CALL - Computer Assisted Language Learning


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CALL - Computer Assisted Language Learning

  1. 1. CALL Prepared by Dr. Dr. Dilip Barad, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar. Gujarat – INDIA. INDIA. 1
  2. 2.  Grammar Method ( It failed b’coz importance given to grammar and not language. Knowledge of language was taught but not language. More stress was given to Read & Write; not to Speak & Listen)  Direct Method (even today Native teachers of ESL/EFL give importance to this method. Minimal/No use of first language to teach SL/FL) 2
  3. 3.  Situational Method: (This can be adopted with DM. Build around situation. Situation based learning.)  Translation Method / Bilingual method: (Each word, phrase, sentence is translated in ML/FL. Situations are also used.)  Interlingual Method: (Prof. Elango, in Plenary Session at HMP.): Context familiarization is taken care by L1 – reduces the burden of learning – mixture of L1 and L2. 3
  4. 4.  Learners learn form ‘all’ teachers, not only from English Teachers.  Dynamic use of language – Native speakers cannot do this…  Creative use of Language – Hinglish  Hinglish – blend of Hindi and English 4
  5. 5.  The title of Binoo K. John's new study of the language, quot;Entry From Backside Onlyquot; (a sign commonly seen in alleyways) misleadingly suggests this will be another exercise in ridicule. Instead it is a celebration.  In quot;The Queen's Hinglish,quot; another recent book on the theme, Baljinder K. Mahal writes that more people speak English in South Asia than in Britain and North America combined, with India alone accounting for more than 350 million English speakers. 5
  6. 6.  quot;People used to attach a snob value to British English and received pronunciation. Today no one bothers about that. We are much more concerned about a functional English“.  quot;The purists - as they always do - have lost the battle, Hinglish, once seen as the lingo of the uneducated masses, is now trendy - the language of the movers and shakers.quot; B.K.Mahal – The Queen’s Hinglish 6
  7. 7.  quot;Now it's much more about how people on the street talk, a mix of Hindi and English. We are still moving away from memories of being a colony, towards being a nation of our own. This is part of that.“Nima Namkhu, senior creative director of Publicis in Delhi.  Some of the perceived shortcomings of Indian English can be blamed directly on the English colonizers, according to another recent book, quot;Indlish,quot; by Jyoti Sanyal 7
  8. 8. prepone (the opposite of postpone, to  Words like bring forward), or airdash (to travel by plane at short notice) or eve-teasing (for sexual harassment) or baby boy (to give the gender of newly born child) are spreading internationally.  English to USA  Indian English: Some humorous examples – some creative use of English… 8
  9. 9.  One Girl student was daily giving false excuses to her professor for not submitting the Laboratory Record. One day the professor lost his patience. Infront of the entire class, he shouted at her-- “ Yesterday you lie with me, today you lie with me. If tomorrow you lie with me once again, I’ll show you!!!!!!!!!. 9
  10. 10.  CALL is not a method.  CALL materials are tools for learning.  The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching.  CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student-centered learning material, which promotes self-paced learning. 10
  11. 11.  Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of computer-based learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualized learning. 11
  12. 12.  Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) originates from CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction), where computers were first viewed as an aid for teachers.  The philosophy CALL is more student-centered with the lessons allowing the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. 12
  13. 13.  It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process.  CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms.  It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency. 13
  14. 14.  … meant to supplement face-to-face language instruction, not replace it.  … also known as TALL, TELL, CALI etc. 14
  15. 15.  ICT in language teaching and learning encompasses many different types of software applications. The applications tend to fall into two distinct types:  1. Generic software applications  2. CALL software applications 15
  16. 16.  These are multi-purpose programs that are not designed specifically for language teaching and learning. These include: Word-processors such as Microsoft Word.  Presentation software such as PowerPoint:  Email packages.  Web browsers: Using the World Wide Web in  language teaching and learning. 16
  17. 17.  These are programs designed specifically to promote language learning. They usually include a substantial degree of interactivity.  For example, Language Lab softwares, CD-ROMS etc. 17
  18. 18.  Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be defined as quot;the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning’. Graham Davies, Thames Valley University, UK . 18
  19. 19.  Let us take bird’s eye view of the HISTORY of CALL… 19
  20. 20.  CALL’s origins and development trace back to the 1960’s (Delcloque 2000). Since the early days CALL has developed into a symbiotic relationship between the development of technology and pedagogy. 20
  21. 21.  Warschauer (1996) divided the development of CALL into three phases: 1. Behavioristic CALL, 2. Communicative CALL and 3. Integrative CALL (Multimedia and the Internet). 21
  22. 22.  Bax (2003) perceived the three phases as Restricted, 1. 2. Open and 3. Integrated – --- and there have been several other attempts to categorize the history of CALL 22
  23. 23.  … is defined by the then-dominant behavioristic theories of learning of Skinner as well as the technological limitations of computers from the 1960’s to the early 1980’s.  Because repeated exposure to material was considered to be beneficial or even essential, computers were considered ideal for this aspect of learning as the machines did not get bored or impatient with learners and the computer could present material to the student as his/her own pace and even adapt the drills to the level of the student. 23
  24. 24.  … is based on the communicative approach that became prominent in the late 1970’s and 1980’s. In the communicative approach, the focus is on using the language rather than analysis of the language, teaching grammar implicitly. It also allowed for originality and flexibility in student output of language. 24
  25. 25.  … starting from the 1990’s, tries to address these criticisms by integrating the teaching of language skills into tasks or projects to provide direction and coherence. It also coincides with the development of multimedia technology (providing text, graphics, sound and animation) as well as computer-mediated communication.  CALL in this period saw a definitive shift of use of computer for drill and tutorial purposes (computer as a finite authoritative base for a specific task) to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom and reorganizing instruction. 25
  26. 26.  The World Wide Web was launched in 1992 reaching the general public by 1993, opening up new possibilities in CALL.  Internet activities vary considerably, from online versions of software (where the learner interacts with a networked computer), to computer- mediated communication (where the learner interacts with other people via the computer), to applications that combine these two elements. 26
  27. 27.  First, let us see MCALL  Use of Audio / Video clips.  Interlingual method – Here we will listen and see clippings in Hindi and English. Language learning : Vocabulary: Synonyms, Antonyms  & Etymology Reading  Grammar  Role Play: Speaking Task  Translation  Fluency task  27
  28. 28.  Web platforms used in this experiment:  Wikieducator  Moodle • Other web-resources to be used: • Hot potatoes, SL, YouTube/Ustream, Blogs, Social networking sites like facebook, orkut, Hi5, ning, netlog etc. 28
  29. 29. Warschauer M. (1996) quot;Computer Assisted Language Learning: an Introductionquot;. In  Fotos S. (ed.) Multimedia language teaching, Tokyo: Logos International: 3-20.  Athelstan (1995) Technology and Language Learning Yearbook Vol 6, Houston, TX:  Athelstan. Dunkel P. (ed.) (1991) Computer-assisted language learning and testing: research issues  and practice, New York, NY: Newbury House. Hardisty D. & Windeatt S. (1989) CALL, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Healey D. (1995) Something to do on Tuesday, Houston: Athelstan.  Healey D. & Johnson N. (eds.) (1995) 1995 TESOL CALL interest section software list,  Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications. AACE (Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education):  CALICO:  EUROCALL:  ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education):  29