Agrinio
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Agrinio
Αγρίνιο
Panorama of Agrinio.
Agrinio (Greek: Αγρίνιο, Latin: Agriniu...
P a g e | 2
Modern Era
In the years following the liberation, Agrinio went through an important growth and development, es...
P a g e | 3
Aitoliko
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aitoliko
Αιτωλικό
Aitoliko is a town in Aetolia-Acarnania, West...
P a g e | 4
Missolonghi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Missolonghi
Μεσολόγγι
View of the west part of the town.
Mis...
P a g e | 5
seat of the Senate of Western Continental Greece. Its inhabitants successfully resisted a siege by Ottoman for...
P a g e | 6
VASSO KATRAKI
Vasso Katraki was a leading figure of 20th century Greek art. She was born Vasso Leonardou Katra...
P a g e | 7
EXHIBITION CATALOG - HELLENIC AMERICAN UNION
Apostolos Koustas
Jericho
Print, 107x220 cm, 1990. Osaka Triennal...
P a g e | 8
Naupactus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Naupactus
Ναύπακτος
Naupactus; view from the fortress.
Naupact...
P a g e | 9
In the late Middle Ages it was part of the Despotate of Epirus and for a short period part of the Despotates o...
P a g e | 10
Lake Trichonida
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lake Trichonida
Λίμνη Τριχωνίδα
Lake Trichonida is the ...
P a g e | 11
Aetolia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aetolia
Αιτωλία
Region of Ancient Greece
Ancient and modern The...
P a g e | 12
Acarnania
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Acarnania
Ακαρνανία
Region of Ancient Greece
Ruins of amphith...
P a g e | 13
Acropolis of Athens
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Acropolis of Athens
Name...
1. Parthenon
2. Old Temple of Athena
3. Erechtheum
4. Statue of Athena Promachos
5. Propylaea
6. Temple of Athena Nike
7. ...
P a g e | 15
the shrine of Zeus Polieus, while the current museum occupies the site of a shrine dedicated to
the local her...
P a g e | 16
Pallas, Promachos (goddess of war), Ergane (goddess of manual labour) and Nike (Victory). After
the end of th...
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  1. 1. Agrinio From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Agrinio Αγρίνιο Panorama of Agrinio. Agrinio (Greek: Αγρίνιο, Latin: Agrinium) is the largest city and unit of Greece, with 106,053 inhabitants. It is the economical center of of Mesolonghi. The settlement dates back to ancient times. Ancient Agrinion was 3 some walls and foundations of which have been excavated. In medie as Vrachori . The majority of the local population was occupied for an important period of time in the decades of 19th till the end of the 20th century. Big tobacco companies were founded in the city, including the famous Papastratos, alongside Panagopoulos and Papapetrou. Agrinion is also agricul Agrinion olives. History Antiquity According to mythology, it was built by king Calydon) around 1600-1100 BC. The town, built near the banks of river Acarnania), was claimed by both states during ancient times. It was destroyed Ottoman Era The city reappears during the Ottoman period with the name inhabited by many Turks. In 1585 it was deserted during the revolt of century it became the administrative centre of harems. Vrachori participated in the Greek Revolution while Reşid Mehmed Pasha's (Kütahi) troops were marching towards Vrachori, its citiz their city, following the strategy of scorched earth included in the borders of the newborn Greek state permanently in 1832 with the treaty of and was renamed after its ancient name, View of the city. Location ) is the largest city and municipality of the Aetolia-Acarnania , with 106,053 inhabitants. It is the economical center of Aetolia-Acarnania, although its capital is the . The settlement dates back to ancient times. Ancient Agrinion was 3 km northeast of the present city; some walls and foundations of which have been excavated. In medieval times and until 1836, the city was known The majority of the local population was occupied for an important period of time in the tobacco 19th till the end of the 20th century. Big tobacco companies were founded in the city, including the , alongside Panagopoulos and Papapetrou. Agrinion is also agriculturally known for its production of According to mythology, it was built by king Agrios, son of Portheus and a great grandson of 1100 BC. The town, built near the banks of river Achelous (the natural border ), was claimed by both states during ancient times. It was destroyed by Cassander period with the name Vrachori and apart from its Greek population it was also inhabited by many Turks. In 1585 it was deserted during the revolt of Theodoros Migas. At the beginning of the 18th century it became the administrative centre of Aetolia-Acarnania (then as the sanjak of Karleli Greek Revolution and was temporarily liberated on June 11, 1821. On August 1822, 's (Kütahi) troops were marching towards Vrachori, its citizens decided to burn and evacuate scorched earth. The deserted city was recaptured by the Turks. The city was finally of the newborn Greek state permanently in 1832 with the treaty of Kalendar Kiosk Agrinion. P a g e | 1 Location Acarnania regional , although its capital is the town km northeast of the present city; val times and until 1836, the city was known tobacco industry, from the last 19th till the end of the 20th century. Big tobacco companies were founded in the city, including the turally known for its production of Aetolos (king of Plevron and (the natural border between Aetolia and Cassander in 314 BC. apart from its Greek population it was also . At the beginning of the 18th Karleli), depended on the imperial and was temporarily liberated on June 11, 1821. On August 1822, ens decided to burn and evacuate . The deserted city was recaptured by the Turks. The city was finally Kalendar Kiosk (July 9, 1832)
  2. 2. P a g e | 2 Modern Era In the years following the liberation, Agrinio went through an important growth and development, especially at the end of the 19th century and the dawn of the 20th. After the Greco-Turkish War and the Asia Minor Catastrophe, many refugees from Asia Minor(western Turkey) arrived in the city and settled in the district of Agios Konstantinos. At the same period there was an important internal immigration to Agrinio from the whole Aetolia-Acarnania region, along with immigration from the areas of Epirus and Evrytania. During the Interwar period, in spite of the economical crisis, works of infrastructure took place in the city, like the paving of streets and the installment of electricity, while a water tower was installed in 1930. At the same time excavations revealed the ancient city of Agrinion. Growth and prosperity returned after World War II and the Greek Civil War. This growth was boosted by the building of two major hydroelectric dam installations at Kremasta and Kastraki, on the north of the city. The tobacco industry and olive tree cultivation became the main income sources of the city. . Climate The climate of Agrinio is mediterranean (Csa) with a big amount of rainfall during the short winter and high temperatures in the summer, sometimes over 40 °C (104 °F). Municipality Agrinio City Seal The city's official seal includes a characteristic moment of ancient Greek mythology. More specifically, the seal depicts Hercules fighting the river-god Achelous. According to the myth, Hercules fought against the river-god for the sake of Diianira, the princess of Calydon, which both of them wanted as a wife. Despite Achelous' transformations, Hercules managed to win the battle and got married to the princess. According to Strabo, the myth symbolises the struggle of ancient Aetolians to control the river's power with embankments, by which the river was confined to its bed and thus the area gained large tracts of land for cultivation. Landmarks The gorge of Kleisoura.
  3. 3. P a g e | 3 Aitoliko From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Aitoliko Αιτωλικό Aitoliko is a town in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece. It is located north of the Acheloos delta. Until it became a part of Greece, it was known as Anatoliko, meaning east. The Aitolikon Lagoon is a lagoon located east of Aitoliko surrounding the main municipality and is 14 km² in area. Aitoliko was conveniently located with relation to the ancient towns of Pleuron and Oiniadai. The name of the town in the middle of the lagoon dates back to ancient times. The old part of the town lies on an island between two lagoons ( Aitolikon Lagoon to the north and Messolonghi Lagoon to the south). The island is connected to the mainland on each side by two bridges. The delta and the lagoons The Achelous delta to be found west of Messolonghi is the most extensive delta in Greece. The Messolonghi lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the entire Mediterranean sea with its depth of 1.5 m. Of economic importance are the saltworks located to the east about 100 m from the sea with an area of about 500 m² and a width of about 1 km between Aitolikon and Mesolonghi. It has been producing salt for years. Farmlands lie to the east with hills and rocky landscape. Fishing is common activity in the lagoon. Also, wooden huts on stilts can be seen. Land development and waste management endanger the entire delta area. A large tract of land is under protection and hunting is forbidden. In this area, 170 species of birds can be found. Salt evaporation pond From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Salt evaporation ponds, also called salterns or salt pans, are shallow artificial ponds designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines. The seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested. The ponds also provide a productive resting and feeding ground for many species of waterbirds, which may include endangered species.
  4. 4. P a g e | 4 Missolonghi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Missolonghi Μεσολόγγι View of the west part of the town. Missolonghi (Greek: Μεσολόγγι, Mesolongi) is a municipality of 34,416 people (according to the 2011 census) in western Greece. The town is the capital of Aetolia-Acarnania regional unit, and the seat of the municipality of Iera Poli Mesolongiou (Sacred City of Missolonghi). Missolonghi is known as the site of a dramatic siege during the Greek War of Independence, and of the death of poet Lord Byron. Geography The town is located between the Acheloos and the Evinos rivers and has a port on the Gulf of Patras. It trades in fish, wine, and tobacco. The Arakynthos mountains lie to the northeast. The town is almost canalized but houses are within the gulf and the swamplands. The Messolonghi-Etoliko Lagoons complex lies to the west. In the ancient times, the land was part of the gulf. History Missolonghi was first mentioned by a Venetian called Paruta when he was describing the naval Battle of Lepanto near Nafpaktos. According to predominant historical opinion, its name came from the combination of two Italian words, MEZZO and LAGHI which means "in the middle of lakes" or MESSO and LAGHI (Messolaghi) which means "a place surrounded by lakes". Until 1700, Missolonghi was under Venetian domination. Its inhabitants were mostly fishermen. They lived in cabins which were made of a kind of waterproof straw and reed and stood on stilts above sea water. These cabins or stilt-houses have always been called "pelades". North-west of Missolonghi are the remains of Pleuron ('Asfakovouni'), a town mentioned in Homer's works. It participated in the Trojan expedition and was destroyed in 234 BC by Demetrius II Aetolicus. The new town, which was built on the remains of old Pleuron, was one of the most important towns in Aitolia. Its monumental fortification comprised thirty towers and seven gates. The remains of the theatre and an enormous water tank with four compartments still exist. Greek War of Independence Further information: Greek War of Independence, First Siege of Missolonghi, Second Siege of Missolonghi, and Third Siege of Missolonghi The sortie of Missolonghi by Theodoros Vryzakis (1855). During the Orlov Revolt in 1770 the fleet of Missolonghi was defeated and the town passed to the Ottomans. Missolonghi revolted on May 20, 1821 and was a major stronghold of the Greek rebels in the Greek War of Independence, being the
  5. 5. P a g e | 5 seat of the Senate of Western Continental Greece. Its inhabitants successfully resisted a siege by Ottoman forces in 1822. The second siege started on April 15, 1825 by Reşid Mehmed Pasha whose army numbered 30,000 men and was later reinforced by another 10,000 men led by Ibrahim Pasha, son of Muhammad Ali Pasha of Egypt. After a year of relentless enemy attacks and facing starvation, the people of Missolonghi decided to leave the beleaguered city in the "Exodus of its Guards" (The Sortie) on the night of April 10, 1826. At the time, there were 10,500 people in Missolonghi, 3,500 of whom were armed. Very few people survived the Ottoman pincer movement after the betrayal of their plan. Due to the heroic stance of the population and the subsequent massacre of its inhabitants by the Turkish-Egyptian forces, the town of Missolonghi received the honorary title of Hiera Polis (the Sacred City), unique among other Greek cities. The famous British poet and philhellene Lord Byron, who supported the Greek struggle for independence, died in Missolonghi in 1824. He is commemorated by a cenotaph containing his heart and a statue located in the town. Modern Era The lagoon of the city. View of the Gardens of the city. The town itself is very picturesque but also modern with functional, regular urban planning. Some very interesting buildings representative of traditional architecture can be seen here. People whose names were related to modern Greek history once lived in some of them. The mansion of the Trikoupis family, Palamas' House, Valvios Library, Christos and Sophia Moschandreou Gallery of Modern Art emphasize the fact that Missolonghi has always been a city of some wealth and refinement. In addition, the Centre of Culture and Art, Diexodos, which hosts cultural events and exhibitions as well as the Museum of History and Art is housed in a neo-classical building in Markos Botsaris Square and hosts a collection of paintings indicative of the struggle of Missolonghi, further boosting the city's cultural and artistic profile. The Missolonghi Byron Society also, founded in 1991 in the city, is a non profit organisation which is devoted to promoting scholarly and general understanding of Lord Byron's life and poetry as well as cultivating appreciation for other historical figures in the 19th-century international Philhellenic movement, idealists who, like Byron, gave their fortunes, talents, and lives for the cause of Greek War of Independence. The Messolonghi Byron Center is now located in the upper floor of Byron House. Today, the Entrance Gate remains intact and so does part of the fortification of the Free Besieged which was rebuilt by King Otto. Past the gate, there is the Garden of Heroes where several famous and some anonymous heroes who fought during the Heroic Sortie are buried. The Garden of Heroes is the equivalent of the Elysian Fields for modern Greece. Every year the Memorial Day for the Exodus is celebrated on Palm Sunday (the Sunday before Easter); the Greek State is represented by high-ranking officials and foreign countries by their ambassadors. The tomb of Markos Botsaris (copy byGeorgios Bonanos). The original locates in Athens.
  6. 6. P a g e | 6 VASSO KATRAKI Vasso Katraki was a leading figure of 20th century Greek art. She was born Vasso Leonardou Katraki on 5 July 1914 and died on 27 December 1998. She studied painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts - ASFA under Constantinos Parthenis and then joined Yannis Kefallinos' engraving class. She grafted her art with autobiographical references and allusions to Greece's troubled recent history, from World War II to the resistance movement, the civil war and the military junta. Katraki participated in many exhibitions abroad and, in 1966, at the Venice Biennale, she won the prestigious Tamarind award. Depicting human tragedy Her work has a very important place in the world’s engraving. White and black were her favourite colours. The white colour was dominating her soul and the black was the colour of her earthly life. Her works are a real treasure, “a calendar with successive misfortunes and with small joys”. In the small island of Etoliko, which is in the middle of the lagoon, the museum is built on a small hill on an area of 25 acres. This building has 2 floors. There are about 400 works, many sculptures and big parts of the casts (woodsand stones) on which she carved her works. There are also big, small, colored, black and white drawings and initial drafts for the production of her sculptures. There are also other artifacts, posters and paintings, a library, her personal files and photos. The Byzantine, post-Byzantine art and folk poetry exist in her work. “In her work there are memories of Greek mythology and Cycladic art that dates back to 4.000 B.C. K. Stavropoulos says “Those who have been to the museum of Vasso Katraki in Etoliko are touched because of the range of her work, its quality and its inspired morphoplastic appearance. Her work has a universal element. Her topics include the fall of Icarus, the downfall of Georgios Karaiskakis and Aris Velouchiotis who they are the most important figures of the Greek tragedy in their era, 1821 and 1941-44 respectively. "Her works of art" concludes Mr. Stavropoulos, "are an outcry against the concentration camps of Dachau, Auschwitz, Makronisos, Gyaros, St. - Stratis. " Copyright © 1997-2010 Discover Magazine The artist The “Vasso Katraki Museum" in Aetoliko
  7. 7. P a g e | 7 EXHIBITION CATALOG - HELLENIC AMERICAN UNION Apostolos Koustas Jericho Print, 107x220 cm, 1990. Osaka Triennale '91, Japan. Sumitomo Marine and Fire Insurance Award Prehistoric frescoes, the marks and symbols engraved in stone, are man’s first substantiated attempt to speak about his person, placing himself in a material environment, not haphazardly, but in a way that he himself desired. The image, seen in this light, constitutes the Word, and Word is no longer associated with Broca’s area of the brain. The moment before engraving was born, there was chaos and darkness. It was engraving that gave order to chaos and light to darkness. Art creates life and its forms; Art as Word gives birth to life. The exhibition of Apostolos Koustas’s work at the Hellenic American Union refers to prehistoric frescoes and engravings in stone. Koustas’s age sets him apart from the chaos of modernism; nonetheless he endeavors to shape his world and looks for a fixed point of reference to set the earth in motion all over again. Koustas’s mentors were Sikeliotis and Katraki. Yet Koustas does not share their references: expatriation, the Party, the Resistance or even the climate during the Civil War. He seeks points of reference in a more distant past – at the dawn of Word and Gesture. He turns to the elemental. He draws directly upon the points from where the subjective takes form and becomes objective. The point from where imitative magic describes man’s pro-gram who wants to recognize himself, while at the same time recognizing the world surrounding him. How will Koustas avoid the atemporal? He selects an altogether ingenious solution. He uses the dominant material of the modern environment. He engraves on cement slabs. He has the courage to pit himself against materials belonging to the very world he questions. He has the courage to appropriate this material and make it a part of the new world that he envisions and designs. Reference to prehistoric frescos in Koustas’s work takes on a further dimension, which is solely the choice of the artist himself. Koustas’s work exudes poetry. Undoubtedly each plunge into the collective conscience carries poetic overtones. But here Koustas has managed to make his engravings emerge as flowers on stone. Flowers from within the cement. If that isn’t poetry, then what is? Leonidas-Phoebus Koskos - Executive Director of the Hellenic American Union The journey
  8. 8. P a g e | 8 Naupactus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Naupactus Ναύπακτος Naupactus; view from the fortress. Naupactus or Nafpaktos (Italian: Lepanto), is a town in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece. It is the third largest town of Aetolia-Acarnania, after Agrinio and Missolonghi. Naupactus is situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, 3 km west of the mouth of the river Mornos. The harbour is accessible only to the smallest craft. History The Battle of Lepanto, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich/London. The Venetian fortress Name The name 'Naupactus' means 'boatyard', (ancient Greek naus meaning "ship" and Ancient Greek pêgnuein meaning 'to build'). In the Byzantine period, the name used was the slightly altered Epahtos, while the Venetian term was Lepanto and the Ottoman Turkish İnebahtı. The ancient name was revived in the 19th century. History In Greek legend, Naupactos is the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnese. In historical times it belonged to the Ozolian Locrians; but about 455 BC, in spite of a partial resettlement with Locrians of Opus, it fell to the Athenians, who peopled it with Messenian refugees and made it their chief naval station in western Greece during the Peloponnesian war. Two major battles were fought here. In 404 it was restored to the Locrians, who subsequently lost it to the Achaeans, but recovered it through Epaminondas. Philip II of Macedon gave Naupactus to the Aetolians, who held it till 191 BC, when after an obstinate siege it was surrendered to the Romans. It was still flourishing about 170, but in Justinian I's reign was destroyed by an earthquake. It was again destroyed by earthquakes in 553 and in the 8th century and so on. From the late 9th century, it was capital of the Byzantine thema of Nicopolis.
  9. 9. P a g e | 9 In the late Middle Ages it was part of the Despotate of Epirus and for a short period part of the Despotates of Angelokastron (1358–1374) and of Arta (1374–1401) Afterwards it was taken by Venice, who fortified it so strongly that in 1477 it successfully resisted a four-month long siege by a Turkish army of thirty thousand; in 1499, however, it was rumoured to have been sold by the Venetians to the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II. Under the Ottomans, Naupactos was known as İnebahtı and was the seat of a Turkish sanjak. The mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto was the scene of the great sea battle in which the naval power of the Ottoman Empire was nearly completely destroyed by the united Papal, Spanish, Habsburg and Venetian forces (Battle of Lepanto, October 7, 1571). In 1687 it was recaptured by the Venetians, but was again restored in 1699, by the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Ottomans. It became part of the Kingdom of Greece in March 1829. View of port Landmarks • The port and castle provide the main attraction for the town. Shops, cafes and bars dot the immediate area, while a cafe is also located within the castle walls • The port also includes monuments commemorating the Battle of Lepanto (1571), and there is also a statue of the Cervantes by the Mallorcan artist Jaume Mir. • A small water park is located just past the western portion of the beach near Psani • Nafpaktos is also home to a local museum
  10. 10. P a g e | 10 Lake Trichonida From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lake Trichonida Λίμνη Τριχωνίδα Lake Trichonida is the largest natural lake in Greece. It is situated in the eastern part of Aetolia-Acarnania, southeast of the town Agrinio and northwest of Nafpaktos. It covers an area of 98.6 square kilometres (38.1 sq mi) with a maximum length of 19 kilometres (12 mi) and maximum depth of 58 metres (190 ft). One million years ago the lake was much larger, and covered the central part of Aetolia-Acarnania, a part that is now a plain. The Panaitoliko mountains are situated to the north and northeast of the lake. Around the lake, there are beautiful forests with maples, pines and other trees. The lake and its environs is home to more than 200 bird species. There are also farmland and various villages surrounding the area. Stratos, Greece From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Stratos is a village in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece. The economy is mainly based on agriculture. Geography Stratos is situated on the right bank of the river Acheloos, 9 km northwest of the town Agrinio. The Stratos Hydroelectric Dam, which forms the Stratos reservoir fed by the river Acheloos, lies to its northeast. The area north of Stratos is mountainous, whereas the south is flat. History Ruins of an amphitheatre. In classical antiquity, Stratos (Latin: Stratus) was the main town of Acarnania. Its situation at the northern edge of the fertile Acheloos plain made it a place of great military importance. The ruins of ancient Stratos lie on a hillside about 500m north of the modern village. This village, formerly named Sorovigli, was renamed to Stratos in 1928. A temple of Zeus, a theatre and fortifications have been excavated.[5]
  11. 11. P a g e | 11 Aetolia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Aetolia Αιτωλία Region of Ancient Greece Ancient and modern Thermon, Aetolia Map of ancient Aetolia Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. Geography The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west; on the north it had boundaries with Epirus and Thessaly; on the east with the Ozolian Locrians; and on the south the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf defined the limits of Aetolia. In classical times Aetolia comprised two parts: Old Aetolia in the west, from the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon; and New Aetolia or Acquired Aetolia in the east, from the Evenus and Calydon to the Ozolian Locrians. The country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, and acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. History The peoples known as the Curetes and the Leleges originally inhabited the country, but at an early period Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical eponym Aetolus, set up colonies. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions that Curetes was the old name of the Aetolians and Leleges the old name of the Locrians.] The Aetolians took part in the Trojan War, under their king Thoas. Ancient coin of the Aetolian League, reading ΑΙΤ ΛΏΝ showing diademed head of a king to the left and Aitolos standing right. Circa 211-196 BC The Aetolians set up a united league, the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful military confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece.[2] It had originally been organized during the reign of Philip II by the cities of Aetolia for their mutual benefit and protection and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. The League was one of the more effective political institutions that was produced in its time. In 279 BC a great mass of Gauls invaded mainland Greece, however they were repelled and driven out chiefly by the Aetolians.[3] Unlike Achaea, there was a division between full members of the League and allies over which Aetolia maintained a hegemony. This did however allow Aetolia to maintain a much more genuine democracy and the bi-annual meetings of the League assembly coincided with games so that a far higher proportion of the citizens would have attended in person. The Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III against the Roman Republic, and on the defeat of that monarch in 189 BC, they became virtually the subjects of Rome. Following the conquest of the Achaeans by Lucius Mummius Achaicus in 146 BC, Aetolia became part of the Roman province of Achaea. During the Middle Ages, Aetolia was part of the Byzantine Empire and later passed to the Turks : after a relatively unsuccessful attempt at colonization they took a token amount of slaves and resources from the region, then departed.
  12. 12. P a g e | 12 Acarnania From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Acarnania Ακαρνανία Region of Ancient Greece Ruins of amphitheatre, Stratos Map of ancient Acarnania Acarnania is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. Today it forms the western part of the regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The capital and principal city in ancient times was Stratos. The north[ side of Acarnania of the Corinthian Gulf was considered part of the region of Epirus. Acarnania's foundation in Greek mythology was traditionally ascribed to Acarnan, son of Alcmaeon. History In the 7th century BC,Greek influence in the region becomes prominent when Corinth settled Anactorium, Sollium and Leucas, and Kefalonia settled Astacus. Settlements in Alyzeia, Coronta, Limnaea, Medion, Oeniadae, Palaerus, Phytia and Stratus are also mentioned by Thucydides, this latter city being the seat of a loose confederation of Acarnanian powers that was maintained until the late 1st century BC. Because it is located strategically on the maritime route to Italy, Acarnania was emmired in many wars. In 5th century BC, the Corinthians were forced out of their Acarnanian settlements by Athens. In 4th century BC, c. 390 BC, the cities of Acarnania surrendered to the Spartans under King Agesilaus, and continued to be Spartan allies until joining the Second Athenian Empire in 375 BC. The Acarnanians later sided with Boeotia in their fight against Sparta, and with Athens against Philip II of Macedon at Chaeronea. Ancient coin of Acarnania, Circa 300-167 BC Acarnania thereafter came under Macedonian rule. In 314 BC, at the behest of Macedonian king Cassander, the settlements of Acarnania lying near the Aetolian border were conglomerated into fewer, larger settlements. Still, border conflicts with the Aetolians were frequent, and led to Acarnania's territory being partitioned between Aetolia and Epirus, c. 250 BC. After the fall of the king of Epirus, the Acarnanian territory that had been given to Epirus regained its independence, and gained Leucas from Epirus, which became the capital of the region. Acarnania allied itself with Philip V of Macedon against Rome in 200 BC, although it lost Leucas because of this, and the city of Thyrreion was anointed the new capital. In the 1st century BC, Acarnania suffered greatly at the hands of pirates, and in Rome's civil wars. Afterwards, the towns and settlements of Acarnania fell under the rule of Nicopolis. Byzantine When the Byzantine Empire broke up (1204), Acarnania passed to the Despotate of Epirus and in 1348 it was conquered by Serbia. Then in 1480 it fell to the Ottoman Empire. Since 1832 it has been part of Greece.
  13. 13. P a g e | 13 Acropolis of Athens From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia UNESCO World Heritage Site Acropolis of Athens Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List The Parthenon Reconstruction of the Acropolis and Areios Pagos in Athens, Leo von Klenze, 1846 The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens, containing the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis comes from the Greek words ἄκρον (akron, "edge, extremity") and πόλις (polis, "city"). Although there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles (c. 495 – 429 BC) in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important buildings including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike. The Parthenon and the other buildings were seriously damaged during the 1687 siege by the Venetians in the Morean War when the Parthenon was being used for gunpowder storage and was hit by a cannonball The Acropolis was formally proclaimed as the preeminent monument on the European Cultural Heritage list of monuments on 26 March 2007.[5] The Propylaea The Erechtheum View of the Acropolis from the Agora.
  14. 14. 1. Parthenon 2. Old Temple of Athena 3. Erechtheum 4. Statue of Athena Promachos 5. Propylaea 6. Temple of Athena Nike 7. Eleusinion 8. Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia or 9. Chalkotheke 10. Pandroseion 11. Arrephorion The naturally fortified site of the Acropolis is accessible only from the west. Both the Mycenaean fortress and ancient sanctuary were accessed from here, just like the modern archaeological site is today. The hill was first fortified in the Mycenaean period and traces of this early wall are still visible, particularly to the southeast of the Propylaia. The walls visible to this day were erected after the Persian Wars in the first half of the fifth century BC, under Themistokles (north wall) and Kimon (south wall). Alterations were made under Perikles and again in later times, when the Acropolis became the stronghold of the city. The sacred rock is approached from the West through the Beule gate, one of the two gates built after the third century AD Heruli Athena Nike. The visitor then approaches the Propylaia, the monumental entrance to the sanctuary, built in Classical times by architect Mnesikles. The temple of Athena Nike, built c. 420 BC by Kallikrates, dominates the bastion to the south of the Propylaia. Near the temple was the shrine of Aphrodite Pandemos, of which only part of the epistyle is preserved. Opposite the north wing of the Propylaia is a tall rectangular pedestal known as the pedestal Agrippas, because it once supported an offering by the city of Athens to Marcus Agrippas, son in-law of Augustus. Through the Propylaia one enters the sanctuary proper with its great masterpieces of ancient Greek architecture built primarily in the f hallmark of ancient Greek civilization, is indeed the most imposing of all. Dedicated to Athena Parthenos, it was erected under Perikles replacing two earlier temples dedicated to the same goddess. Between the Parthenon and the Propylaia, along the south wall, carved on bedrock, are the traces of two buildings of the fifth century BC, the Brauronion, a shrine dedicated to Artemis Brauronia, and the Chalkotheke, a building that once contained votive offerings o bronze. East of the Parthenon is a small circular temple of 27 BC, dedicated to Augustus and Rome. At the highest point, on the east side of the hill, carved on bedrock, are the traces of Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia or Brauroneion 12. Altar of Athena 13. Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus 14. Sanctuary of Pandion 15. Odeon of Herodes Atticus 16. Stoa of Eumenes 17. Sanctuary of Asclepius or 18. Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus 19. Odeon of Pericles 20. Temenos of Dionysus Eleuthereus 21. Aglaureion The naturally fortified site of the Acropolis is accessible only from the west. Both the Mycenaean fortress and ancient sanctuary were accessed from here, just like the modern archaeological site is today. The hill was first fortified in the od and traces of this early wall are still visible, particularly to the southeast of the Propylaia. The walls visible to this day were erected after the Persian Wars in the first half of the fifth century BC, under Themistokles (north wall) h wall). Alterations were made under Perikles and again in later times, when the Acropolis became the The sacred rock is approached from the West through the Beule gate, one of the two gates built after the third century AD Herulian invasion, or through a small door under the temple of Athena Nike. The visitor then approaches the Propylaia, the monumental entrance to the sanctuary, built in Classical times by architect Mnesikles. The temple of Athena Nike, built c. rates, dominates the bastion to the south of the Propylaia. Near the temple was the shrine of Aphrodite Pandemos, of which only part of the epistyle is preserved. Opposite the north wing of the Propylaia is a tall rectangular pedestal known as the pedestal Agrippas, because it once supported an offering by the city of Athens to Marcus Agrippas, son Through the Propylaia one enters the sanctuary proper with its great masterpieces of ancient Greek architecture built primarily in the fifth century under Perikles. The Parthenon, the hallmark of ancient Greek civilization, is indeed the most imposing of all. Dedicated to Athena Parthenos, it was erected under Perikles replacing two earlier temples dedicated to the same e Parthenon and the Propylaia, along the south wall, carved on bedrock, are the traces of two buildings of the fifth century BC, the Brauronion, a shrine dedicated to Artemis Brauronia, and the Chalkotheke, a building that once contained votive offerings o bronze. East of the Parthenon is a small circular temple of 27 BC, dedicated to Augustus and Rome. At the highest point, on the east side of the hill, carved on bedrock, are the traces of Aerial photo of Acropolis rock P a g e | 14 Sanctuary of Zeus Polieus Sanctuary of Pandion Odeon of Herodes Atticus Sanctuary of Asclepius or Asclepieion nysus Eleuthereus Temenos of Dionysus Eleuthereus The sacred rock is approached from the West through the Beule gate, one of the two gates an invasion, or through a small door under the temple of Athena Nike. The visitor then approaches the Propylaia, the monumental entrance to the sanctuary, built in Classical times by architect Mnesikles. The temple of Athena Nike, built c. rates, dominates the bastion to the south of the Propylaia. Near the temple was the shrine of Aphrodite Pandemos, of which only part of the epistyle is preserved. Opposite the north wing of the Propylaia is a tall rectangular pedestal known as the pedestal of Agrippas, because it once supported an offering by the city of Athens to Marcus Agrippas, son- Through the Propylaia one enters the sanctuary proper with its great masterpieces of ancient ifth century under Perikles. The Parthenon, the hallmark of ancient Greek civilization, is indeed the most imposing of all. Dedicated to Athena Parthenos, it was erected under Perikles replacing two earlier temples dedicated to the same e Parthenon and the Propylaia, along the south wall, carved on bedrock, are the traces of two buildings of the fifth century BC, the Brauronion, a shrine dedicated to Artemis Brauronia, and the Chalkotheke, a building that once contained votive offerings of bronze. East of the Parthenon is a small circular temple of 27 BC, dedicated to Augustus and Rome. At the highest point, on the east side of the hill, carved on bedrock, are the traces of Aerial photo of Acropolis rock
  15. 15. P a g e | 15 the shrine of Zeus Polieus, while the current museum occupies the site of a shrine dedicated to the local hero Pandion. On the north side of the hill is the Erechtheion, the Ionic temple of Athena and Poseidon-Erechtheus with its famous porch of the Karyatides. Along the south wall of the Erechtheion are the foundations of the ?Old Temple?, the sixth century Doric temple of Athena Polias, destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC, repaired and finally burnt down in 406 BC. Northwest of the Erechtheion, along the north wall of the Acropolis, is the Arrhephorion, a small square building where the Arrhephoroi lived. These young women weaved the peplos of the goddess for the Panathenaic festival and took part in initiation rituals. The sacred rock was dedicated to the goddess Athena but its slopes were taken over by various other cults. A number of caves on the precipitous northern slope were used as shrines and were approached by a peripatos, or path, one kilometre long, which surrounded the rocky crag all the way to the southern slope with its many shrines and other important monuments. History Southwest view of Acropolis rock with the south slope The greatest and finest sanctuary of ancient Athens, dedicated primarily to its patron, the goddess Athena, dominates the centre of the modern city from the rocky crag known as the Acropolis. The most celebrated myths of ancient Athens, its greatest religious festivals, earliest cults and several decisive events in the city's history are all connected to this sacred precinct. The monuments of the Acropolis stand in harmony with their natural setting. These unique masterpieces of ancient architecture combine different orders and styles of Classical art in a most innovative manner and have influenced art and culture for many centuries. The Acropolis of the fifth century BC is the most accurate reflection of the splendour, power and wealth of Athens at its greatest peak, the golden age of Perikles. Pottery sherds of the Neolithic period (4000/3500-3000 BC) and, from near the Erechtheion, of the Early and Middle Bronze Age, show that the hill was inhabited from a very early period. A fortification wall was built around it in the thirteenth century BC and the citadel became the centre of a Mycenaean kingdom. This early fortification is partially preserved among the later monuments and its history can be traced fairly accurately. The Acropolis became a sacred precinct in the eighth century BC with the establishment of the cult of Athena Polias, whose temple stood at the northeast side of the hill. The sanctuary flourished under Peisistratos in the mid- sixth century BC, when the Panathinaia, the city's greatest religious festival, was established and the first monumental buildings of the Acropolis erected, among them the so-called “Old temple” and the Hekatompedos, the predecessor of the Parthenon, both dedicated to Athena. The shrine of Artemis Brauronia and the first monumental propylon also date to this period. Numerous opulent votive offerings, such as marble korai and horsemen, bronze and terracotta statuettes, were dedicated to the sanctuary. Several of these bear inscriptions that show the great importance of Athena's cult in the Archaic period. After the Athenians defeated the Persians at Marathon, in 490 BC, they began building a very large temple, the so-called Pre-Parthenon. This temple was still unfinished when the Persians invaded Attica in 480 BC, pillaged the Acropolis and set fire to its monuments. The Athenians buried the surviving sculptures and votive offerings inside natural cavities of the sacred rock, thus forming artificial terraces, and fortified the Acropolis with two new walls, the wall of Themistokles along the northern side and that of Kimon on the south. Several architectural elements of the ruined temples were incorporated in the northern wall and are still visible today. In the mid-fifth century BC, when the Acropolis became the seat of the Athenian League and Athens was the greatest cultural centre of its time, Perikles initiated an ambitious building project which lasted the entire second half of the fifth century BC. Athenians and foreigners alike worked on this project, receiving a salary of one drachma a day. The most important buildings visible on the Acropolis today - that is, the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike, were erected during this period under the supervision of the greatest architects, sculptors and artists of their time. The temples on the north side of the Acropolis housed primarily the earlier Athenian cults and those of the Olympian gods, while the southern part of the Acropolis was dedicated to the cult of Athena in her many qualities: as Polias (patron of the city), Parthenos,
  16. 16. P a g e | 16 Pallas, Promachos (goddess of war), Ergane (goddess of manual labour) and Nike (Victory). After the end of the Peloponnesian war in 404 BC and until the first century BC no other important buildings were erected on the Acropolis. In 27 BC a small temple dedicated to Augustus and Rome was built east of the Parthenon. In Roman times, although other Greek sanctuaries were pillaged and damaged, the Acropolis retained its prestige and continued to attract the opulent votive offerings of the faithful. After the invasion of the Herulians in the third century AD, a new fortification wall was built, with two gates on the west side. One of these, the so-called Beul? Gate, named after the nineteenth century French archaeologist who investigated it, is preserved to this day. In subsequent centuries the monuments of the Acropolis suffered from both natural causes and human intervention. After the establishment of Christianity and especially in the sixth century AD the temples were converted into Christian churches. The Parthenon was dedicated to Parthenos Maria (the Virgin Mary), was later re-named Panagia Athiniotissa (Virgin of Athens) and served as the city's cathedral in the eleventh century. The Erechtheion was dedicated to the Sotiras (Saviour) or the Panagia, the temple of Athena Nike became a chapel and the Propylaia an episcopal residence. The Acropolis became the fortress of the medieval city. Under Frankish occupation (1204- 1456) the Propylaia were converted into a residence for the Frankish ruler and in the Ottoman period (1456-1833) into the Turkish garrison headquarters. The Venetians under F. Morozini besieged the Acropolis in 1687 and on September 26th bombarded and destroyed the Parthenon, which then served as a munitions store. Lord Elgin caused further serious damage in 1801-1802 by looting the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon, the temple of Athena Nike and the Erechtheion. The Acropolis was handed over to the Greeks in 1822, during the Greek War of Independence, and Odysseas Androutsos became its first Greek garrison commander. After the liberation of Greece, the monuments of the Acropolis came under the care of the newly founded Greek state. Limited investigation took place in 1835 and 1837, while in 1885-1890 the site was systematically excavated under P. Kavvadias. In the early twentieth century N. Balanos headed the first large-scale restoration project. A Committee for the Conservation of the Monuments on the Acropolis was created in 1975 with the aim to plan and undertake large-scale conservation and restoration on the Acropolis. The project, conducted by the Service of Restoration of the Monuments of the Acropolis in collaboration with the First Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, is still in progress. Author Ioanna Venieri, archaeologist

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