. Leadership styles <ul><li>Read the following fables and share me your understanding: </li></ul><ul><li>• A groom spent days in combing and rubbing down his horse. But stole oats and sold them for his own profit. “Alas!” said the Horse, “If you really wish me to be in good condition, You should groom me less, And feed me more.” </li></ul><ul><li>• Aesop's Fables </li></ul>
  20. 20. Basic leadership styles <ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul>
  21. 21. Autocratic Leadership Style <ul><li>The classical approach </li></ul><ul><li>Manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Does not consult staff, nor allowed to give any input </li></ul><ul><li>Staff expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Structured set of rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly criticized during the past 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>• Gen staff highly resistant </li></ul><ul><li>• Autocratic leaders: </li></ul><ul><li>• Rely on threats and punishment to influence staff </li></ul><ul><li>Do not trust staff </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow for employee input </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>When can this style be effective? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Not everything bad <ul><li>Sometimes the most effective style to use </li></ul><ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>New, untrained staff do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Effective supervision provided only through detailed orders and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Staff do not respond to any other leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>Limited time in which to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>A manager’s power challenged by staff </li></ul><ul><li>Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>When this style should not be used- </li></ul>
  25. 25. Should not be used <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>Staff become tense, fearful, or resentful </li></ul><ul><li>Staff expect their opinions heard </li></ul><ul><li>Staff depend on their manager to make all their decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bureaucratic Leadership Style <ul><li>• Manages “by the book¨ </li></ul><ul><li>• Everything done according to procedure or policy </li></ul><ul><li>• If not covered by the book, referred to the next level above </li></ul><ul><li>• A police officer not a leader </li></ul><ul><li>Enforces the rules </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>When you think it is most effective? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Most effective <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>Staff performing routine tasks over and over </li></ul><ul><li>Staff need to understand certain standards or procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety or security training conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Staff performing tasks that require handling cash </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>When is it ineffective? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ineffective <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful </li></ul><ul><li>Staff lose their interest in their jobs and in their co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Staff do only what is expected of them and no more </li></ul>
  31. 31. Democratic leadership style <ul><li>Also known as participative style </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages staff to be a part of the decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps staff informed about everything that affects their work and </li></ul><ul><li>shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Leader <ul><li>A coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff before making a decision </li></ul><ul><li>Produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Staff like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale </li></ul>
  33. 33. The democratic leader <ul><li>Develops plans to help staff evaluate their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>Allows staff to establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages staff to grow on the job and be promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes and encourages achievement </li></ul>
  34. 34. Not always appropriate <ul><li>• Most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced staff or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems </li></ul>
  35. 35. Most effective <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to keep staff informed about matters that affect them. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants staff to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to provide opportunities for staff to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Changes must be made or problems solved that affect staff </li></ul><ul><li>Want to encourage team building and participation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Should not be used <ul><li>Not enough time to get everyone’s input </li></ul><ul><li>Easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t afford mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Manager feels threatened by this type of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Staff safety is a critical concern </li></ul>
  37. 37. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style <ul><li>Also known as the “hands-off¨ style </li></ul><ul><li>The manager provides little or no direction and gives staff as much freedom as possible </li></ul><ul><li>All authority or power given to the staff and they determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own </li></ul>
  38. 38. An effective style <ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Staff highly skilled, experienced, and educated </li></ul><ul><li>Staff have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants used </li></ul><ul><li>Staff trustworthy and experienced </li></ul>
  39. 39. Should not be used <ul><li>Staff feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager </li></ul><ul><li>The manager cannot provide regular feedback to staff on how well they are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Managers unable to thank staff for their good work </li></ul><ul><li>The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and hoping the staff cover for him or her </li></ul>
  40. 40. Factors affecting styles <ul><li>Leadership style may depend on </li></ul><ul><li>Risk – decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved </li></ul><ul><li>Type of business – creative business or supply driven? </li></ul><ul><li>How important change is – </li></ul><ul><li>Change for change’s sake? </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of task – needing co-operation? Direction? Structure? </li></ul>