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The Roadmap to Philippine Multiliteracy


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This is a presentation based on a policy research on the languages of education in the Philipipnes.

Published in: Education, Travel, Business

The Roadmap to Philippine Multiliteracy

  1. 1. The Philippine Roadmap to Multi-literacy Dina Ocampo Leonor Diaz Portia Padilla Liu Vilbar Victor Villanueva Mark Norman Maca Pau Fontanos Liza Villanueva Roberto Ruda
  2. 2. New Directives <ul><li>Executive Order No. 210 (May 17, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing the policy to strengthen the use of the English Language as a medium of instruction in the educational system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DepEd Order 36, Series 2006 (Aug. 22, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing rules and regulations implementing E.O. 210 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English will be taught as a second languages starting Grade 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English will be used as medium of instruction for Science and Health, Math and English starting Grade 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In secondary schools, English will be the primary medium of instruction such that 70% of all learning time will be in English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>House Bill 4701: AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN AND ENHANCE THE USE OF ENGLISH AS MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS </li></ul>
  3. 3. HB 4701 SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy <ul><li>It is the declared policy of the State to provide the citizenry with the opportunities to have quality education, to learn, communicate, grow and change in the pursuit of a higher standard of life. Towards this end, the government undertakes to make the education of the young aligned with requirements and realities of business life and competitive in the global environment by strengthening, enhancing and developing the use of the English language as a medium of instruction in all levels of education, from pre-school to the tertiary level. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is all that education is for? <ul><li>the government undertakes to make the education of the young aligned with </li></ul><ul><li>requirements and realities of business life </li></ul><ul><li>competitive in the global environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Aims of Language Education <ul><li>from communication… </li></ul><ul><li>to rhetorical use, </li></ul><ul><li>to cultural and scientific enrichment, </li></ul><ul><li>and to aesthetic appreciation ( Gonzales, 1994 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to experience all these levels of language use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for self-improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to learn target languages in childhood or adulthood. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. BESRA <ul><li>Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>National Language and Literacy Learning Strategies for the Filipino and English Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Three main reform recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous strategies to achieve these reforms </li></ul>
  7. 7. Policy Questions <ul><li>Within the age/level/group of learners of your workshop group, what languages should be learned? Why? When? </li></ul><ul><li>What languages should the students learn in? Why? When? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies are required for the attainment of language proficiency and critical literacy in the languages of learning? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methodology <ul><li>Study of pertinent documents and papers on the Philippine language situation and policy in basic education </li></ul><ul><li>A review of studies on language learning, languages of instruction, Filipino and English language learning and initiatives by the Department of Education to address language related performance issues among students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of an analytical framework </li></ul>
  9. 9. Analytical Framework Quality of Teaching and Learning School Context and Policy Environment Division Context and Policy Environment Regional Context and Policy Environment National Context and Policy Environment Professional Infrastructure Interventions and Policies Family and Community Influences Political and Social Influences
  10. 10. CONSENSUS!
  11. 11. Foundations of the Policy Recommendations thru BESRA <ul><li>Philippine language context and the evolution of language use </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural identity, language and social development </li></ul><ul><li>How language is learned; Multilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>How literacy is learned; Multiliteracy </li></ul><ul><li>The Cross Linguistic Transfer of Literacy and Thinking Skills across languages </li></ul><ul><li>Global studies/experiences in bilingual education </li></ul>
  12. 12. We are multilingual We are by virtue of our geography and history, a multi-lingual people. This gift has for too long been viewed as a liability.
  13. 13. The Philippine Language Context <ul><li>120 languages ( McFarland, 1993 ) or 171 (Philippine Commission on Educational Reform, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Eight major languages are Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray-Samarnon ( Belvez, 2002 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino is the national language, and incorporates vocabulary from the other Philippine languages and non-local languages used in the Philippines, i.e., English, Arabic and Spanish ( Gonzales, 1998 ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural identity, language and literacy <ul><li>Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings transmitted from one generation to another. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is perhaps the strongest determinant of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language is fundamental to cultural identity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language Acquisition and Learning <ul><li>Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>The process used by learners when languages are added to their linguistic repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to second, third, nth language learned by a person </li></ul><ul><li>Can be learned (or not learned) well by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuralist or Formalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiio-lingual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative competence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>the way children learn their mother tongue </li></ul><ul><li>the process of natural assimilation of a language </li></ul><ul><li>requires good models of the language that is to be learned and immersion in its use and function. </li></ul><ul><li>all children can acquire language ability because humans have the capacity to learn language (Brown, 1994). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Childhood Bilingualism <ul><li>from Monolingual to Bilingual </li></ul>Through interactions in the community Through teaching in school Natural Additive
  17. 17. Cultural Identity, Language and Literacy <ul><li>Literacy is what society does with literacy and therefore literacy practices are part of culture ( Young, 2002 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is viewed in terms of social change, development and community life. </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is therefore socially supported and has the power to transform and maintain community development (Doronila, 1996; UNESCO, 2006). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Literacy – reading & writing <ul><li>The ability to construct and create meaning from or through written language </li></ul><ul><li>Is an interactive process between the reader, the text and the contexts of literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Functional for specific purposes such as learning, making or maintaining relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Taps into the cultural, affective, motivational and aesthetic aspects of life </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>For our purposes, we should look at it this way: </li></ul>The Issue of Biliteracy <ul><li>The prevailing ideas posit that literacy is outside the domain of bilingualism. </li></ul>Bilingualism Biliteracy Bilingualism Biliteracy
  20. 20. Therefore….. Experience Oral Symbols Printed Symbols Oral Symbols Printed Symbols In L2
  21. 21. Word Reading and Spelling
  22. 22. Sentence and Listening Comprehension
  23. 23. What’s going on here? 50.00
  24. 24. The Reality What’s missing here? SCHOOL Saan na ang alam ko? Experience Oral Symbols in Filipino Printed Symbols in Filipino Oral Symbols In English Printed Symbols In English Oral Symbols in L1
  25. 25. Bilingual Education <ul><li>Refers to the use of two or more languages as mediums of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Founded on the acceptance that a society is composed of different cultures with different languages </li></ul><ul><li>Enables communities with distinct language contexts to participate and partake of relevant education (UNESCO, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to less repetition, lower drop-outs rates and higher educational attainment among IP children </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the blending of cultures, since it enhances the standing of mother tongues and target languages and the cultures which these convey </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>If only in 1900, when President McKinley gave his marching order to the 2 nd Phil Commission, he had ordered them to have education carried on in a local language, then the system would not have been plagued with problems as it was in the 1920s. </li></ul><ul><li>(Saleeby, 1924 in Clampitt-Dunlap 1995). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>Studies have proven that student achievement is related to the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction. Furthermore, the continued use of English as a medium of instruction has been linked to the pervasively low levels of educational attainment among students and the inability of schools to develop a strong sense of nationhood among students. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of English as medium of instruction in our schools may also explain the lapse into illiteracy among drop-outs who are taught to be literate in English. Those taught in English through rote memorization not only have poor command of English but also fail to comprehend and internalize basic concepts in such subjects as math science, which are taught in English. </li></ul><ul><li>EDCOM (1993) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>LGUs and the IP communities could be incouraged to carry out programs and projects such that they could develop the necessary resources to be able to implement vernacular teaching in the primary grades in their respective area. Vernacularization will support the goal of functional literacy in marginal Philippine communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of the economic, cognitive and social advantage of bilingualism/multilingualism further supports the continued push for bilingual/multilingual education. These are advantages denied to the minority students who are forced by circumstances to abandon their first language as they learn as second. </li></ul><ul><li>PCER (2000) </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Republic of Congo </li></ul><ul><li>The Pacific Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Hiligaynon Experiment ( Aguilar, 1948 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of an early literacy program for day care centers in urban poor commuities ( Ocampo, 1991 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca Project ( DepEd ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lubuagan study ( Dumatog & Dekker, 2003 ) </li></ul>Mother Tongue Education
  30. 30. Mother Tongue Education <ul><li>Lilubuagen was used for instruction in Grade 1 for all subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy was first developed in Lilubuagen </li></ul><ul><li>Then transitioned to Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Then transitioned to English </li></ul><ul><li>3 schools had higher achievement scores in reading comprehension in all 3 languages </li></ul>The SDS of Kalinga confirmed that these 3 schools scores at the top of all schools in the division
  31. 31. Cross-linguistic Transfer of Literacy Ability <ul><li>Considerable and wealthy evidence to show the literacy transfers across languages </li></ul><ul><li>Ocampo (2002) showed that cognitive & linguistic skills used to read in one language (Filipino) were also used in another language (English) </li></ul><ul><li>Aquino (2005) reports that beginning reading instruction in Filipino or English had positive effects on alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness in the other language </li></ul><ul><li>Ocampo (2005) found the ease of learning to read words and comprehend sentences better in Filipino than in English for elementary grade students </li></ul>
  32. 32. HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, Filipino or the regional/native language maybe used as medium of instruction in all subjects from pre-school until Grade II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English and Filipino shall be taught as separate subjects in all levels in the elementary and secondary. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction (2) <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In all academic subjects in the elementary grades from Grade III to Grade VI and in all levels in the secondary, the medium of instruction shall be English. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the tertiary level the current language policy as prescribed by the Commission on Higher Education shall be maintained. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Cross Linguistic Transfer Of Literacy <ul><li>Child’s Language </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the foundation for additional languages </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates learning subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Increases school participation </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to learn to read </li></ul><ul><li>Language of the media </li></ul><ul><li>Understood by most Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>A global language </li></ul><ul><li>Continues to be a language </li></ul><ul><li>of aspiration among Filipinos </li></ul>Arabic Other Languages
  35. 35. HB 4701 SEC. 4. Medium of Instruction (3) <ul><li>The medium of instruction in all subjects taught shall be as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to formal instruction, the use of English shall be encouraged as a language of interaction in the school . Corollary to this, the organization of English clubs, such as book, oratorical, debating, writing and related associations shall be encouraged. In school publications, the use of English shall be given priority, as far as practicable. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. National Language and Literacy Strategy #1 <ul><li>Implement a developmentally and culturally sound programming of language and literacy development in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Revise the implementing rules for the Bilingual Education Policy </li></ul>
  37. 37. Programming of Languages of Learning
  38. 38. National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 <ul><li>Create better learning environments to support language and literacy education of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulate how language and literacy will be developed in learners at specific grade/year levels of basic education. </li></ul><ul><li>Use children’s literature to support language and literacy development through exposure, immersion, and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Support student learning through the development, production, and distribution of instructional materials in the designated languages of learning at the school, division, and regional levels. </li></ul>
  39. 39. National Language and Literacy Strategy #2 <ul><li>Ensure that teachers at different grade/year levels have the knowledge and competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the languages they are supposed to use for teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on language and literacy education in a bilingual/multilingual context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the subject(s) they are supposed to teach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Match the assessment of language and literacy with curriculum content and the languages of learning at specific grade/year levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with language and literacy difficulties remedial instruction based on assessment results. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Instructional Materials should be made for: <ul><li>Beginning Reading in the mother tongue for Preschool and Grade 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s literature in the mother tongue for Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Math in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Science in the mother tongue from Preschool until Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN in the mother tongue for Grades 1 and 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. </li></ul><ul><li>English materials using local context and literature (where possible) for Preschool, Grades 1 to 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Reading in Filipino for Grade 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning Reading in English for Grade 3. </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN in Filipino for Grade 3 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to Filipino. </li></ul><ul><li>Edukasyong pangkabuhayan in Filipino for Grades 4 onwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Math in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. </li></ul><ul><li>Science in English for Grade 4 to support the transition of the language of learning from mother tongue to English. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Teachers are Important! <ul><li>As much as possible, teachers should speak the languages of the child especially in the lower levels </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should know the subject matter so they can teach it will </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlining of teaching load can be done so only competent speakers of Filipino and English (Arabic & other languages) should teach these as subjects </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper levels, Math and Science teachers should speak English well too! </li></ul><ul><li>MAKABAYAN teachers should speak Filipino well too! </li></ul><ul><li>ALL teachers should know how to use reading strategies for their subject areas because all subject areas require the students to read! </li></ul>
  42. 42. National Language and Literacy Strategy #3 <ul><li>Enliven critical social support structures in the community to support learners in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure maximum LGU/community participation and support for the implementation of the language and literacy programming strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Raise critical awareness among parents about effective language and literacy learning processes. </li></ul>
  43. 43. HB 4701 is simply not good enough <ul><li>It will not ensure the development of proficiency in English (which it aims to achieve). </li></ul><ul><li>It does not protect the child from being marginalized and discriminated against in her own classroom in a school in her own village. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not protect, much less promote, the cultures of Filipinos all over the country. </li></ul><ul><li>And it is not aligned with the Philippine Constitution which states that the Filipino is the national language – a language spoken and understood by many in the archipelago. </li></ul>