CALL Prepared by
Dr. Dilip Barad, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar University,
Bhavnagar. Gujarat – INDIA.
Grammar Method ( It failed b’coz importance given to
grammar and not language. Knowledge of language
was taught but not language. More stress was given
to Read & Write; not to Speak & Listen)
Direct Method (even today Native teachers of ESL/EFL
give importance to this method. Minimal/No use of
first language to teach SL/FL)
Situational Method: (This can be adopted with DM.
Build around situation. Situation based learning.)
Translation Method / Bilingual method: (Each word,
phrase, sentence is translated in ML/FL. Situations are
Interlingual Method: (Prof. Elango, in Plenary Session
at HMP.): Context familiarization is taken care by L1 –
reduces the burden of learning – mixture of L1 and L2.
Learners learn form ‘all’ teachers, not only from
Dynamic use of language – Native speakers cannot do
Creative use of Language – Hinglish
Hinglish – blend of Hindi and English
The title of Binoo K. John's new study of the language,
quot;Entry From Backside Onlyquot; (a sign commonly seen in
alleyways) misleadingly suggests this will be another
exercise in ridicule. Instead it is a celebration.
In quot;The Queen's Hinglish,quot; another recent book on the
theme, Baljinder K. Mahal writes that more people
speak English in South Asia than in Britain and North
America combined, with India alone accounting for
more than 350 million English speakers.
quot;People used to attach a snob value to British English
and received pronunciation. Today no one bothers
about that. We are much more concerned about a
quot;The purists - as they always do - have lost the battle,
Hinglish, once seen as the lingo of the uneducated
masses, is now trendy - the language of the movers
and shakers.quot; B.K.Mahal – The Queen’s Hinglish
quot;Now it's much more about how people on the street
talk, a mix of Hindi and English. We are still moving
away from memories of being a colony, towards being
a nation of our own. This is part of that.“Nima
Namkhu, senior creative director of Publicis in Delhi.
Some of the perceived shortcomings of Indian English
can be blamed directly on the English colonizers,
according to another recent book, quot;Indlish,quot; by Jyoti
prepone (the opposite of postpone, to
bring forward), or airdash (to travel by plane at
short notice) or eve-teasing (for sexual
harassment) or baby boy (to give the gender of
newly born child) are spreading internationally.
English to USA
Indian English: Some humorous examples – some
creative use of English…
One Girl student was daily giving
false excuses to her professor for
not submitting the Laboratory
Record. One day the professor lost
his patience. Infront of the entire
class, he shouted at her-- “
Yesterday you lie with me, today you
lie with me. If tomorrow you lie
with me once again, I’ll show
CALL is not a method.
CALL materials are tools for learning.
The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching.
CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the
language learning process. It is a student-centered
learning material, which promotes self-paced
learning (CALL) is a form of
computer-based learning which carries
two important features: bidirectional
learning and individualized learning.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL)
originates from CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction),
where computers were first viewed as an aid for
The philosophy CALL is more student-centered with
the lessons allowing the learners to learn on their own
using structured and/or unstructured interactive
It is a tool that helps teachers to
facilitate language learning process.
CALL can be used to reinforce what has
been learned in the classrooms.
It can also be used as remedial to help
learners with limited language
… meant to supplement face-to-face language
instruction, not replace it.
… also known as TALL, TELL, CALI etc.
ICT in language teaching and learning encompasses
many different types of software applications. The
applications tend to fall into two distinct types:
1. Generic software applications
2. CALL software applications
These are multi-purpose programs that are not
designed specifically for language teaching and
learning. These include:
Word-processors such as Microsoft Word.
Presentation software such as PowerPoint:
Web browsers: Using the World Wide Web in
language teaching and learning.
These are programs designed specifically to promote
language learning. They usually include a substantial
degree of interactivity.
For example, Language Lab softwares, CD-ROMS etc.
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may be
defined as quot;the search
for and study of
applications of the computer in
language teaching and learning’.
Graham Davies, Thames Valley
University, UK .
Let us take bird’s eye view of the HISTORY of CALL…
CALL’s origins and development trace back to the
1960’s (Delcloque 2000). Since the early days CALL has
developed into a symbiotic relationship between the
development of technology and pedagogy.
Warschauer (1996) divided the development of CALL
into three phases:
1. Behavioristic CALL,
2. Communicative CALL and
3. Integrative CALL (Multimedia and the Internet).
Bax (2003) perceived the three phases as
2. Open and
3. Integrated –
--- and there have been several other attempts to
categorize the history of CALL
… is defined by the then-dominant behavioristic
theories of learning of Skinner as well as the
technological limitations of computers from the 1960’s
to the early 1980’s.
Because repeated exposure to material was considered
to be beneficial or even essential, computers were
considered ideal for this aspect of learning as the
machines did not get bored or impatient with learners
and the computer could present material to the
student as his/her own pace and even adapt the drills
to the level of the student.
… is based on the communicative approach that
became prominent in the late 1970’s and 1980’s. In the
communicative approach, the focus is on using the
language rather than analysis of the language,
teaching grammar implicitly. It also allowed for
originality and flexibility in student output of
… starting from the 1990’s, tries to address these
criticisms by integrating the teaching of language
skills into tasks or projects to provide direction and
coherence. It also coincides with the development of
multimedia technology (providing text, graphics,
sound and animation) as well as computer-mediated
CALL in this period saw a definitive shift of use of
computer for drill and tutorial purposes (computer as
a finite authoritative base for a specific task) to a
medium for extending education beyond the
classroom and reorganizing instruction.
The World Wide Web was launched in 1992 reaching
the general public by 1993, opening up new
possibilities in CALL.
Internet activities vary considerably, from online
versions of software (where the learner interacts
with a networked computer), to computer-
mediated communication (where the learner
interacts with other people via the computer), to
applications that combine these two elements.
First, let us see MCALL
Use of Audio / Video clips.
Interlingual method – Here we will listen and see
clippings in Hindi and English.
Language learning : Vocabulary: Synonyms, Antonyms
Role Play: Speaking Task
Web platforms used in this experiment:
• Other web-resources to be used:
• Hot potatoes, SL, YouTube/Ustream, Blogs, Social
networking sites like facebook, orkut, Hi5, ning, netlog etc.
Warschauer M. (1996) quot;Computer Assisted Language Learning: an Introductionquot;. In
Fotos S. (ed.) Multimedia language teaching, Tokyo: Logos International: 3-20.
Athelstan (1995) Technology and Language Learning Yearbook Vol 6, Houston, TX:
Dunkel P. (ed.) (1991) Computer-assisted language learning and testing: research issues
and practice, New York, NY: Newbury House.
Hardisty D. & Windeatt S. (1989) CALL, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Healey D. (1995) Something to do on Tuesday, Houston: Athelstan.
Healey D. & Johnson N. (eds.) (1995) 1995 TESOL CALL interest section software list,
Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.
AACE (Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education):
ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education): http://www.iste.org