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Biochemistry Glycolysis

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  2. 2. GLYCOLYSIS Site : It Occurs in the Cell Cytosol of all Tissues. Reactions of Glycolysis
  3. 3. Energy Production :- Aerobic glycolysis Anaerobic glycolysis  One molecule of glucose 2 ATP & 2 NADH  2 NADH  6 ATP ( in ETC ) in The mitochondria .  One molecule of glucose 2 ATP  Pyruvate is converted to lactate .
  4. 4. Importance of Glycolysis Dihydroxy- acetone phosphate can give glycerol 3- phosphate for synthesis of TAG and phospholipids. Pyruvate acetyle coAFA and sterols. Synthesis of amino acid in Red blood cells
  5. 5. Regulation of Glycolysis The rate of glycolysis is regulated by the activity of the three irreversible Enzyme which are:-  Hexokinase.  Phosphofructokinase.  Pyruvate Enzyme. Hormonal Regulation as in Glycogen and Insulin .
  6. 6. Some deficiency in Regulation Pyruvate Kinase deficiency :- It is the a common genetic deficiency that cause a hemolytic anemia . Characteristics Include Chronic hemolysis. Increased 2,3 BPG and therefore a lower than Oxygen affinity to HbA . Absence of HeinZ Bodies.
  7. 7. :Uronic acid Pathway  Site: It occurs in liver cytoplasm mainly . Importance of UDP- Glucuronic acid conjugation to less polar compounds synthesis of glycosaminoglycans In plants and some animals
  8. 8. Glycogenesis Site :- Glycogenesis Occurs Mainly in Muscle & Liver. synthesis of Glycogen from UDPG requires the presence of two enzymes :- Glycogen Synthase . Branching Enzyme.
  9. 9. Importance of Glycogenesis Liver glycogen Function as a glucose reserve for the maintenance of blood glucose concentration especially between meals . Muscle glycogen is present to serve as a fuel for ATP generation by the Muscle it self during contraction only .
  10. 10. Covalent modification  Glycogen phosphorylase is converted from its less active "b" form to an active "a" form by the enzyme phosphorylase kinase. Allosteric regulation  G-6-P: activates glycogen synthase.  Glycogen : inhibits glycogen synthase. Control and regulations
  11. 11. Glycogen storage disease type IV It is also known as Andersen disease. Human pathology :-  It is a result of the absence of the Glycogen Branching Enzyme amylo-1,4-1,6 transglucosidase.
  12. 12. References :- Kaplan Biochemistry and Genetics 2010 . Harpers Illustrated Biochemistry 28th edition . Lippincott Illustrated Biochemistry .