Housing forms - L1-L2

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Housing forms - L1-L2

  1. 1. Dr. Alexander Slaev Housing forms
  2. 2. Urban Villas Buildings with point access, freestanding, low and medium rise  Main advantages This residential form fits to human scale and maintains high dwelling standard in a typical urban environment. It provides favorable values of the P/F factor (length of facade/ 1 sq. m built area), favorable conditions to use all geographic exposures (facades in all directions), helps to preserve open spaces provides a range of opportunities to create green spaces and to improve the urban environment.  Urban areas of application This form is universally applicable – in the central parts of cities and towns, in the outskirts, in traditional urban blocks, as well as in the housing estates (stambeni kompleksi). It has no special requirements for the exposure and the slope of the site.
  3. 3. Urban Villas Buildings with point access, freestanding, low and medium rise Spatial and architectural features      Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan Floor area – about 200-250 up to 450 m2 (usually 2 to 4 apartments on a floor) Compact form (dimensions in the 2 directions do not differ much) Exposure requirements This housing form uses all exposures (geographic directions) with the stair-case arranged to the north, sometimes to the west or in the core (unutrasna) Types of dwellings Mainly apartments with 2 neighboring exposures, sometimes with 3 exposures, rarely with 1 exposure. Often duplexes are arranged on the last floors. Typical rise (number of floors) (spratnost) 3 to 4 storeys, rarely 5 storeys Typical number of dwellings in a building 6 to 16 dwellings (stanovi)
  4. 4. Urban Villas Buildings with point access, freestanding, low and medium rise Spatial and architectural features (continued)      Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Relatively small structural limitations with regard to spatial structure and functional organization, as well as to dimensions of spaces. Certain flexibility options and some opportunities to change the floor plans especially on the last floors. Typical values of the P/F factor 0.20 – 0.25 Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means Plasticity of architectural volumes in 2 directions is possible, human scale is a typical feature. This housing form is well fitting in the environment Connectivity to open environment favorably, very well (but indirectly) connected to open environment Features of residential environment Abundance of open spaces and greenery options
  5. 5. Residential Towers Buildings with point access, freestanding high-rise  Main advantages This residential form maintains good quality, hygienic conditions and high dwelling standard combined with very high residential densities. It provides access for large groups of inhabitants to centrally located urban areas, saving all opportunities for sunlight, abundance of open and green spaces. One important specific feature of this housing form is that it is an expressive architectural sign and serves as a landmark in the urban landscape.  Urban areas of application In the central city areas and in the central parts of the housing estates (stambeni kompleksi). It has no special requirements neither to the exposure, nor to the slope of the site, but its requirements for large spaces / area of the site are compulsory.
  6. 6. Residential Towers Buildings with point access, freestanding high-rise Spatial and architectural features      Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan floor area – usually 350-400 to 800 m2, sometimes over 1000-1500 m2 (from 4 to 6-8 dwellings per floor, sometimes 10-12 or more) Compact or star-like form of the floor plan – balanced to the geometric center Exposure requirements This housing form uses all exposures (geographic directions). The stair-case is arranged to the north, sometimes to the west. Тhe liftcore with the installation packs and the landing (on each floor) are situated in the center of the floor plan (the core) Types of dwellings Apartments with 1 exposure or with 2 neighboring. Often duplexes or penthouses are arrenged on the last floors. Typical rise (number of floors) (spratnost) – from over 8 floors, very often up to 20 floors, in some cases 50-60 floors Typical number of dwellings in a building - from 30 to 100-150 (200)
  7. 7. Residential Towers Buildings with point access, freestanding high-rise Spatial and architectural features (continued)    Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Maximum/ rigid structural limitations, repeatability is compulsory, Changes in the floor plans are accepted only in the last floors. Limited flexibility options – only if complying with structural axes Typical values of the P/F factor 0.12 – 0.20 Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means Too large, inhuman scale of the architectural means, however, highly expressive. Some potentiality for plasticity in 1 or 2 directions. Highly expressive landmark feature (the 3rd direction)  Connectivity to open environment Very well (but indirectly) connected to open environment – maximum contact with the open space.  Характеристики на жилищната среда Abundance of open spaces, sun light and greenery options
  8. 8. Urban Block Structures Buildings with point access, grouped low, medium and high-rise Main advantages The low and medium rise urban block structures provide good dwelling quality in a traditional urban environment with high density. The highrise urban structure provide access for large groups of people to central city areas. A very important advantage is the relevance to the historically formed structure of urban property. Another important advantage is the potentiality to use efficiently all exposures (unlike the corridor buildings), however with bigger building depth the P/F factor significantly deteriorates.  Types of structures     Types of buildings    medium rise high-rise row building corner building Urban areas of application Mainly in central city areas and in the traditional parts of towns. It has no special requirements to the exposure or the slope of the site. The urban- block structures well fit bith larger and smaller urban plots.
  9. 9. Urban Block Structures Buildings with point access, joined in rows medium and high-rise      Spatial and architectural features Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan – mainly rectangular form (depending on the form of the plot) with dimensions: 10-12 / 12-18 m if the long axis is E-W (east-west); 12-14 / 12-18 m when the long axis of the building is N-S (north-south). Exposure requirements this housing form is efficient with all exposures (geogr, directions), however, it is more efficient when the long axis is N-S. The stair-case should be arranged to the north or to the west. Types of dwellings mainly apartments with 1 or 2 opposite (suprotni) exposures. Apartments with 2 neighboring exposures – in the corner buildings. Often duplexes are arranged on the last floors, 1-exposure duplexes are more efficient and more typical. Typical rise (number of floors) either 4-5- or (rarely) 6 floor buildings – medium rise. The high-rise buildings are usually 8-10-floor high, but in very large cities 15-18 floor high buildings might be typical. Typical number of dwellings in a building – for medium rise- 8-10 to 20 dwellings; for high-rise- 20-30 to 50-70 dwellings in a building
  10. 10. Urban Block Structures Buildings with point access, joined in rows low, medium and high-rise Spatial and architectural features (continued)      Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans rigid structural limitations, repeatability is compulsory, Changes in the floor plans are difficult to implement, except for the last floors. Limited flexibility options, though changes in the structure at different floors are possible. Typical values of the P/F factor 0.12 – 0.15 Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means Human scale is typical for low & medium rise, but the scale of the high rise buildings is often inhuman. Plasticity is possible in only one direction (except for the corner buildings). Due to the area of application plasticity is limited by rigid standards. Connectivity to open environment For the low-rise buildings connectivity is comparatively good, but for the highrise – rather negative Features of residential environment The main problem of the high-rise urban block structures is the loss of open space. Besides, small-scale common property is a problem for improvement of back yards, maintenance of green spaces, etc
  11. 11. Section (traktovi) Structures Buildings with point access, grouped in rows low, medium and high-rise Main advantages The section structures provide for good dwelling quality in and hygienic living conditions combined with medium to higher or in some cases extremely high residential densities. They provide for efficient use of all geographic directions and relatively favorable values of the P/F factor, and good quality of residential environment with a lot of open and green spaces. Besides, they are applicable to combine the advantages of traditional urban structures (street + backyard spaces) with the of favorable features of the housing estates (residential complexes).  Types of structures     Types of buildings    low and medium rise high-rise row building corner building Urban areas of application They are most widely spread in the housing estates (residential complexes), but are well efficient in traditional urban blocks too. They have no special requirements to exposures, neither to the direction or the steepness of the slope of the terrain. However they are more typical for "green field" developments.
  12. 12. Section (traktovi) Structures Buildings with point access, grouped in rows low, medium and high-rise  Spatial and architectural features Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan – compact usually rectangular form with dimensions 10-12 / 18-22 m if the long axis is East-West, 12-14 / 18-22 m if the long axis is North-South.  Exposure requirements This residential form uses efficiently all exposures, however it is more efficient if the long axis is about North-South. The staircase is on the North or West facade.  Types of dwellings Apartments with 1 exposure or 2 opposite. Apartments with 2 neighboring exposure in the corner section. Duplexes are often situated on the last 2 floors.  Typical rise (number of floors) The medium rise buildings are 4-5 - 8-floors. High-rise buildings are 1215 to 20 floors in some cases up to 25 floors  Typical number of dwellings in a building – for medium rise buildings: from 15-16 to 25-30 dwellings in a section; for high rise buildings : from 30-40 up to 70-80 dwellings in a section
  13. 13. Section (traktovi) Structures Buildings with point access, grouped in rows low, medium and high-rise Spatial and architectural features (continued)      Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Relatively rigid structures, particularly the high-rise buildings. Repeatability is compulsory. Some flexibility can be achieved on the last couple of floors Typical values of the P/F factor 0.15 – 0.18 Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means The scale of architectural means is human for the low-rise buildings. Plasticity is possible in only one direction (except for the corner buildings), yet plasticity potentiality is better than that of the urban block structures. Connectivity to open environment very good, favorable indirect Features of residential environment plenty of open spaces and good potentiality for greenery. Favorable residential environment
  14. 14. Corridor Buildings Buildings with linear access at each floor, low, medium and high-rise   Main advantages The main advantage of this residential form is that by the means of standardized dwelling options it maintains good dwelling conditions and good dwelling standard. It provides access for relatively large groups of people to the advantag4s of a specific urban situation (central location or favorable exposure, etc). the quality of the environment is better than that of the urban block. Last but not least, it is suitable for industrialized methods of construction. Types of buildings     1-sided corridor (vanjska galeria) 2-sided corridor (double-sided, double-loaded) (unutrasna gal.) corridor not on every floor Urban areas of application This housing form is applicable in any urban zone and in any urban conditions, but the requirements to the geographic direction and the exposure of the slope are very strict, especially, for 1-sided corridor buildings.
  15. 15. Corridor Buildings Buildings with linear access at each floor, low, medium and high-rise  Spatial and architectural features Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan – Building depth: for 1-sided –10-11 m; for 2-sided – 12-16 m; for highrise 2-sided – 14-18 m Building length – for low-rise - up to 35-40 m for the building and up to 150 – 200 m for the structure (row); for high-rise up to 35-40 m  Exposure requirements For 1-sided the long axis of the building can be in all directions from NE through South to NW. For 2-sided buildings the positions of the long axis from SE to SW are excluded.  Types of dwellings Apartments with 1 exposure, and only for the corner dwellings - 2 neighboring exposures. Duplexes are applicable on the last couple of floors .  Typical rise (number of floors) low and medium rise. – 3-5 (up to 8) floors; high-rise – 10 to 15 (up to 20-25)  Typical number of dwellings in a building – for 1-sided - from 25 to 60; for 2-sided - from 30 to 80 (up to 100), високо-етажни – up to 200 dwellings (in some cases – up to 250)
  16. 16. Corridor Buildings Buildings with linear access at each floor, low, medium and high-rise   Spatial and architectural features (continued) Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Very rigid structures – more rigid than the section structures. Repeatability is compulsory. Some flexibility can be achieved on the last couple of floors Typical values of the P/F factor 0.13 – 0.15  Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means Plasticity is possible in only one direction (except for the corner parts of the building. The scale of the architectural means depends on the rise – for low rise buildings human scale is typical, while for high-rise the scale is often inhuman  Connectivity to open environment good indirect connection Features of residential environment Relatively good potentiality for open spaces and greenery 
  17. 17. Terraced Buildings and Hill Structures Main advantages These housing forms are meant to combine the comfort of the close contact with nature and the advantages of single-family housing, on one hand, with, on the other, the advantages of multi-family housing and relatively high residential densities. This is achieved by the help of modern technologies based on a rather complicated terraced building structure. This housing form provides very favorable values of the P/F factor and for abundance of open spaces and greenery options.   Типове  Terraced structures on steep slopes  Hill-type (hill-like) structures and high-rise terraced buildings  Urban areas of application These structures are not easily applicable in central / traditional urban areas, however, they are suitable for any parts of the housing estates (residential complexes). They have strict requirements to the exposure and the direction of the slope of the territory and to the size of the plot (the development site).
  18. 18. Terraced Buildings and Hill Structures Spatial and architectural features      Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan – For terraced structures on steep slopes – building depth – 8-15 m. Length of the building row – 40 to 100-150 m For hill-like and high-rise terraced – building depth of the lower floors – 1218m for 1-sided and 24-30 (35+) for 2-sided, building depth of the upper floors – 7-10m. Length of the building row – 40 to 100-150 m Exposure requirements Except for E, S, W exposure the structures on steep slopes have no other specific requirements. The terraced and especially the high-rise buildings are applicable exclusively with E&W exposure – the long axis of the building – in N-S direction. Types of dwellings Mainly apartments and maisonettes (duplexes) with 1 exposure. Typical rise (number of floors) For terraced structures on steep slopes – usually 5-8 rows, For hill-like structures – 4-7 floors. For high-rise terraced 10 to 15 (18) floors Typical number of dwellings in a building - from 10-15 to 40-60 dwellings
  19. 19. Terraced Buildings and Hill Structures Spatial and architectural features (continued)      Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Different plans at different floors are widely applicable. The complicated building structure is a typical feature of this housing form. Typical values of the P/F factor values of 0.20 – 0.25 are typical, however for the lower floors of the high-rise buildings the values are – 0.12-0.15 Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means These structures are exceptionally plastic in all directions. All types of terraced housing are characterized by favorable human scale. Connectivity to open environment very strong direct connection Features of residential environment These structures are exceptionally suitable to provide plenty open spaces and greenery options.
  20. 20. Duplex and Combined Structures Main advantages These housing forms are meant (like the terraced forms) to combine the comfort of the close contact with nature and the advantages of singlefamily housing, on one hand, with, on the other, the advantages of multi-family housing and relatively high residential densities. However the duplex and combined structures aim to achieve the above goals without unreasonably complicated building structures. They provide for favorable values of the P/F factor and for best opportunities for open spaces and a lot of greenery.   Типове  Duplex (naisonette) structures  Combined structures (combinations of duplex and terraced str.)  Urban areas of application Applicable mainly in the housing estates (residential complexes), in all their parts, but they can also be build in traditional blocks and in central areas, if sufficient plots are provided. Applicable on flat terrains mainly and usually the long axis of the structure (the housing row) is in N-S direction.
  21. 21. Дуплексни и комбинирани структури Spatial and architectural features  Typical form and dimensions of the floor plan – For duplex structures – building depth – 8-15m; for the lower floors of combined structures – 15-24m, and for the upper floors – 7-12m. Building length (length of the housing row) – 40 to 100-150 m  Exposure requirements The duplex structures are relatively universal for most directions. 1-sided combined structures are universal, while 2-sided structures require long axis in North-South direction.  Types of dwellings Exclusively duplexes with 1 or with 2 opposite directions.  Typical rise (number of floors) For duplex structures– 3-5 floors, For combined structures – 4-6 (up to 8) floors  Typical number of dwellings in a building For duplex structures– по 2 мезонета в ос (стъпка), по 10-30 оси в ред/ низ For combined structures – from 30-50 to 150-200 duplexes
  22. 22. Дуплексни и комбинирани структури Spatial and architectural features (continued) Structural limitations, Repeatability of floor plans Variety of floor plans, very flexible, however reasonable repeatability is typical, in order not to make the structure too complicated.  Typical values of the P/F factor 0.18 – 0.25 depending on the building depth  Plasticity options (potentiality for plastic architectural forms) and scale of architectural means Excellent potentiality for plasticity in all directions. Both the duplex and the combined structures are characterized by favorable human scale  Connectivity to open environment strong direct connection, though depending on the design-plan  Features of residential environment Extremely favorable features providing for abundance of green and open spaces 

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