Definition: (from Greek: ἦ θος, ethos, "character"; and λόγος,logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of animalbehavior, and a branch of zoology. MAIN TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR People have to learn to read and write, but bees do not learn how to sting. They are born knowing how to sting when there is danger. This kind of behavior is called Instinct. Parents pass on instincts to their young through heredity.
Some basic concepts of animal behavior can beillustrated by the egg-retrieval response of the greylaggeese described by Lorenz and Tinbergen in a famouspaper in 1938. If Lorenz and Tinbergen presented afemale greylag goose with an egg a short distance fromher nest, she would rise, extend her neck, pulling the eggcarefully into the nest.
Egg-rolling behavior of the greylag goose, Anser anser.
They also noticed that if they removed the eggonce the goose had begun her retrieval, or if the eggbeing retrieved slipped away and rolled down the outerslope of the nest, the goose would continue the retrievalmovement without the egg until she was again settledcomfortably on her nest. Then, seeing that the egg hadnot been retrieved , she would repeat the egg-rollingpattern.
Instinctive Behavior •Behavior that does not have to be learned. Another example would be a young bird that has never seen another bird build a nest, does not have to be taught how to build one.
The male crouches as he approaches the female , wings outstretched. Then a head wagging display begins. They often carry weeds in their beaks as they stretch their necks and sway. Finally, the male will give the female a fish.Grebes have an elaborate courtship dance. -an instinctive behavior.
•A behavior of this type, performed in an orderly,predictable sequence is called stereotypical behavior. Ofcourse, stereotyped behavior may not be performedidentically on all occasions, but it should be recognizableeven when performed inappropriately.•In order instinct can be observable, there must act as astimulus, or trigger. The stimulus in the example is thefemale Grebes. Scientists termed this stimulus areleaser, a simple signal in the environment that wouldtrigger a certain innate behavior. Or, because the animalusually responded to some specific aspect of thereleaser (sound, shape or color, for example) theeffective stimulus was called a sign stimulus.
Reflex Actions •This type of behavior are not planned or decided beforehand. For instance, you accidentally touch a hot object, you pull your hand away without thinking.Learned Behavior •Behavior can be changed by learning. Many animals will run away when they hear a loud bang. But if the bangs are repeated often enough, the animal grows used to the noise and ceases to run away. It has changed its behavior.
The hygienic behaviorin honey bees, asdemonstrated by W.C.Rothenbuhler. The results areexplained by assuming thatthere are two independentlyassorting genes, oneassociated with uncappingcells containing diseasedlarvae, and other associatedwith removing diseasedlarvae from cells.
GENETICS OF BEHAVIOR u uncap cells U does not uncap cells r removes diseased larvae R does not remove diseased larvae Homozygous Homozygous hygienic nonhygienic ♀ u/u r/r x ♂ U/U R/R U/u R/r Nonhygeinic hybrids u/u r/r x U/u R/ Backcross of hygienic with r hybrid bees u/u r/r U/u r/r u/u R/r U/ u R / r Hygienic Nonhygienic, Nonhygienic Nonhygienic , does uncaps, leaves neither uncaps not uncap but can dead larvae nor removes remove dead larvae inside cells dead larvae
Learning and Diversity of Behavior Another aspect of behavior is learning, which we define as modification of behavior through experience. An excellent model system for studying learning processes has been the marine opisthobrach snail, Aplysia, a subject of intense experimentation by E. R. Kandel and his associates.
If one prods the siphon, Aplysiawithdraws its siphon and gills andfolds them in the mantle cavity. Thissimple protective response, calledgill withdrawal reflex, is repeatedwhen Aplysia extends its siphonagain. But if the siphon is touchedagain, Aplysia decreases itsresponse and ignores the stimulus.This is called habituation.
•If now Aplysia is given a noxious stimulus (for example,an electric shock) to the head at the same time thesiphon is touched, it becomes sensitized to the stimulusand withdraws its gills as completely as it did beforehabituation occurred. Sensitization, then, can reverse anyprevious habituation.•Sensitization requires action of a different kind of neuroncalled a facilitating interneuron. These interneurons makeconnections between sensory neurons in the snail’s headand motor neurons that control muscles of the gill andmantle.
Neural circuitry concerned with habituation and sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in the marine snail, Aplysia.
Imprinting An amazing and very curious example of genetic and environmental influences on animal behavior is provided by imprinting. It is a phenomenon exhibited by several species when young, mainly birds, such as ducklings and chicks. Upon coming out of their eggs, they will follow and become attached (socially bonded) to the first moving object they encounter (which usually, but not necessarily, is the mother duck or hen). The first scientific studies of this phenomenon were carried out by Austrian naturalist Konrad Lorenz (1903 - 1989), one of the founders of Ethology.
He discovered that if greylag geese were reared by him from hatching,they would treat him like a parental bird. The goslings followed Lorenz aboutand when they were adults they courted him in preference to other greylaggeese. He first called the phenomenon "stamping in" in German, which hasbeen translated to English as imprinting. The reason for the name is becauseLorenz thought that the sensory object met by the newborn bird is somehowstamped immediately and irreversibly onto its nervous system.
Types ofImprinting:FilialImprinting The best known form of imprinting is filial imprinting, in which a young animal learns the characteristics of its parent. The filial imprinting of birds was a primary technique used to create the movie Le Peuple Migrateur, which contains a great deal of footage of migratory birds in flight. The birds imprinted on handlers, who wore yellow jackets and honked horns constantly. The birds were then trained to fly along with a variety of aircraft, primarily ultralights.
DArrigo noted that theflight of a non-motorized hang-glider is very similar to the flightpatterns of migratory birds: bothuse updrafts of hot air (thermalcurrents) to gain altitude whichthen permits soaring flight overdistance. He used this fact toenable the re-introduction into thewild of threatened species ofraptors.
Birds which are hatched in captivity have no mentor birdsto teach them their traditional migratory routes. DArrigo had onesolution to this problem. The chicks hatched under the wing of hisglider, and imprinted on him. Subsequently, he taught thefledglings to fly and to hunt. The young birds followed him notonly on the ground (as with Lorenz) but also in the air as he tookthe path of various migratory routes. He flew across the Sahara andover the Mediterranean Sea to Sicily with eagles, from Siberia toIran (5,500 km) with a flock of Siberian cranes, and over MountEverest with Nepalese eagles. In 2006, he worked with a condor inSouth America. In a similar project, orphaned Canada Geese were trainedto their normal migration route by the Canadian ultralightenthusiast Bill Lishman, as shown in the fact-based movie dramaFly Away Home.
SexualImprinting Sexual imprinting is the process by which a young animal learns the characteristics of a desirable mate. For example, male zebra finches appear to prefer mates with the appearance of the female bird that rears them, rather than mates of their own type (Immelmann, 1972). The famous psychologist John Money called it the lovemap. Sexual imprinting on inanimate objects is a popular theory concerning the development of sexual fetishism. For example, according to this theory, imprinting on shoes or boots (as with Lorenz geese) would be the cause of shoe fetishism.
Song birds demonstrate robust sex differences in many aspects of behavior. Males of many species of birds have characteristic territorial songs that identify singers to other birds and announce territorial rights to other males of that specie. Like many other songbirds, a Sound spectrogram of songs of male white-crowned sparrow must learn thewhite-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia song of its species byleucopharys. Top, natural songs of wild hearing the song of itsbird; bottom, abnormal song of isolated father.bird.
Imitation Imitation is often a big part of the learning process. A well-documented example of imitative learning is that of macaques in Hachijojima island, Japan. These primates used to live in the inland forest until the 60s, when a group of researchers started giving them some potatoes on the beach: soon they started venturing onto the beach, picking the potatoes from the sand, and cleaning and eating them. About one year later, an individual was observed bringing a potato to the sea, putting it into the water with one hand, and cleaning it with the other. Her behavior was soon imitated by the individuals living in contact with her; when they gave birth, they taught this practice to their children.
Scientists observed a female macaque washing a sweet potato before eating it. She was the first one to be observed doing this behavior. Soon after, the rest of her troop began washing their sweet potatoes before eating them. Japanese macaque washing sweet potatoes. The tradition beganwhen a young female named Imo began washing sand from the potatoesbefore eating them. Younger members of the troop quickly learned behavior.
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR When we think of “social” animals we tend to think of highly structured honey bee colonies, herds of antelope gazing on the African plains, etc. But social behavior of animals of the same species living together is by no means limited to such obvious examples in which individuals one another. Socially Coordinated Behavior An individual adjusts its actions to the presence of others to increase directly its own reproductive success. Cooperative Behavior An individual performs activities that benefit others because such behavior ultimately benefits that individual’s genetic contributions to future generations.