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Precision framing techniques


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Dr.Abdul Hakkim

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Precision framing techniques

  1. 1. PRECISION FARMING Dr. Abdul Hakkim, V.M., FIE Head, Department of LWRCE & Principal Investigator Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC) KCAET, Tavanur. E Mail : Mobile : 9446279626
  2. 2. Precision Farming Application of technologies and principles to manage spatial and temporal variability associated with all aspects of horticultural production. Also referred to as Hi-tech Farming Variable rate application farming Site specific farming Prescription farming etc.
  3. 3. Comparison with Traditional Agriculture Precision farming distinguishes from traditional agriculture by its level of management . Instead of managing the whole field as a single unit, management is customized for small areas within the fields (micro management concept). Manages every field operation at each location in the field, if it is technically or economically advantageous to manage at that level.
  4. 4. KEYASPECTS • Take care of each and every plant in a farmers field throughout the crop cycle • Technology enabled, Information based and decision focussed
  5. 5. Precision Farming (Modern Eco friendly Technology) Precision Farming (Modern Eco friendly Technology) Reduce stress on natural resources Leads to total quality management
  6. 6. Precision Farming- outcomes  Increased profit and sustainability  Improved product quality  Effective and efficient pest management  Energy, water and soil conservation  Surface and ground water protection
  7. 7. Precision Farming: Components  Micro Irrigation  Fertigation  Plastic mulching  Crop geometry  Integrated Pest and Disease Management  Protected Cultivation
  8. 8. Micro irrigation and Fertigation Irrigation Management through Precision Farming
  9. 9. Scope and Potential of Micro Irrigation in Kerala 1. Suitability to crops Orchards (grape vine, citrus, mango, guava etc.), coconut, vegetable crops, row crops like sugarcane, cotton etc. and flowers ( rose, jasmine etc.) 2. Savings in water Saves upto 70 percentage of water used in conventional methods. 3. Additional land area available for crop Only 5 to 6 per cent of the irrigable area lost in surface ditches. 4. High Irrigation efficiency Irrigation Efficiency is more than 90 % 5. No Evaporative losses
  10. 10. Characteristics of Micro Irrigation Systems Water is applied at a low rate Water is applied over a long period of time Water is applied at frequent intervals Water is applied near or into the plant root zone Water is applied through a low pressure delivery system (1 to 2 kg/ cm2 )
  11. 11. Micro Irrigation Systems 1. Micro sprinklers Operating pressure - 1 to 2 kg/cm2 Discharge - 36 to 140 l/hr 2. Spray Jets Operating pressure - 1 to 2 kg/cm2 Discharge - 32 to 47 l/hr 3. Drip Operating pressure - 1 to 2 kg/cm2 Discharge - 2 to 8 l/hr
  12. 12. Drip irrigation  Drip irrigation is an efficient method of providing irrigation water directly into the soil at the root zone of plants and it permits to limit the watering closely to the consumptive use of the plants.  Drip irrigation minimizes such conventional losses as deep percolation, runoff and soil evaporation.
  13. 13. Advantages of drip irrigation • Increased beneficial use of available water. • Enhanced plant growth and yield. • Retarded weed growth. • Improved application of fertilizers. • Decreased energy requirement. • Reduced operational labour. • Suitable for irrigating hilly terrain and problem soils.
  14. 14. Characteristics of Drip Irrigation System
  15. 15. Schematic Diagram of Drip Irrigation
  16. 16. Components of Drip Irrigation System 1. Pump with energy source or overhead storage tank 2. Filters (Primary filters and secondary filters) a) Hydro cyclone or centrifugal filters b) Gravel filter ( Fine gravel or coarse sand, 1-2 mm Ø) c) Screen filter ( 100- 200 mesh) / disc filters 3. Main line 40 to 110 mm HDPE or PVC pipes. 4. Sub mains 25 to 50mm HDPE or PVC pipes. 5. Laterals 12 mm or 16mm LDPE or LLDPE is most common. 6. Emitters Discharge rates : 1 l/hr, 2 l/hr, 4 l/hr, 8 l/hr and 16 l/hr 7. Other control and monitoring equipment
  18. 18. SAND FILTER
  20. 20. Cover Filter Element Disc Filter
  21. 21. On-line Lateral
  22. 22. In-line Lateral
  23. 23. Emitters  Online emitters Fixed by punching a hole on the lateral and fixing it
  24. 24. On line drippers
  25. 25. Inline emitters Fixed by cutting the lateral line and fixing the emitters in between
  26. 26. Fertigation Simultaneous application of solubles (plant nutrients) and water through an irrigation system is called fertigation. Efficient and precise application of inputs and practice good environmental stewardship Saves water, energy and nutrients. With drip/pressurised irrigation, fertigation is not optional, but absolutely necessary.
  28. 28. FERTILIZATION v/s FERTIGATIONFERTILIZATION v/s FERTIGATION Conventional fertilization Plants get a larger dosage of fertilizer than they require at the time it is applied. Losses occur. Fertigation Fertilizers are applied according the need for nutrients, following the uptake rate of the crop.
  29. 29. Fertigation-Advantages Uniform application of fertilizers  Placement in root zone Quick and convenient method Saves fertilizer Frequent application is possible Possibility of application in different grades to suit the stage of crop Micronutrients application along with NPK Save groundwater pollution
  30. 30. DRIP FERTIGATION TECHNOLOGY Provides better root zone environment Water Air Air K K K N N N N N N N K Water
  31. 31. Fertigation through Ventury
  32. 32. Banana under Drip Fertigation
  33. 33. Drip Fertigation in papaya
  34. 34. Plastic Mulching Prepare the raise bed Spread the lateral pipes Spread mulching sheet on bed Cover both end of the sheet with soil
  35. 35. Make appropriate holes Spray necessary chemicals over seedlings Transplant seedlings
  36. 36. Reduce fertilizer leaching Fewer weed problems
  37. 37. Excellent Growth of White Roots under Mulch Soil becomes less compact & there is more aeration nearby the roots Better Weed Management Coloured mulch reduce Aphids and White Flies attack
  38. 38. Photo selective mulch films White / Black Mulch Films The black color facing the soil, blocks visible light transmission, preventing Weed germination under the mulch. The White color facing up, reflects 65% of the PAR radiation, pushing photosynthesis, reflecting 8% of the UV radiation & cools the soil more than other colors
  39. 39. Low Quality & Non Guaranteed Mulch Film can ruin your Investments and Planning Seal the Mulch immediately in case of any Physical Damages, as it might expose the top Root Zone
  40. 40. Mulching in poly house
  41. 41. Methods to install the Mulch in Existing Plantations
  42. 42. Benefits of Mulching  Moisture Conservation, Save fertilizers.  Eliminates Weed, soil’s fertility is fully devoted to crops.  Integrated Pest Management by Sunlight reflection.  Controls Soil Temperature.  Conserves natural earth gases.  Covered soil is loose & so root growth is uninterrupted & fast thus improves plant’s Photosynthesis activity.  Protects Soil wash out in case of excess rains or floods.  Loose soil is not splashed on crops so they remain fresh for longer.
  43. 43. Precision Farming The future of Water Conservation