Bali Hana Tan140803


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Bali Hana Tan140803

  1. 1. PRONUNCIATION DICTIONARIES Dr. Bali RANAIVO-MALANÇON Unit Terjemahan Melalui Komputer Universiti Sains Malaysia
  2. 2. Definition What is a pronunciation dictionary? <ul><li>A pronunciation dictionary (or Phonetic dictionary) is a list of words following by their phonetic transcriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic transcriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Canonical + </li></ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul>Variant pronunciations Phonological rules to generate variant pronunciations
  3. 3. A few linguistic basic knowledge Notation <> orthographic representation <buah> ‘’ character representation ‘b’, ‘u’, ‘a’, ‘h’ // phonemic representation /buah/ [] phonetic representation [buwah] PHONOLOGY (or phonemics) study distinctive sound units, the patterns they form, and the rules which regulate their use Phonemes / Phones /r/ PHONETICS study the inventory and structure of the sounds of language Allophones [ r ] [ R ] [ ʁ ]
  4. 4. Examples of pronunciation dictionaries Verbmobil &quot;Ubernachtungen Qy:b6n'axtUN@n &quot;Ubernachtungskosten Qy:b6n'axtUNs#k&quot;Ost@n &quot;Ubernachtungsm&quot;oglichk Qy:b6n'axtUNs#m&quot;2:klICk CMUdict (Carnegie Mellon Pronouncing dictionary) PHONOLEX &quot; Ubernachtungsgeldes CL:nom OR:sb TP:ptra Qy:b6naxtUNsgEld@s * &quot;Ubernachtungskosten OR:vm TP:manu Qy:b6n'axtUNs#k&quot;Ost@n y:b6naxtUNskOst@n 1 VM MAUS y:b6naxtUNskOsn 1 VM MAUS *
  5. 5. Applications Why do we need pronunciation dictionaries? <ul><li>Speech technologies – to help phonetic labeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Tan Tien Pieng - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text-To-Speech (TTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Nur Hana Samsudin - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation can be added to Malay dictionary </li></ul>
  6. 6. Simplified Speech Recognition Architecture Jurafsky D., Martin J. H. (2000) Speech and Language Processing , Prentice-Hall, Inc. Speech Waveform Feature Extraction Spectral Feature Vectors Decoding (Viterbi/ A*) Pronunciation dictionary N-Gram ay 0.70 ay 0.80 ay 0.80 n 0.50 aa 0.22 aa0.12 aa 0.12 en 0.20 . . . Phone Likelihood Estimation (Gaussians/ Neural Network) Phone Likelihoods P(o|q) Neural Net i need a Words
  7. 7. MBROLA – Malay Diphone Database <ul><li>Diphones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech units that begin in the middle of a phone and end in the middle of the following one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concatenative synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize concatenation problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require an affordable amount of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MBROLA (Multi Band Resynthesis OverLap Add) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech synthesizer based on the concatenation of diphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculté Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium, 1996, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizers for many languages, e.g. Indonesian, {British, American} English, Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizers + Diphone database: free, non-commercial applications, available online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As MBROLA provides all facilities (programs, guidelines, assistance, etc.) to build a synthesizer, we can focus our research only on preparing the diphone data to built the Malay synthesizer </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Building diphone database Combine two phones Pronunciation Dictionary … saya, [saja] … List of diphones [aj], [ja], [sa], … List of diphones [aa], [aj], [as], [ja], [jj], [js], [sa], [sj], [ss], … List of phones [a], [j], [s], …
  9. 9. Resources What do we have today to build the Malay pronunciation dictionary? <ul><li>Linguistic resources </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malay words  60,000 words or tokens </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malay abbreviations and their expansions </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malay proper names </li></ul><ul><li>Malay corpus: novels, academic </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological rules (Dr Tajul) </li></ul>UTMK’s future researches on speech Applications of the Malay pronunciation dictionary <ul><li>From readings (books, reports, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge about pronunciation dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>applications, </li></ul><ul><li>needs, </li></ul><ul><li>techniques, algorithms, implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Programs, Techniques, Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Grapheme-to-phoneme converter </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques </li></ul>
  10. 10. Building the pronunciation dictionary <ul><li>Define phoneme inventories and use machine-readable phonetic alphabets (ASCII-IPA alphabets), e.g. SAMPA, TIMIT, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>IPA SAMPA TIMIT </li></ul><ul><li>ʃ S sh sh e </li></ul><ul><li>ʤ jh j oke </li></ul><ul><li>ŋ N ng si ng </li></ul><ul><li>Define phonological rules in a form adapted to computation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etymology information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab <maaf> [ ma ʕ af ] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malay <gunaan> [ guna ʔ an ] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><pakai> [ paka ɪ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><diketuai> [ dik ə tuwaji ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewriting rules – order rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-level morphology – without rule-ordering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation using finite-state transducers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Building … <ul><li>Differentiate homographs , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>semak_Noun [ səmaʔ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semak_Verb [ semaʔ ] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proper names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abbreviations , e.g. Proton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers , e.g. Boeing 747 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some characters , e.g. ‘@’ and ‘.’ in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grapheme to phoneme converter </li></ul><ul><li>Experts checking </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Structure of Malay pronunciation dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>word, lexcat, etym, pht, nbph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lexcat = lexical category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etym = etymology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>{MAL(ay), IND(onesian), ENG(lish), AR(a)B, OTH(er)} </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pht = phonetic transcription </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using one ASCII-API alphabets (not defined yet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nbph = number of phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set of phonological rules to derive variant pronunciations </li></ul><ul><li>TERIMA KASIH </li></ul>