DEFINITIONS• EFFECTIVE COUNSELLING IS DEFINED AS “A DEFINITELY STRUCTURED PERMISSIVE RELATIONSHIP WHICH ALLOWS THE CLIENT TO GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF HIMSELF TO A DEGREE WHICH ENABLES HIM TO TAKE NEW POSITIVE STEPS IN THE LIGHT OF HIS NEW ORIENTATION’’ -ROGES
STUDENT COUNSELLING IS DEFINED AS” AN INTERACTION PROCESS THAT FACILITATES MEANINGFUL UNDERSTANDING OF SELF AND ENVIRONMENT AND RESULT IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND FORCLARIFICATION OF GOALS AND VALUES FOR FUTURE BEHAVIOR” -STONE AND SHERTZER
LEVELS OF COUNSELLING 1.INFORMAL COUNSELLING 2.NON-SPECIALIST COUNSELLING BY A PROFESSIONALS 3.PROFESSIONAL COUNSELLING
CHARECTERISTICS OF COUNSELLING1.COUNSELLING INVOLVES TWO INDIVIDUALS.2.THERE SHOULD BE A RELATIONSHIP OFMUTUAL RESPECT BETWEEN THE TWOINDIVIDUALS.3.COUNSELLING IS AIMED AT BRINGING ABOUTDESIRED CHANGES IN THE INDIVIDUAL FOR SELFREALIZATION AND PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TOSOLVE PROBLEMS THROUGH AN INTIMATEPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP.4.THE COUNSELOR DISCOVERS THE PROBLEMSOF THE COUNSELEE AND HELPS HIM TO SET UPREALISTIC GOALS AND GUIDE HIM THROUGHDIFFICULTIES AND PROBLEMS.
Contd…..5.IF THE COUNSELEE IS A STUDENT,COUNSELINGHELPS HIM TO TAKE A DECISION ,MAKE A CHOICE ORFIND A DIRECTION IN MATTERS RELATED TO ANEDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME OR CAREER.6.IT HELPS THE COUNSELEE ACQUIRE INDEPENDENCEAND DEVELOP A SENCE OF RESPONSIBILITY.IT ALSOHELPS HIM EXPLORE AND FULLY UTILIZE HISPOTENTIALS AND ACTUALIZE HIMSELF.7.IT IS MORE THAN ADVICE GIVING.SOLUTIONEMERGES THROUGH THE THINKING THAT A PERSONDOES FOR HIMSELF RATHER THAN THROUGHSOLUTOINS SUGGESTED BY THE COUNSELOR.8.COUNSELLING CONCEENS ITSELF WITH ATTITUDES ASWELL AS ACTIONS.
Contd….9.IT INVOLVES SOMETHING MORE THAN OFFERING ANASSISTANCE TO FIND A SOLUTION TO AN IMMEDIATEPROBLEM.10.COUNSELLING IS DEMOCRATIC.11.EMOTIONAL RATHER THAN PURELY INTELLECTUALATTITUDES ARE THE RAW MATERIALS OF THECOUNSELLING PROCESS.12.IN THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT,COUNSELLING ISCENTERED AROUND THE NEEDS AND ASPIRATIONS OF THESTUDENTS.13.COUNSELLING IS A BODY OF TECHNIQUES THAT HELPSINDIVIDUALS TO GROW UP NORMALLY THROUGH GUIDEDLEARNING.
PHASES OF COUNSELLING1.APPOINTMENT AND ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIP 2.ASSESSMENT 3.DIAGNOSIS 4.SETTING GOALS 5.INTERVENTION 6.TERMINATION AND FOLLOW UP
QUALITIES OF A GOOD COUNSELOR> GOOD LISTENER>NON JUDGMENTAL>WARM>APPROACHABLE,GENUINE,MATURE>CONFIDENTIAL,OBJECTIVE,SENCE OF HUMOR>COMMON SENCE,CREATIVE,IMAGINATIVECALM,EMPATHETIC,KNOWLEDGEABLE,SUPPORTIVE>LONG EXPERIENCE AS A GOOD COUNSELOR>CARES ABOUT CLIENT
Contd…..>LOOKS INTERESTED, ALIVE AND FRIENDLY>STRONG MINDED ABLE TO SPEAK ABOUT UPSETTINGTHINGS>CAN RECOGNIZE AND DEAL WITH NEUROTIC ANDPSYCHOTIC BEHAVIOUR>MAKES GOOD,PLEASING EYE CONTACT.>NOTICES,NON VERBAL,NOT EASILY EMBRASSED,DOES NOTADVICE,CAN RECOGNIZE AND DEAL WITH NEUROTIC ANDPSYCHOTIC BEHAVIOUR
PRINCIPLESa)It is strongly delicated to self direction and selfrealization of the client or the student.b)It emphasizes thinking with individualc)It maintains relationship of trust and confidence withclient.d)It is the development of the insights andunderstandings of the relation of self andenvironment.e)It is a structured learning situation.There should bea structured knowledge for the counsellorf)A counsellor has to listen attentively, answerquestions objectively,reinforce important information.
Contd….g)Counselling methods vary with the needs of theclient.ie,the education setting,job setting etc.h)It is primarily preventive and remedial process.i)It is voluntary for the students.J)Let the client make voluntary informed decision.K)Maintain dignity of individual as individual is primaryconcern in counselling.
Other Principles• Acceptance• Respect for the individual• Permissiveness• Learning• Thinking with the client
TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELLING1.Establishing rapport2.Cultivating self understanding3.Advising and planning a programme of actiona)Direct advisingb)Persuasive method4.Explanatory method.5)Referral to other personnel workersa)Silenceb)Acceptancec)Clarificationd)Restatemente)Approvalf)Asking questionsg)Humourh)Summary classification
Principles to be followed in counsellingtechniqueA)ACCEPTANCEB)RESTATEMENTC)CLARIFICATIOND)REASSURANCEE)INTERPRETATIONF)ADVICEG)REJECTIONH)LEAD
DO’S AND DONT’S IN COUNSELLING*Do have a caring attitude*Do listen well*Do remember each of the principles of counselling*Do maintain a record*Do work on assessment ,diagnosis and prognosis*Do discuss with experienced professionals*Do maintain confidentiality*Do be punctual for appointments*Do prepare in advance for the next appointment
DO NOT-Do not label the student-Do not get too close to the student emotionally andphysically-Do not share secrets with your student-Do not manipulate the student-Do not jump in to conclusions-Do not accept gifts or favours-Do not protect the student
NEED OF COUNSELLING IN NURSING EDUCATION*To help them to develop a positive attitude towardslife*To help students adjusting with the new environmentof the nursing institute*To help in developing qualities required for asuccessful nursing practice*To help students in getting adjusted with the clinicalenvironment*To help students in touch with the latest trends innursing*To help students in developing positive learninghabits,especially in skill learning so that they canretain and transfer the learned lessons in a betterway.*To help in the development of appropriate copingstratergies in order to deal with stress in a protectivemanner.
Contd…..*To help nursing students in establishing properidentity*To help the students to overcome periods ofconfusion*To help the students in developing their leadershipqualities*To motivate them for taking membership inprofessional organizations after completing theirstudies*Help them to make advantages of technologicaladvancements in the patient care.