Dictionary Skills


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Dictionary Skills

  1. 1. Dictionary Skills How to make best use of Dictionary ?
  2. 2. Meaning of Dictionary: Oxford English Dict. <ul><li>n. book explaining, usu. in alphabetical order , words of a language, or giving their equivalent in another language; reference book of words and topics of subjects arranged in alphabetical order. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dictionary: its meaning… <ul><li>It is primarily a book of reference, but a book worth studying. </li></ul><ul><li>It is to supply much more than just meanings and spellings. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a wealth of information. </li></ul><ul><li>It records the changes in vocabulary. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Philology > Etymology… <ul><li>Philology is the name given to the science of languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Etymology deals with the history of words. </li></ul><ul><li>A few examples… Canter, Boycott, Assassin. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Etymology <ul><li>Origin of words: </li></ul><ul><li>Assassin: Benzir Bhutto was assassinated on 27 th December, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Originated from hashshashim or hashish-eater. </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish contains intoxicating properties and was supplied to the fanatical Muslims to kill Christians during Crusades. </li></ul>
  6. 6. It enriches Vocabulary… <ul><li>A good vocabulary is one of the hall-marks of an educated person, and a priceless possession both in business and in social life. </li></ul><ul><li>How to acquire it? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Acquire vocabulary from… <ul><li>Conversation, Listening radio/TV/audio track, Reading …. And … </li></ul><ul><li>Regular use of the DICTIONARY… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Don’t forget… <ul><li>It is not enough to know only what a word means…. </li></ul><ul><li>One must be able to use it in conversation and writing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dictionary Plan <ul><li>Each and every dictionary has its unique plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Read first a few pages of dictionary to understand dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction explains the plan of dictionary. </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Dictionary helps? <ul><li>Accentuation: Stress pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to learn which syllable take stress (it is indicated by a dash or dot placed immediately after the stressed syllable). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Transfer of stress form one syllable to another sometimes alter the grammatical functions as well as the meaning of a word. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, </li></ul><ul><li>ab’stract, with stress on first syllable, is a noun and means a summary , while abstract’, the stress on the second syllable, is a verb and means to take away </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hymonyms and Paronyms <ul><li>Another class of words is frequent source of trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Words similar in sound but different in meaning – Hymonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Words similar in from but different in meaning or use – Paronyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Lets discuss some examples…. </li></ul><ul><li>WWYP – work with your partners…. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some examples: <ul><li>Bear – Bare – Beer </li></ul><ul><li>Foul –Fawl </li></ul><ul><li>Alter – altar </li></ul><ul><li>Antic – Antique </li></ul><ul><li>Birth – Berth </li></ul><ul><li>Bell – Bail </li></ul><ul><li>Beach – Beech – Bitch </li></ul><ul><li>Queue – cue </li></ul><ul><li>Desert – Dessert </li></ul><ul><li>Dew – due </li></ul><ul><li>Goal – Gaol </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet – magnate </li></ul><ul><li>Patrol – petrol </li></ul><ul><li>Prey – pray </li></ul><ul><li>Whether - weather </li></ul>
  14. 14. Some more examples… <ul><li>Wait – weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sick- seek </li></ul><ul><li>Sun – son </li></ul><ul><li>Week – weak </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary – stationery </li></ul><ul><li>Storey – story </li></ul><ul><li>Sea – see </li></ul><ul><li>Write – right – wright – rite </li></ul><ul><li>Seen – sin – scene </li></ul><ul><li>Herd – heard </li></ul><ul><li>Hart – heart </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lets make use of Dictionary… <ul><li>Distinguish the meaning of the words forming each of the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate – alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Beside – besides </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit – illicit </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrant – immigrant </li></ul><ul><li>Credible – creditable </li></ul><ul><li>Human – humane </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial - industrious </li></ul>
  16. 16. Etymology… <ul><li>Write down about the origin of the following terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue, commerce, creditor, importer, insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Messrs, mortgage, prospectus, quotation, transport </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parts of Speech <ul><li>Noun </li></ul><ul><li>Verb </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>Write four sentence with ‘SUCCESS’ using it as the above mentioned parts of speech in each sentence: </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Success always comes after hard work. (Noun) </li></ul><ul><li>He is a successful businessman. (Adj) </li></ul><ul><li>India did not succeed in defeating. (Verb) Australia, thanks to Umpires. </li></ul><ul><li>He successfully passed B.C.A.(Adverb) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Light <ul><li>The sun gives as light . (noun) </li></ul><ul><li>A light purse makes a heavy heart. (Adj) </li></ul><ul><li>We need torch to light us on our way. (verb) </li></ul><ul><li>He treated it in light hearted manner. (Adv) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The need for exactness… <ul><li>Ability to choose and use the right words depends upon the range of one’s vocabulary, and this will be adequate only if opportunities are taken to refer good dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Words change their meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>See this example: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Variants of word ‘KILL’… <ul><li>He was slain on the battlefield. </li></ul><ul><li>The robbers killed him and looted his property. </li></ul><ul><li>He was murdered in cold blood. </li></ul><ul><li>All the sheep were slaughtered . </li></ul><ul><li>The criminal was executed . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Confusing words… <ul><li>Do not confuse this… </li></ul><ul><li>Accept (to receive, agree) </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve (to attain by effort) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquaint ( to make aware) </li></ul><ul><li>Address (formal, and may be written) </li></ul><ul><li>With this… </li></ul><ul><li>Except (to exclude) </li></ul><ul><li>Get, reach ( to obtain, possibly without effort) </li></ul><ul><li>Inform ( to tell) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech ( less formal, and presumed to be spoken) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Online Dctionary… <ul><li>www.dictionary.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.thefreedictionary.com </li></ul><ul><li>How to search good dictionaries on internet? </li></ul><ul><li>How to use computer dictionaries? </li></ul><ul><li>Encarta, Advance Learners 7 th Ed & Oxford Genie. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thank You <ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Dilip Barad </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of English </li></ul><ul><li>Bhavnagar University </li></ul><ul><li>Bhavnagar – Gujarat </li></ul><ul><li>India. </li></ul>