RANA MUHAMMAD DILAWAR HIRA ZAIB HAIDER ALI SIAL ANUM FAROOQ
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian ocean, the gulf of Myanamar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the Maldives The country is famous for the production and export of tea, coffee, coconuts, rubber and cinnamon, the last of which is native to the country.] The natural beauty of Sri Lanka has led to the title The Pearl of the Indian Ocean The island is laden with lush tropical forests, white beaches and diverse landscapes with rich biodiversity. As of 2010, Sri Lanka was one of the fastest growing economies of the world. Its stock exchange was Asias best performing stock market during 2009 and 2010. Administrative Divisions of Sri Lanka Area Province Capital Area (km²) Population (sq mi) Central Kandy 5,674 2,191 2,423,966 Eastern Trincomalee 9,996 3,859 1,460,939 North Central Anuradhapura 10,714 4,137 1,104,664 Northern Jaffna 8,884 3,430 1,311,776 North Western Kurunegala 7,812 3,016 2,169,892 Sabaragamuwa Ratnapura 4,902 1,893 1,801,331 Southern Galle 5,559 2,146 2,278,271 Uva Badulla 8,488 3,277 1,177,358 Western Colombo 3,709 1,432 5,361,200
The LTTE (Liberation Tiger Of Tamil Eelam), a separatist militant organization formally based in North Sri lanka. Founded in may 1976 by Vellupillai Prabhakaran doomed to failure because of several factor in terms of revolutionary warfare. This campaign evolved into Sri lankan civil war which ran from 1983-2009.At the height of there power they posed a well developed militia and carried out high profile attack. More than 60,000 people have died since the conflict began in 1972. Prior to LTTE defeat Sri Lankan government is spending 40% of their buget in war against LTTE. Only terrorist organization to kill two world leaders Sri lankan president Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993 Former Indian P.M Rajiv Gandhi in 1991
Time period ; july 23,1983-may18,2009 Location ; Sri lanka Area ; North-East Sri lanka Annual Revenue ; $200-300 million USD, prior to the military defeat Area under control ; Tamil Tigers, with control of 15,000 km2 Troops ; LTTE has 3 brigades ( 4000) and some auxillary forces. Total strength may be around 15,000 -18,000. But battle-worth number may be around 6,000. Means Of Revenue ; Donations from expatriate Tamils, Extortion, Shipping, Sales of weapons,Taxes under LTTE controlled areas. Current status ; Inactive. Militarily defeated in May 2009. Proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries.
Issues such as national self determination university admission equity in land settlement quest for the safety in an independent state. Thousand of people joined this movement Objectives•The LTTE aimed to create a separate homeland for the Tamils known as theTamil Eelam (State) in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka•The Tigers control most of the areas in the Northern Province but alsoconduct operations throughout the island.
The powerful presence of an international link was a major morale boost for the Tamil insurgents in Sri Lanka. It was a form of recognition of their struggle both domestically and internationally. The international component enhances domestic survival and contributes to the resilience of an organization. The TULF and several other Tamil political and insurgent groups kept the campaign alive by bringing back bitter memories. The incessant waves of riots that destroyed lives and property of the Tamils were highlighted. Sinhala Sri, Sinhala Only Act, Sinhala colonization and standardization of education that had antagonized the Tamils formed the basis of the conflict.
The LTTE leadership was organized along a two-tier structure: (1 )A Military wing (2) A Subordinate political wing. Overseeing both was a central governing committee, headed by the LTTE chief, Velupillai Prabhakaran. This body had the responsibility for directing and controlling several specific subdivisions, including, An Amphibious group (the Sea Tigers headed by Soosai), An Airborne group (the Air Tigers led by Prabhakaran’s Son Charles Anthony), an elite fighting wing (known as the Charles Anthony Regiment Prabhakaran headed the LTTE power structure, as chairman of its central governing committee and ‘commander-in-chief’ of its Army. He was assisted by B. Nadesan, his political advisor, and his intelligence Chief Pottu Amman. The LTTE cadre strength dwindled since the Government’s onslaught in July 2006 and there was no specific information about its cadre strength. On December 29, 2007, the Sri Lankan Army Commander, Lt. Gen. Sarath Fonseka had said that the LTTE is left with only 3,000 cadres. The General then on January 11, 2008 speculated the total cadre strength to be about 4,500. At its peak, the organisation has cadre strength of about 18,000 areas under its controls to fill its dwindling ranks, and an estimated 1600 children were in LTTE rank. While the Vituthalai Pulikal Makalir Munani (Womens Front of the Liberation Tigers headed by Col. Vithusha) was formed in 1983, women began combat training in 1985. In October 1987, Prabhakaran set up the first training camp exclusively for women in Jaffna for the second and successive batches.. Children featured prominently in the LTTEs protracted guerilla and terrorist campaigns, and assessments by the Sri Lankan Directorate of Military Intelligence have estimated that as much as 60 per cent of the LTTEs fighters were below 18 exercise.
“Parbhakaran was one of the most effective guerrilla leaders in modern warfare – displaying the tactical prowess of Afghanistans Ahmad Shah Masoud , the ruthlessness of Osama bin Laden and the conviction of Latin American revolutionary Che Guevara.“ Straits Times Prabhakaran never developed a systematic philosophy, but did declare that his goal was Revolutionary socialism and the creation of an egalitarian society. He joined the Tamil nationalist movement in his youth and quickly established himself as a strong willed militant leader by founding the LTTE. His rare interviews, his annual Tamil Eelam Heroes Day speeches and the policies and actions of the LTTE can be taken as indicators of Prabhakaran’s philosophy and ideology. The following are important areas when considering philosophy and ideology of Prabhakaran.Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism Prabhakaran’s source of inspiration and direction was Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism , His stated and ultimate ideal was to get Tamil Eelam , recognised as a nation ,as per the U.N. Charter that guarantees the right of a people to political independence. The LTTE also proposed the formation of an Interim Self Governing Authority ,during Peace Negotiations in 2003. Former Tamil guerrilla and politician Dharmalingam Sithadthan has remarked that Prabhakarans "dedication to the cause of the Tamil Eelam was unquestionable, he was the only man in Sri Lanka who could decide if there should be war or peace." Prabhakaran was also called "Karikalan" for his bravery and his administration (Karikalan refers to a famous Chola king who ruled around 270 CE.
Suicide bombing The tamil tigers are best known for thier suicide bombings,which are carried out by squad elites. They have commited 200 attacks so far. 2009 February 09 - LTTE continues targeting Tamil civilians: suicide bomb attack at IDP rescue centre - Kilinochchi
A surface-to-air missile (SAM) or ground-to-air missile (GTAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles. It is one type of anti aircraft system; in modern armed forces missiles have replaced most other forms of dedicated anti-aircraft weaponry, with the anti aircraft cannon pushed into niche roles.
A rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) is a shoulder fired, anti tank weapon system which fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead. These warheads are affixed to a rocket motor and stabilized in flight with fins.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warefare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians (or "irregulars") use military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and less-mobile traditional army, or strike a vulnerable target, and withdraw almost immediately. Surprise and intelligence: For successful operations, surprise must be achieved by the guerrillas. If the operation has been betrayed or compromised it is usually called off immediately. Intelligence is also extremely important, and detailed knowledge of the targets dispositions, weaponry and morale is gathered before any attack. Intelligence can be harvested in several ways. Relationship with civil population: Relationships with civilian populations are influenced by whether the guerrillas operate among a hostile or friendly population. A friendly population is of immense importance to guerrilla fighters, providing shelter, supplies, financing, intelligence and recruits. The "base of the people" is thus the key lifeline of the guerrilla movement. In the early stages of the Vietnam War, American officials "discovered that several thousand supposedly government-controlled fortified hamlets were in fact controlled by Viet Cong guerrillas, who often used them for supply and rest havens. Use of terror: In some cases, the use of terrorism can be an aspect of guerrilla warfare. Terrorism is used to focus international attention on the guerrilla cause, kill opposition leaders, extort money from targets, intimidate the general population, create economic losses, and keep followers and potential defectors in line. As well, the use of terrorism can provoke the greater power to launch a disproportionate response, thus alienating a civilian population which might be sympathetic to the terrorists cause.
WithdrawalGuerrillas must plan carefully for withdrawal once an operation has been completed, or if it is going badly. Innovative method: Logistics: Guerrillas typically operate with a smaller logistical footprint compared to conventional formations; nevertheless, their logistical activities can be elaborately organized. A primary consideration is to avoid dependence on fixed bases and depots which are comparatively easy for conventional units to locate and destroy. Foreign support and sancturies: Foreign support in the form of soldiers, weapons, sanctuary, or statements of sympathy for the guerrillas is not strictly necessary, but it can greatly increase the chances of an insurgent victory.
The UK NetThe UK has always been the heart of LTTE overseas political activity. Since the riots ofJuly 1983, the LTTE has expanded into Europe from London. To make its positionsecure, the LTTE has either established, absorbed, or infiltrated a number of LTTE, LTTEfront or pro-LTTE organizations in the UKGovernment Response during war with LTTEAt a military level, the government forces continue to fight an unconventional war,in a conventional mode. The need to transform the national security doctrine,training and weaponry to meet the growing internal threat has been long felt. But,to date a bulk of Sri Lankan troops are being trained to fight across clear battlelines. The pace at which, the counter insurgency component is being developed, isslow and inadequate to meet the growing threat.
By mid 1987, over 20,000 Sri Lankan Tamil insurgents had been provided sanctuary, finance,training and weapons either by the central government, state government of Tamil Nadu or by the insurgent groups themselves. While most of the initial training was confined to Indian military and paramilitary camps in Uttara Pradesh, specialized training were imparted by the Indian instructors attached to RAW to Sri Lankan insurgents in New Delhi, Bombay andVishakhapatnam . With the Indo-Lanka Accord of July 1987, RAW assistance culminated. Rajiv Gandhi ordered the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to fight the LTTE.
The SplitThe LTTE, however, faced a vertical split in the organisation when it’s Eastern ‘Commander’ ‘Colonel’Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan aka Karuna Amman broke-away from the parent organisation andformed his own group – a military wing known as Tamil National Front and a Political wing called theTamileela Makkal Viduthalai Puligal (TMVP) in alliance with the Eelam National Democratic LiberationFront (ENDLF) - in March 2004. Karuna later joined the Government. Karuna’s deputy in TMVP,Chandrakanthan alias Pillayan, now heads TMVP and is also the Chief Monster of the EasternProvince.
The LTTE, which, at one time, controlled over 15,000 square kilometres ornearly one-fourth of the 65,332 square kilometres territory of the island nation,was finally decimated with the killing of Prabhakaran on May 18, 2009 and theGovernment officially declaring the need of Eelam War IV on May 20.Colombo is now pursuing several Governments to dismantle three broad groupsthat are now assumed to be controlling the remaining pro-LTTE internationalfactions: the US group is said to be headed by V. Rudrakumaran, the UK groupby Aruththanthai Emmanuel of the World Tamil Forum (WTF) and theNorway group by Nediyavan.
1. LTTE failure or rejection to sit at the negotiation table with firm commitments and sincerity is the gravest mistake the LTTE has ever made. Consequently, it has been paying the price for its failed militaristic approach towards the conflict.2. The most significant dynamic in shaping the affairs of the LTTE is the adoption of one-man rule, which may also be the reason for the LTTE’s dramatic failure. Interestingly, the dictatorship of Vellupillai Prabhakaran has prevented the LTTE from transforming itself into a more practical organization that could correspond effectively with the rapidly changing local and global environment3. In fact, the concentration of resources around one man is a strategic failure of the LTTE. Evidently, the LTTE’s inability to address this fundamental weakness has made it difficult to institutionalize conceptual, organizational, and operational adjustments across a diverse political and security environment. Thus, the LTTE’s resiliency, given the recent military defeats, has been greatly reduced
To counter these LTTE activities, the government needs to create a strong network of institutions and a monitoring mechanism. Specifically, an institution comprising military and civilian organizations should be established to respond to any LTTE attack and monitor military aspects of the "new LTTE," as well as to counter the LTTE propaganda, fundraising, and other activities internationally…………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………..