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Group 5 experiment 14 case study no. 1


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Group 5 experiment 14 case study no. 1

  2. 2. CASE STUDY NO. 1 An 18 year old girl who had been in good health goes to her physician in Seattle, Washington, complaining of a headache and flu-like symptoms. Further questioning indicates she had developed a red rash on her thigh that enlarged but then disappeared after two weeks. During this time, she also had a fever. The physician discovers the patient had been hiking in the hills east of Seattle ten days prior to developing the rash. The patient is placed on doxycycline and recovers.
  3. 3. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS What important clues toward identifying the disease are indicated from the patient’s case?  Occurrence of Headache and flu-like symptoms  Developed a red rash on her thigh that enlarged and disappeared after 2 weeks  Fever  The patient had been hiking in the hills of Seattle ten days prior to developing the rash.  Doxycycline as the drug of choice
  4. 4. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS What disease does she have and what organism is responsible for the disease? Lyme’s disease is the probable disease of the patient caused by Borrelia burgdorferi.
  5. 5. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS How was the organism responsible for the disease transmitted to the patient?  The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, is spread through the bite of infected ticks  Ticks can attach to any part of the human body but are often found in hard-to-see areas such as the groin, armpits, and scalp. In most cases, the tick must be attached for 36-48 hours or more before the Lyme disease bacterium can be transmitted.  Most humans are infected through the bites of immature ticks called nymphs
  6. 6. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS What complications could occur if the patient had not visited her physician?  Left untreated, Lyme disease can cause:  Chronic joint inflammation (Lyme arthritis), particularly of the knee  Neurological symptoms, such as facial palsy and neuropathy  Cognitive defects, such as impaired memory  Heart rhythm irregularities
  7. 7. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS How could this disease have been prevented? Wear long pants and long sleeves. When walking in wooded or grassy areas, wear shoes, long pants tucked into your socks, a long-sleeved shirt, a hat and gloves. Try to stick to trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. Keep your dog on a leash. Use insect repellents. Apply an insect repellent with a 20 percent or higher concentration of DEET to your skin. Parents should apply to their children, avoiding their hands, eyes and mouth. Keep in mind that chemical repellents can be toxic, so follow directions carefully. Apply products with permethrin to clothing or buy pretreated clothing.
  8. 8. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS  Do your best to tick-proof your yard. Clear brush and leaves where ticks live. Keep woodpiles in sunny areas.  Check yourself, your children and your pets for ticks. Be especially vigilant after spending time in wooded or grassy areas. Deer ticks are often no bigger than the head of a pin, so you may not discover them unless you search carefully. It's helpful to shower as soon as you come indoors. Ticks often remain on your skin for hours before attaching themselves. Showering and using a washcloth may be enough to remove any unattached ticks.  Don't assume you're immune. Even if you've had Lyme disease before, you can get it again.
  9. 9. QUESTIONS: AND ANSWERS  Remove a tick as soon as possible with tweezers. Gently grasp the tick near its head or mouth. Don't squeeze or crush the tick, but pull carefully and steadily. Once you've removed the entire tick, dispose of it and apply antiseptic to the bite area.