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Good afternoon. I would like to thank the de los Reyes family for this opportunity to share and participate in this forum. The issue on the medium of learning is crucial to our development as a nation. But I would like to reiterate it importance by taking the viewpoint from the child’s perspective. According to the 2003 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS), the country’s population of 57.6 million who are 10 to 64 years old include 3.8 million Filipinos who are unable to read and write and another 9.2 million Filipinos who are not functionally literate and numerate. School year 2004-2005 saw a cohort survival rate of students who entered Grade 1 and completed secondary education is only 50.95%. Achievement levels are also very low with Grade 6 students earning an average of 58.73 % mastery in all subjects and fourth year high school seniors registering 46.80% mastery for all subjects. This indicates that less than 50% of the expected skill and content learning is mastered by those who survive in the basic education system. The declining performance of students in subject areas of the curriculum has been a pressing issue in Philippine education for decades. An identified culprit in this scenario is the inaccessibility of quality and relevant education. This resounded in the EDCOM Report (1991) report, which identified the use of English as a medium of instruction as the loophole in student achievement and pushed instead for the use of the mother tongue in teaching.
Despite the prevailing understanding of how children learn, directives that impose a foreign language as the medium of learning are being advocated and even legislated in our society. My brief presentation today will address certain points of House Bill 4701 and show that the sections of the bill are based on ill informed or uninformed opinion which go against the extant and accepted wisdom about language development and learning and the educational processes that work in multilingual societies such as the Philippines.
There is no argument regarding the objectives of HB 4701 with regard to the improvement of the quality of life and economic opportunities of our citizens. But it’s viewpoint is very narrow and does not consider the developmental appropriateness and cultural aspects of education and community life. This is knee jerk reaction to the economic hardships which results in a kick towards English as medium of instruction. But is the process advocated by HB 4701 the most sound way to reach competency in English?
The objective of education is the development of the person. This only includes economic growth. There are more. In the course of improving the quality of basic education and creating better educational experiences for Filipinos, the Philippine language context and developmentally appropriate child education approaches must inform the way language and literacy education is delivered in schools. The mastery of language paves the way for understanding which ranges from communication purposes to use of language for rhetoric, cultural and scientific enrichment, and the aesthetic appreciation (Gonzalez, 1994). Furthermore, it leads to better analytical abilities and propels learners towards higher levels of literacy. Finally, having learned and developed concepts in a language that is natural and mastered, leads to better language learning of a new language. Consequently, learning subject matter in this new language is also better assured. We can no longer use the models of the 50s are our model now for education and for English language use. The language itself has changed. The way people communicate has changed. And Filipino as a language of communication has asserted itself over the last decades. This is the reality. Legislating the English be the medium of instruction ignores such changes.
The Department of Education (DepEd) is currently implementing the Schools First Initiative , an effort to improve basic education outcomes through a broadly participated, popular movement featuring a wide variety of initiatives undertaken by individual schools and communities as well as networks of schools at localities involving school districts and divisions, local governments, civil society organizations and other stakeholder groups and associations. These policy reforms are expected to create critical changes necessary to further accelerate, broaden, deepen and sustain the improved education effort already being started by the Schools First Initiative. This package of policy reforms is called the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA). This paper, however, only refers to the language and literacy learning strategies recommended to reform Philippine Education.
This strategy paper focuses on the increase of social support for the attainment of learning outcomes desired for the students in basic education. The increase in social support must be drawn from a variety of sources and through a system of strategies that will enable society to appreciate language learning and literacy development in target languages. From such appreciation will arise the support and advocacy among stakeholders and beneficiaries of language and literacy education. For schools and teachers and the whole DepEd organization to perform better, the basic education sector needs to secure sustained strong support for resources necessary for good instruction, which in turn, depends on parents’ and students’ recognizing that good instruction is vital to attaining their most valued personal, family, community and national aspirations.
These are the core concepts to be discussed in this paper.
We are, by virtue of our geography and history, a multilingual people. In my opinion, this gift has for too long been viewed as a liability. This negative viewpoint has affected how the educational system has implemented the Bilingual Education Policy. How? Because it is impossible to make instructional materials for all those languages Because parents want their children to learn English as soon as possible Because teachers are not trained to use the mother tongue as the language of instruction. Because there are no funds to make materials and assessment tools The list of “cannots” and “there are nots” is endless. In one forum, a person of the cloth told me that the recommendations put forward would cost trillions! In my impatience, I told her God would provide. But actually maybe the world bank or better still, the communities through NGOs and LGUs.
The average Filipino is quadrilingual. And we use our mother tongues for communication at the interpersonal level. And to a large extent, in schools, even if the policies state otherwise. With over 120 languages, the country is a wealthy nation in terms of culture and diversity. Though there are dominant languages in regions (some call these lingua franca) our national language is Filipino which has been enriched by these regional languages, English, Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic (depending on where you are in the archipelago). English language use is prevalent in government and business sectors as well as in higher education. However, according to various surveys, the comfortable users of English only range from 50 to 75% of the population. This can be largely credited to schools. 92% speak Filipino and this we credit to mass media and to some extent, to schools. Arabic is an important language for citizens in ARMM and of the Moslem faith and through the Madaris schools, it will be learned in basic education as a subject.
Culture may be broadly defined as the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. A shared cultural heritage bonds the members of the group together and creates a sense of belonging through community acceptance. In every community, a person’s cultural heritage can be observed in aspects such as food, clothing, celebrations, religion and language. Therefore, culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity. It shapes how persons see themselves and the groups with which they identify. Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture. According to Kramasch (1999), &quot;It is widely believed that there is a natural connection between the language spoken by members of a social group and that group's identity. By their accent, their vocabulary, their discourse patterns, speakers identify themselves and are identified as members of this or that speech and discourse. From this membership, they draw personal strength and pride, as well as a sense of social importance and historical continuity from using the same language as the group they belong to.&quot; Language is fundamental to cultural identity.
For the purposes of this paper, language acquisition will refer to the process of natural assimilation of a language, involving intuition and subconscious learning. Since it is regarded as a natural process, it is assumed that language is an ability that all children can acquire because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994). Language acquisition is the product of real interactions between people where the learner is an active participant. Language acquisition, even among adults, is akin to the way children learn their native tongue. It is a process that produces functional skill in the spoken language without theoretical knowledge. The process of language acquisition requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. Language learning on the other hand, is defined in this paper as the process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire. Therefore, language learning, in the context of this paper will refer to second or third language acquisition and thus falls in the purview of bilingualism.
There are two levels of definition of bilingualism used in this paper. The first regards it at the macro-level. Bilingualism, therefore, can be defined as the use of two or more languages in a society. The second level of definition is at the individual level. Bilingualism is generally regarded as a psychosocial ability affecting language and literacy constructions of a child or adult. Childhood bilingual development is a phenomenon that occurs in society, whether global or local, and puts pressure in the school system. Again, there are two broad categories of childhood bilingual development. Findings from Philippine research tell us that amongst us are children who start off as monolinguals and then navigate towards becoming multilingual. The children of the Philippines learn their languages naturally first from the home and then in the various contexts in which they participate. Whilst this is true for many children, it is also true that for many others, there is really no first language. Rather, they are, from the beginning of their lives, bilingual. These children are immersed in communities and societies that have two or more languages that are perpetually used in the home environment. A bilingual, therefore, is a person with a unique linguistic configuration (Grosjean, 1985) involving a merging of phonologies, semantics, grammars and syntax of the languages she uses. Research tells us that Children's language skills in two or more languages develop well when bilingual skills are valued. The child’s first language/s is used as a tool for learning. The child is motivated and needs to communicate in the target/new language. There are relevant and diverse opportunities to use language (listening, talking, reading and writing) for real purposes, e.g., finding out and sharing information, describing, instructing. Present in the learning environment is a good model of the target language/s who can understand one of the child’s languages. These two categories of childhood bilingualism are nonetheless indicative of language acquisition processes because the languages are learnt spontaneously in their relevant and natural contexts. There remain the two other languages that can be considered the target languages identified by Philippine society as the official languages of the nation, namely, Filipino and English. These two will have to be learned through structured and well-planned strategies in order to achieve the aims of language education for each child in school, for the entire population of speakers in the Philippines. We Strive for Bi/Multi-lingual Competence the composite ability that may manifest itself in the expression of competence in one language and the others a system that combines elements of the two and enables the speaker to use speech strategies not normally at the disposal of the monolingual means being language proficient and literate in our mother tongues, Filipino and English
Literacy is also a cultural process and it is powerful when the community values it and when opportunities to practice it are available in community life.
Literacy is the ability to construct meaning from or through written language (Ocampo, 1998). Literacy is a functional process that an individual engages in frequently in the course of daily living and for specific purposes such as academic learning, the conduct of business or the establishment or maintenance of relationships. Beyond being functional, literacy taps into the cultural, affective and motivational aspects of a person’s life because though literacy experiences, the reader has access to the world of imagination and the writer can share his creations (Hermosa, 2002). Reading is an interactive process (Rummelhart, 1994) wherein the reader and the text contribute to the comprehension gained by the reader (Hermosa, 2002). The interacting elements are, for the reader and text, respectively, prior knowledge and content information (Kamhi, 1997), knowledge about language and linguistic features, knowledge of text structure and the cohesive devises. Writing is a two-fold ability, namely handwriting and written expression. It is the transformation of thought into written units using an orthography and form that is intelligible to the community which, in turn, is expected to share in the enjoyment and use of the written product (Diaz de Rivera, 2000).
Biliteracy is the ability to read and write in two or more languages. Beyond the synergistic relationship of community and language, is the impact of bilingualism on how we construct our understanding of how children learn to read. Teachers of my generation and of those before me, were schooled in the ideas that literacy develops in the same way in any language. Research have consistently shown that on a cognitive level, this may be true, but on a performance level on literacy tasks, there are differences in how literacy develops depending on the difficulty of the spelling system/orthographic system used to represent the language in print and the prior knowledge a child has about the language in which literacy is expected to develop. Seeing biliteracy as subsumed within bilingualism recognizes that all of literacy must have meaning. Being able to read without being able to understand, in any language, must never be regarded as literacy. Furthermore, biliteracy that is anchored on bilingualism implies that the speaker/reader is acquainted or immersed or participant in a culture in which the languages are used.
This paradigm presents the relationships between experience, oral language and printed language in two languages. As you can see, this would probably be the simplified summary of the relationship of bilingualism and biliteracy within the mind of a child growing up in two languages.
Learning to read and spell words in Filipino is far easier than learning to read and spell words in English.
There are distinct differences in the reading process used by bilingual children in English and Filipino when comprehending sentences in the two languages
This slide shows DepEd data of national achievement tests in Math, English and Science across 3 years. The numbers are percentages of schools that on average achieved 60% on the achievement tests. Less than 50% of our schools reach this level of mastery. Next, be reminded that all these are taught in English. Or so they say. Note that the math and science scores are higher than the English scores. What does this mean? Perhaps math and science are not really taught in English. Otherwise, it is but logical to expect higher scores in the English achievement tests because it is the tool used to teach Science and Math. We can infer that another language is being used to teach math and science. Could it be the child’s language? I certainly hope so or else we could infer worse things about this data.
This is probably most real in the Philippine setting. Children speak a language that is different from the language in which they are taught literacy which eventually become the languages of instruction. This results in multiple layers of difficulty. First, the language of the school is divorced from the language of their culture or community. Second, they have to learn two languages while simultaneously trying to learn Math, Science and the Social Sciences in these languages.
As embodied in the DEC Order No. 25, s. 1973, Pilipino (changed to Filipino in 1987) shall be used as medium of instruction in social studies/social sciences, music, arts, physical education, home economics, practical arts and character education. English, on the other hand is allocated to science, mathematics and technology subjects. This is affirmed in Department Order No. 52, s. 1987. We must realize that 30 years have passed and we must assess where the BEP has brought us. The very teachers who have been described as lacking in English language proficiency in are products of this implementation. We have to remember, that our teachers now are no longer the Thomasites and therefore speak Filipino english. Just like you and me. Perhaps it is time to ask, Are revisions in the implementation now merited? In the meantime, most school children are made to learn in two languages, Filipino and English, which are both foreign to them. Is this the way to go? Is this how we should educate our children? Bilingual education refers to the use of two or more language as mediums of learning. The implementation of our version of it through the Bilingual Education Policy focused only on performance issues in the identified the domains. Additionally, the viewpoint on language education has been so limited to functionality that the higher aims of language learning have been sacrificed. Sure, students learn some English and some Filipino, and some get jobs abroad….but… Do their language abilities enrich culture and science for them? do they enjoy what they read? Do they read?? The answer is probably a big no. And maybe the answer was already known long ago.
In the 1920s, this observation was already made.
Seventy years later, the EDCOM stated that the mother tongue should be the starting point in language education.
Seven years later… the PCER paper recommended the use of the mother tongue in areas where its use is imperative. In my mind, that’s everywhere. But that’s only my mind. The PCER recommendations were for IP communities and language minority students.
Almost another 7 years later, this BESRA policy paper recommends the same. And it draws from the experiences and reported results from a wealth of studies here in around the globe on the use of the mother tongue particularly in the primary grades. Papua New Guinea Indonesia Congo The Pacific Islands Hiligaynon Filipino Lingua Franca Lilubuagen
This is story everyone should know about. In a paper written by one of the teachers in the participating schools, Dumantog & Dekker reports that the use of the mother tongue prior to learning the two target languages of the Philippine Basic Ed Curr led to higher achievement scores in reading comprehension in Lilubuagen, Filipino and English. The SDS of Kalinga confirmed that indeed, the 3 experimental schools were the top of the divisions’s achievement scorers This project was supported by the Summer Institute of Linguistics and the instructional materials were teacher made. There were also tradebooks used to support literacy in all the 3 languages.
The question that now begs everyone’s questions is: So how will we get to English from the Mother Tongue? Baka mapako na tayo at hindi na matuto ng English. Studies on the cross-linguistic transfer of literacy ability should calm these fears. Language and literacy ability, when facilitated by good instruction, transfer from one language to the other because the child who has mastered language and literacy in the most familiar language has the basis for future language and literacy learning.
The programming should be as such. Questions regarding English proficiency are best answered with cross linguistic studies as well as good practices in teaching.
Allow me to share with the affirmations which have now been translated into the national language and literacy strategies. The first is to implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools. This should be institutionalized with a new DepEd Order articulating the implementing rules for the BEP, thus revising the DEC order 36 and DECS order 57.
As you can see, when the students are in the lower levels, there is more use of the child’s language for learning. The transition is slow. Filipino domains of use is increased at grade 2 when they learn to read it. Then English is increased at grade 3 when they learn to read it. In the meantime, the child’s language is used for other learning. By grade 4, it can be predicted that both Filipino and English have been learned well enough to be used as languages of learning and the mother tongue is used to facilitate learning. For the concerned sections of our society, our Moslem students begin literacy in Arabic at Grade 5. Thereafter, the Madaris schools might want to add a subject area which will allow them to use Arabic for learning another subject matter such as the Qur’an or Children’s literature in Arabic. By 3 rd year high school, schools could opt to allow students to learn additional languages such as a more structured study of their mother tongue or the regional language, or another foreign language. The transitioning will guide teacher development, deployment and loading, and instructional materials development. Domains of use include Literacy in the child’s language. Math, Science & MAkabayan in the child’s language for ECCD til Grade 1. Immersion in Filipino & English until grade 1. Literacy in Filipino starts in Grade 2. the rest of the subjects are taught in the child’s language. Literacy in English starts in Grade 3. MAKABAYAN is taught in Filipino. At Grade 4 the present implementation of BEP is used. The child’s language remains the language of social interaction. Grade 5, where appropriate, Arabic. From 3 rd yr HS, a loca/foreign language/Arabic.
The second component of successful language and literacy programs has to do with the learning environment which should foster efficient and effective learning. There are 6 reforms necessary here: Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. What are the qualities of good language and literacy programs? What are the good practices in the field that can be scaled up? Use children’s literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. Authentic literacy materials support language and literacy development. Textbooks are unidimensional and boring! Book floods, grade level kits will be more effective. Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of instructional materials in the designated languages of learning at the school, division, and regional levels. More on this in a while
Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. Do real assessments and make good measures of language and literacy ability. Then test all children in school. Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results. A program is only as good as its effective reach. If children still fall through the cracks, then this means the program is lacking in the clients it can serve. Children experiencing difficulties which are no longer due to the language of instruction need support to faciliate their learning needs. Some possible conditions are dyslexia, dysgraphia, deafness, at iba pang Ds or difficulties.
Instructional materials should be for the following: Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. Children’s literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. If and when these reforms are put into motion, then publishing houses must respond and help the education sector to create the common knowledge children should share (through literature) across the country and development textbooks and grade level kits which will make learning (and teaching more fun!) Children’s books publishers should translate their stories into the many languages of the country and print the books already. Can you imagine how effective learning will be if a child comprehends the story in her mother tongue, then uses that comprehension to help her read it in Filipino and then again later, in English. That’s a triple solid whammy which implicitly teach the child how much power she has over text. That she is in control of her reading. The excellent idea and initiative of the LIBRARY HUBS courtersy of former USEC Mike Luz and his partners should be propagated EVERYWHERE. The library hub is a grand idea which has an plan of implementation that can actually be implemented. All divisions should operationalize their library hubs now.
1 st , teachers should know their subject matter 2 nd , they should be proficient in the language of instruction 3 rd , they have to appreciate bilingual education better. For example, Math can be more easily transitioned if English terms (equals, set, fraction, denominator, centimeter) are used and then explained in the mother tongue in Grade 1 to 3. Teachers have always been the whipping dog of the educational system. In some areas of the discussion, some teachers deserve to be whipped with the blame of neglect and incompetence. But that is more the exception than the rule. Teachers do not receive enough support so that they can enact policies at the level of the classroom where the real action is; where intended policy effects fail and the implemented curriculum reigns. Through the reforms put forward here, the classroom was always the arena of concern. And crucial teachers are part of the learning environment which will foster language and literacy learning better.
If it takes a village to raise a child and all children should be in school, then the village should oversee and help the school educate its children. The 3 rd national language and learning strategy advocates the community to participate and take responsibility of their school and the students’ learning in those schools. Strategies such as below will help vitalize the home, community and school collaboration towards relevant and effective educatio;n Conduct intensive information dissemination about effective language and literacy programs through leaflet, posters distribution and mass media programs. Establish a community library that will serve as a repository of knowledge and literature Translate local literature into English and Filipino for wider circulation and use. Utilize the Special Education Fund (SEF) and depoliticize its use in order to finance teacher professional development programs related to language and literacy in bilingual/ multicultural education Ensure that honest and judicious assessment processes are used in the classroom
The Roadmap to Philippine Multiliteracy
The Philippine Roadmap to Multi-literacy Dina Ocampo Leonor Diaz Portia Padilla Liu Vilbar Victor Villanueva Mark Norman Maca Pau Fontanos Liza Villanueva Roberto Ruda
New Directives <ul><li>Executive Order No. 210 (May 17, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing the policy to strengthen the use of the English Language as a medium of instruction in the educational system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DepEd Order 36, Series 2006 (Aug. 22, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing rules and regulations implementing E.O. 210 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English will be taught as a second languages starting Grade 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English will be used as medium of instruction for Science and Health, Math and English starting Grade 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In secondary schools, English will be the primary medium of instruction such that 70% of all learning time will be in English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>House Bill 4701: AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN AND ENHANCE THE USE OF ENGLISH AS MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS </li></ul>
HB 4701 SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy <ul><li>It is the declared policy of the State to provide the citizenry with the opportunities to have quality education, to learn, communicate, grow and change in the pursuit of a higher standard of life. Towards this end, the government undertakes to make the education of the young aligned with requirements and realities of business life and competitive in the global environment by strengthening, enhancing and developing the use of the English language as a medium of instruction in all levels of education, from pre-school to the tertiary level. </li></ul>
Is all that education is for? <ul><li>the government undertakes to make the education of the young aligned with </li></ul><ul><li>requirements and realities of business life </li></ul><ul><li>competitive in the global environment </li></ul>
Aims of Language Education <ul><li>from communication… </li></ul><ul><li>to rhetorical use, </li></ul><ul><li>to cultural and scientific enrichment, </li></ul><ul><li>and to aesthetic appreciation ( Gonzales, 1994 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to experience all these levels of language use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for self-improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to learn target languages in childhood or adulthood. </li></ul></ul>
BESRA <ul><li>Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>National Language and Literacy Learning Strategies for the Filipino and English Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Three main reform recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous strategies to achieve these reforms </li></ul>
Policy Questions <ul><li>Within the age/level/group of learners of your workshop group, what languages should be learned? Why? When? </li></ul><ul><li>What languages should the students learn in? Why? When? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies are required for the attainment of language proficiency and critical literacy in the languages of learning? </li></ul>
Methodology <ul><li>Study of pertinent documents and papers on the Philippine language situation and policy in basic education </li></ul><ul><li>A review of studies on language learning, languages of instruction, Filipino and English language learning and initiatives by the Department of Education to address language related performance issues among students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of an analytical framework </li></ul>
Analytical Framework Quality of Teaching and Learning School Context and Policy Environment Division Context and Policy Environment Regional Context and Policy Environment National Context and Policy Environment Professional Infrastructure Interventions and Policies Family and Community Influences Political and Social Influences
Foundations of the Policy Recommendations thru BESRA <ul><li>Philippine language context and the evolution of language use </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural identity, language and social development </li></ul><ul><li>How language is learned; Multilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy </li></ul><ul><li>The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and Thinking Skills across languages </li></ul><ul><li>Global studies/experiences in bilingual education </li></ul>
We are multilingual We are by virtue of our geography and history, a multi-lingual people. This gift has for too long been viewed as a liability.
The Philippine Language Context <ul><li>120 languages ( McFarland, 1993 ) or 171 (Philippine Commission on Educational Reform, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Samarnon ( Belvez, 2002 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino is the national language, and incorporates vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e., English, Arabic and Spanish ( Gonzales, 1998 ) </li></ul>
Cultural identity, language and literacy <ul><li>Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language is fundamental to cultural identity </li></ul>
Language Acquisition and Learning <ul><li>Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to second, third, nth language learned by a person </li></ul><ul><li>Can be learned (or not learned) well by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralist or Formalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiio-lingual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative competence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>the way children learn their mother tongue </li></ul><ul><li>the process of natural assimilation of a language </li></ul><ul><li>requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. </li></ul><ul><li>all children can acquire language ability because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994). </li></ul>
Childhood Bilingualism <ul><li>from Monolingual to Bilingual </li></ul>Through interactions in the community Through teaching in school Natural Additive
Cultural Identity, Language and Literacy <ul><li>Literacy is what society does with literacy and therefore literacy practices are part of culture ( Young, 2002 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is viewed in terms of social change, development and community life. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is therefore socially supported and has the power to transform and maintain community development (Doronila, 1996; UNESCO, 2006). </li></ul>
Literacy – reading & writing <ul><li>The ability to construct and create meaning from or through written language </li></ul><ul><li>Is an interactive process between the reader, the text and the contexts of literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional for specific purposes such as learning, making or maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Taps into the cultural, affective, motivational and aesthetic aspects of life </li></ul>
<ul><li>For our purposes, we should look at it this way: </li></ul>The Issue of Biliteracy <ul><li>The prevailing ideas posit that literacy is outside the domain of bilingualism. </li></ul>Bilingualism Biliteracy Bilingualism Biliteracy
The Reality What’s missing here? SCHOOL Saan na ang alam ko? Experience Oral Symbols in Filipino Printed Symbols in Filipino Oral Symbols In English Printed Symbols In English Oral Symbols in L1
Bilingual Education <ul><li>Refers to the use of two or more languages as mediums of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Founded on the acceptance that a society is composed of different cultures with different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Enables communities with distinct language contexts to participate and partake of relevant education (UNESCO, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to less repetition, lower drop-outs rates and higher educational attainment among IP children </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the blending of cultures, since it enhances the standing of mother tongues and target languages and the cultures which these convey </li></ul>
Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>If only in 1900, when President McKinley gave his marching order to the 2 nd Phil Commission, he had ordered them to have education carried on in a local language, then the system would not have been plagued with problems as it was in the 1920s. </li></ul><ul><li>(Saleeby, 1924 in Clampitt-Dunlap 1995). </li></ul>
Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>Studies have proven that student achievement is related to the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction. Furthermore, the continued use of English as a medium of instruction has been linked to the pervasively low levels of educational attainment among students and the inability of schools to develop a strong sense of nationhood among students. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of English as medium of instruction in our schools may also explain the lapse into illiteracy among drop-outs who are taught to be literate in English. Those taught in English through rote memorization not only have poor command of English but also fail to comprehend and internalize basic concepts in such subjects as math science, which are taught in English. </li></ul><ul><li>EDCOM (1993) </li></ul>
Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>LGUs and the IP communities could be incouraged to carry out programs and projects such that they could develop the necessary resources to be able to implement vernacular teaching in the primary grades in their respective area. Vernacularization will support the goal of functional literacy in marginal Philippine communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the economic, cognitive and social advantage of bilingualism/multilingualism further supports the continued push for bilingual/multilingual education. These are advantages denied to the minority students who are forced by circumstances to abandon their first language as they learn as second. </li></ul><ul><li>PCER (2000) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Republic of Congo </li></ul><ul><li>The Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Hiligaynon Experiment ( Aguilar, 1948 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of an early literacy program for day care centers in urban poor commuities ( Ocampo, 1991 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca Project ( DepEd ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lubuagan study ( Dumatog & Dekker, 2003 ) </li></ul>Mother Tongue Education
Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>Lilubuagen was used for instruction in Grade 1 for all subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy was first developed in Lilubuagen </li></ul><ul><li>Then transitioned to Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Then transitioned to English </li></ul><ul><li>3 schools had higher achievement scores in reading comprehension in all 3 languages </li></ul>The SDS of Kalinga confirmed that these 3 schools scores at the top of all schools in the division
Cross-linguistic Transfer of Literacy Ability <ul><li>Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy transfers across languages </li></ul><ul><li>Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in another language (English) </li></ul><ul><li>Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness in the other language </li></ul><ul><li>Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English for elementary grade students </li></ul>
HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, Filipino or the regional/native language maybe used as medium of instruction in all subjects from pre-school until Grade II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English and Filipino shall be taught as separate subjects in all levels in the elementary and secondary. </li></ul></ul>
HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction (2) <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In all academic subjects in the elementary grades from Grade III to Grade VI and in all levels in the secondary, the medium of instruction shall be English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the tertiary level the current language policy as prescribed by the Commission on Higher Education shall be maintained. </li></ul></ul>
Cross Linguistic Transfer Of Literacy <ul><li>Child’s Language </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the foundation for additional languages </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates learning subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Increases school participation </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to learn to read </li></ul><ul><li>Language of the media </li></ul><ul><li>Understood by most Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>A global language </li></ul><ul><li>Continues to be a language </li></ul><ul><li>of aspiration among Filipinos </li></ul>Arabic Other Languages
HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction (3) <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to formal instruction, the use of English shall be encouraged as a language of interaction in the school . Corollary to this, the organization of English clubs, such as book, oratorical, debating, writing and related associations shall be encouraged. In school publications, the use of English shall be given priority, as far as practicable. </li></ul></ul>
National Language and Literacy Strategy #1 <ul><li>Implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual Education Policy </li></ul>
National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 <ul><li>Create better learning environments to support language and literacy education of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. </li></ul><ul><li>Use children’s literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of instructional materials in the designated languages of learning at the school, division, and regional levels. </li></ul>
National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 <ul><li>Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results. </li></ul>
Instructional Materials should be made for: <ul><li>Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. </li></ul><ul><li>English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. </li></ul><ul><li>Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. </li></ul><ul><li>Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. </li></ul>
Teachers are Important! <ul><li>As much as possible, teachers should speak the languages of the child especially in the lower levels </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should know the subject matter so they can teach it will </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlining of teaching load can be done so only competent speakers of Filipino and English (Arabic & other languages) should teach these as subjects </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper levels, Math and Science teachers should speak English well too! </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN teachers should speak Filipino well too! </li></ul><ul><li>ALL teachers should know how to use reading strategies for their subject areas because all subject areas require the students to read! </li></ul>
National Language and Literacy Strategy #3 <ul><li>Enliven critical social support structures in the community to support learners in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and support for the implementation of the language and literacy programming strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Raise critical awareness among parents about effective language and literacy learning processes. </li></ul>
HB 4701 is simply not good enough <ul><li>It will not ensure the development of proficiency in English (which it aims to achieve). </li></ul><ul><li>It does not protect the child from being marginalized and discriminated against in her own classroom in a school in her own village. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not protect, much less promote, the cultures of Filipinos all over the country. </li></ul><ul><li>And it is not aligned with the Philippine Constitution which states that the Filipino is the national language – a language spoken and understood by many in the archipelago. </li></ul>