Annex 10 : Estimates of external costs
External Costs of Transport in EU-15 1991 by Type of Effect (in 1000 million ECU/a)
ROAD RAIL AVIATION SHIP. TOTAL
Cars Buses Motor Freight Pass. Freight Pass. Freight Freight Pass. Freight
Accidents 106 4.2 16 21 0.5 0.2 * * * 126 22
Noise 15 1.9 4.4 12 0.9 1.2 2.1 0.7 * 24 14
Air Pollution & 44 3 0.9 23 1.4 0.5 10.3 3.3 0.7 59 27
Total 164 9.1 21 56 2.8 1.8 12 4.0 0.7 209 63
Cars1 Buses1 Freight2 Pass.1 Freight2 Pass.1 Freight2 Freight2
Accidents 32.3 9.4 22.2 1.9 0.9 * * *
Noise 4.5 4.2 12.7 3.1 4.7 3.0 16.5 *
Air Pollution & 13.2 6.8 23.6 5 1.8 14.8 76.8 6.1
Total 50.1 20.4 58.4 10 7.3 17.8 93.2 6.1
Source : INFRAS/IWW (1995)
* Statistics not available
Including Switzerland and Norway
Including climate change
Annex 11 : List of studies to be launched.
List of studies to be launched by the Commission to analyse issues discussed in this Green Paper :
- A review of possible obstacles towards a cost internalisation policy in existing Community
- Measuring road infrastructure capital and maintenance costs in the European Union: methodologies,
evidence and cost allocation options. Including principles for detailed accounts on transport fiscality.
- Infrastructure cost imputation for inland waterway transport.
- Railway infrastructure : cost imputation and charging.
- An electronic kilometre charge for heavy goods vehicles.
- Potential for bringing accident cost closer to the individual through insurance premiums.
- Internalising external costs in transport : consequences for industry.
In addition, many of the issues discussed in this Green Paper are already analysed in the EU's Fourth
Framework Programme for Research and Development (notably the Joule, Environment and Transport
Research Programmes). The results of this programme will be made available on completion of the
individual research projects. The following work programme tasks in the Transport Research Programme are
relevant to pricing:-
(a) Strategic Research Sector
Economics of transport systems :
Task 14: Methodologies for valuation of transport systems. (1st Call)
Task 15: Pricing of transport systems (impacts of alternative pricing policies on transport demand
and modal split). (1st Call)
Task 16: Financing of infrastructure investments. (2nd Call)
Task 17: Economic impact assessment of transport sector activities on Member States' economy.
Developing intermodality :
Task 20: Methodology for strategic multimodal/intermodal modelling. (1st Call)
Task 21: Policy instruments for improved intermodality and optimum modal split. (1st Call)
(b) Road transport sector
Sustainable Mobility :
Task 1: Assessment of the socio-economic and cultural factors affecting all types of road travel
demand, travel behaviour, travel patterns and cost elasticities in different Member States.
Task 2: Development of strategies designed to avoid the need for travel. (1st Call)
Task 3: Development of assessment tools, to evaluate the effects of TDM. strategies on
accessibility, economic conditions, and the environment. (1st Call)
Task 7: 'Essential' road users: their definition, assessing their levels of demand, and devising
appropriate measures to meet their needs. (1st Call)
Pricing and Financing :
Task 23: Integrated policy survey and development of policy instruments for shifting private traffic
to public transport. (1st Call)
Task 24: Specification, demonstration and evaluation of integration of pricing measures (urban and
suburban) to change modal split in urban areas, inc. the concept of congestion pricing and
evaluation of the implication of different fee structures. (1st Call)
Task 25: Study on financing schemes for Urban Transport Systems with emphasis on the relation
between real costs and their actual financial treatment. (3rd Call )
Task 26: Development of a European guide (methodology) for the evaluation of real transport
costs. (3rd Call)
Task 27: Investigation of the opportunities for the private sector to contribute to the optimisation
of the Urban Public Transport system. (2nd Call)