Chapter 2  Introduction to TCP/IP I
Introduction <ul><li>The Internet standards use a specific set of terms when referring to network elements and concepts re...
TCP/IP Overview <ul><li>The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a familiar networking component to...
Basic TCP/IP Network Node The figure above shows the logical structure of the layered protocol inside a computer on an Int...
Basic Structure <ul><li>Logical Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It represent proces...
Terminology Media Access Control Logical Link Control   Open  Systems  Interconnection
Flow of Data <ul><li>The name of a unit of data that flows through an internet is dependent upon where it exists in the pr...
Flow of Data <ul><li>For an application that uses TCP, the protocol stack can be represent as  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appli...
Flow of Data <ul><li>The TCP module, UDP module and the Ethernet Driver are n-to-1 multiplexer as well as 1-to-n demultipl...
Flow of Data <ul><li>When an IP packet comes up into IP, the protocol field will determine whether passes to TCP or UDP. <...
<ul><li>TCP/IP Network Node on 2 Ethernet </li></ul>
N to M multiplexer  &  M to N De-multiplexer The IP module becomes a n-to-m multiplexer as well as m-to-n demultiplexer. F...
IP Forwarding <ul><li>An IP module with more than 1 network interface can forward data onto the next network, which is nor...
Logical Network & Interoperability <ul><li>The IP header contains the IP address, which builds a single logical network fr...
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2 Chapter 2 (I)

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2 Chapter 2 (I)

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Introduction to TCP/IP I
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Internet standards use a specific set of terms when referring to network elements and concepts related to TCP/IP networking. </li></ul>Network   Two or more subnets connected by routers. Another term for network is internetwork. Subnet   One or more LAN segments that are bounded by routers and use the same IP address prefix. Other terms for subnet are network segment and link. LAN segment   A portion of a subnet consisting of a single medium that is bounded by bridges or Layer 2 switches. Host   A node that cannot forward IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself (a non-router). A host is typically the source and the destination of IP traffic. A host silently discards traffic that it receives but that is not explicitly addressed to itself. Neighbor   A node connected to the same subnet as another node. Router   A node that can forward IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. On an IPv6 network, a router typically advertises its presence and host configuration information. Node   Any device, including routers and hosts, which runs an implementation of IP.
  3. 3. TCP/IP Overview <ul><li>The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a familiar networking component to most modern network administrators and Information Technology (IT) professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes protocols (UDP, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ), applications (TELNET, FTP, HTTP) and the network medium. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic TCP/IP Network Node The figure above shows the logical structure of the layered protocol inside a computer on an Internet.
  5. 5. Basic Structure <ul><li>Logical Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It represent processing of the data as it passes through the computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines connecting boxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The path of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal line (bottom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ethernet cable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The transceiver. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The IP address which is 4 byte. The IP address must be unique for an Internet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ethernet address which is 6-byte. It is unique for each interface on an Ethernet. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Terminology Media Access Control Logical Link Control Open Systems Interconnection
  7. 7. Flow of Data <ul><li>The name of a unit of data that flows through an internet is dependent upon where it exists in the protocol stack. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet Frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On an Ethernet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Ethernet Driver and IP Module </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UDP Datagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between IP module and UDP Module </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP Segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between IP module and TCP Module </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a network application. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Flow of Data <ul><li>For an application that uses TCP, the protocol stack can be represent as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application/TCP/IP/ENET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exp: FTP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For an application that uses UDP, the protocol stack can be represent as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application/UDP/IP/ENET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exp: SNMP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the Ethernet frame comes up into the Ethernet driver off the network, the type field will determine whether passes to ARP or IP. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Flow of Data <ul><li>The TCP module, UDP module and the Ethernet Driver are n-to-1 multiplexer as well as 1-to-n demultiplexer. </li></ul>De-multiplexer 1 2 3 … n 1 Flow of data multiplexer 1 2 3 … n 1 Flow of data
  10. 10. Flow of Data <ul><li>When an IP packet comes up into IP, the protocol field will determine whether passes to TCP or UDP. </li></ul><ul><li>When UDP datagram comes up into UDP, the value of the port field will determine which network applications to pass to. </li></ul><ul><li>When TCP segment comes up into TCP, the value of the port field will determine which network applications to pass to. </li></ul><ul><li>The above example is used for a single Ethernet connection. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>TCP/IP Network Node on 2 Ethernet </li></ul>
  12. 12. N to M multiplexer & M to N De-multiplexer The IP module becomes a n-to-m multiplexer as well as m-to-n demultiplexer. Flow of data Flow of data multiplexer 1 2 3 … n 1 2 3 … m De-multiplexer 1 2 3 … n 1 2 3 … m
  13. 13. IP Forwarding <ul><li>An IP module with more than 1 network interface can forward data onto the next network, which is normally refer to &quot;forwarding&quot; an IP packet. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer that can forwarding IP packets is called an IP router. </li></ul><ul><li>Some IP-router implementations do not have a TCP or UDP module because the forwarded IP packet never touches the TCP and UDP modules on the IP-router. </li></ul>IP TCP UDP Data comes in here Data goes out here
  14. 14. Logical Network & Interoperability <ul><li>The IP header contains the IP address, which builds a single logical network from multiple physical networks. </li></ul><ul><li>A set of interconnected physical networks that limit the range of an IP packet is called an Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>If two computers on an internet can communicate, they are said to interoperate. </li></ul><ul><li>If an implementation of internet technology is good, it is said to have interoperability. </li></ul>

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