Tenses (Learning Materials for Indonesian Students Who Learn English Language)
VERB FOLLOWED BY GERUNDFI FAP A P R E M S D A D A K U DEC C HN N O V E I N I T E D E N E N T O O AI C S O R S J N O N M T T E D E N N TS Y T I M K O D P Y I E I P E C T S EH P D I Y T C C R T I IO T T I S N DN P T U EE A A E RT NE D
VERB FOLLOWED BY TO INFINITIVEW A H B I N I M U D A P L PROT E S TA S O E N E N E R E L R E M E X A EN K P G S E V A G C L A A I A P Y LT E I D I N E I O C R S C E LS T D W T N E H CT E E I TCE
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSEI go to school everyday.Morgan loves Syahrini forever.The sun rises in the east.What time does the film start?S + V1 + OEVERYThree Times a WeekTodayAlwaysHabitual ActionGeneral TruthSchedule and AgendaFunctions:Time Signal:Formula:
STATIVE VERBSKata kerja yang menunjukkan waktu sekarang dan tidak boleh dalam bentuk V-ing.Appear Belong Believe Forget HearHate Have Know Like LoveMean Mind Need Own OwePrefer Realize Remember Seem SeeSmell Taste Understand Want Wish
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSEListen! Justin Bieber is singing a good song.Smash Personals are eating Pizza nowI am watching Titanic tonight.Around The Time ofSpeakingFunctions:S + ( is / am / are ) + V-ing + 0NOWTONIGHTTime Signals:
EXERCISES1 Something ______(smell) very good.2 We _____(eat) dinner at seven o’clock tonight.3 He ______(practice) the piano everyday.4 They _____(drive) to school tomorrow.5 I _______(believe) in you.6 Morgan ____(have) cold.7 Bisma ____(swim) right now.8 Rangga ____(hate) smoke.9 Dicky always ____(get) up10 Raffael ____(mow) the lawn now.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSEWe have already written our report.Ratu has already read the entire book.SINCEFORALREADYTIMESIGNALS:FORMULA:S + HAVE/HAS + V3 + Ofunction:MENYATAKAN KEGIATANYANG TELAHRAMPUNG/SELESAIDILAKSANAKAN SEKARANG
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSEFina has been working in Germany for three years.Over the past few years medical doctors have beensearching for a drug to control the AIDS virus.One of my friends has been working in your company sincehe graduated.All these years, Luisa’s family has been living in wealthyFunction:Untuk menyatakansuatu kegiatan yangdimulai pada waktulampau dan sekarangmasih berlangsung dgkemungkinan masihakan terus berlangsung.Formula:S + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + V.INGTIMESIGNALS:SINCEFOR
EXERCISES1. She ____(work) here for ten years.2. Look! Somebody ____(break) that window.3. I ___(read) the book you gave me but I ____(not finish) it yet.4. “Sorry, I’m late.” “That’s all right. I ___(no wait) long.”5. Hello! I ___(clean) the window. So far I ___(clean) five of them and there are twomore to do.6. There’s a strange smell in here. You ___(cook) something?7. My brother is an actor. He ___(appear) in several films.8. I ___(lost) my key. Can you help me look for it?9. You look tired. You ___(work) hard?10. The ceiling was white. Now it’s blue. Linda ___(paint) the ceiling.
SIMPLE PAST TENSEREGULAR (beraturan)IRREGULAR (tdk beraturan)
SIMPLE PAST TENSEDewi went to Spain last year.Ika did her work last night.Function:Untukmenyatakansuatu kegiatanyang terjadi dimasa lampau.Formula:S + V2 + OTIME SIGNALS:YesterdayLast….Ago
Exercise1 Durro ___(write) her report last night.2 Tantin ___(see) the movie before.3 Evi ___(read) the newspaper already.4 Mr. Morgan ___ (work) in the same place for thirty five years, and he is planningnot to retire yet.5 We ___(not begin) to study for the test yet.6 Alvin ___(go) to the store at ten o’clock this morning.7 Raisa ___(travel) around the world.8 Kevin ___(submit) the work yesterday.9 Titin ___(call) her employers twice a week.10 We ___(not see) this movie yet.
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEUntuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedangberlangsung di waktu lampau saat kegiatan lainterjadi/menyela.Menyatakan dua kegiatan berlangsung bersamaan diwaktu lampau.Menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsungpada suatu waktu spesifik di masa lampau.FUNCTIONS:
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEUntuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedangberlangsung di waktu lampau saat kegiatan lainterjadi/menyela.SUBJECT 1 + PAST CONTINUOUS + WHEN + SUBJECT 2 + SIMPLE PASTThe engine was running when it suddenly stopped.WHEN + SUBJECT 1 + SIMPLE PAST + SUBJECT 2 + PAST CONTINUOUSWhen Aisha came home, Audrey was watching television.
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSEMenyatakan dua kegiatan berlangsung bersamaan di waktulampau.SUBJECT 1 + PAST CONTINUOUS + WHILE + SUBJECT 2 + PAST CONTINUOUSAisha was watching television while Audrey was reading a book.WHILE + SUBJECT 1 + PAST CONTINUOUS + SUBJECT 2 + PAST CONTINUOUSWhile Bisma was cooking Pasta, Morgan was dancing on the dance floor.WHILE + SUBJECT 1 + PAST CONTINUOUS + SUBJECT 2 + SIMPLE PASTWhile Raffael was watching movie, Dicky went online.
1. Prabu___(eat) dinner when his friend called.2. While Ratu was cleaning the apartment, her husband ___(sleep).3. At three o’clock this morning, Omesh ___(study).4. When Talitha arrived, the Andersons ___(have) dinner, but they stopped in order totalk to him.5. Sandra ___(go) to France last year.6. When the teacher ___(enter) the room, the students were talking.7. While Rosa was writing the report, Ucok ___(look) for more information.8. We ___(see) this movie last night.9. At one time, Mr. Saiful Bahri ___(own) this building.10. Norman ___(write) a letter to his family when his pencil ___(break).
Menyatakan suatukegiatan atautindakan yangterjadi sebelumkegiatan lain diwaktu lampau.Biasanya ada duaatau lebih kegiatanyang beriringan.Subject 1 + PAST PERFECT + BEFORE + Subject 2 + SIMPLE PASTNayla had gone to the store before she went home.BEFORE + Subject 1 + SIMPLE PAST + Subject 2 + PAST PERFECTBefore Nayla went to campus, she had had her breakfastAFTER + Subject 2 + PAST PERFECT + Subject 2 + SIMPLE PASTAfter Nayla had had her breakfast, she went to campusSubject 1 + SIMPLE PAST + AFTER + Subject 2 + PAST PERFECTNayla went to campus after she had had her breakfastTIME SIGNALS:BEFOREAFTER
Exercises1.The house was very quite when I got home. Everybody ___ (go) to bed.2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I __ (go) straight to bed.3. Sorry I’m late. The car ___ (broke) down on my way there.4. There was a car by the side of the road. It ___ (break) down and the driver wastrying to repair. So we ___ (stop) to see if we could help.5. “Was Chibi there when you arrived?” “No, he ___ (go) home.
V1 V2 V3WriteStopWroteStoppedWrittenStoppedRead Read ReadGet Got GottenWalkInsistWalkedInsistedWalkedInsistedRun Ran RunSing Sang SangWatchComeWatchedCameWatchedCome
If we finish the assignment today, we can have a free time next week.You must study hard if you want to enter favorite university.If you don’t have any money you can borrow from me.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCEPOLA CONDITIONALFEATURE:IF……….., ………….……………, IF……….THE REAL CONDITIONALType 1: Lamunan yang memiliki peluang menjadi kenyataan.THE UNREAL CONDITIONALLamunan yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan.Type 2: Present Conditional -> berbeda dg kenyataan saat iniType 3: Past Conditional -> berbeda dg kenyataan yang sudah terjadi (lampau)
THE FORMULAX1 Y1 REAL FACTPresent (Verb I) Simple FutureWill + Verb IShallTrue In PresentPast (S + Were) Would + Verb IShouldNot True in PresentPast Perfect (Had + Verb 3) Would + Have + Verb 3CouldNot true in Past
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 1If we finish the assignment today, we can have a free time next week.You must study hard if you want to enter favorite university.If you don’t have any money, you can borrow from me.Present (Verb I) Simple FutureWill + Verb IShallTrue In Present
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 2If I had a time, I would go to the beach with you.He would tell you about if he were here.If I were you, I would start packing now.Past (S + Were) Would + Verb IShouldNot True in Present
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 3If I had known you were there, I would have written you a letter.If you had asked me, I would have told the whole story.If someone had walked in here with a gun, I’d have been very frightened.Past Perfect (Had + Verb 3) Would + Have + Verb 3CouldNot true in Past
EXERCISES1. If I were offered the job, I ________ (take) it.2. I’m sure Fina will lend you some money, I would be very surprised if she ____(refuse).3. Many people would be out of work if that factory _____ (close) down.4. They are expecting us. They will be disappointed if we _____ (not come).5. Will Diana be angry if I _____ (take) his cell-phone without asking.6. If I sell the car she ____ (not get) much money for it.7. Evi gave me this ring. She ____ (be) terribly upset if I lost it.8. If someone _____ (walk) in here with a gun, I’d have been very frightened.
CAUSATIVEA verb– such ascause, allow, help, have, enablekeep, hold, let, force, require, andmake—used to indicate that someperson or thing helps to make somethinghappen.
ACTIVE CAUSATIVESubject + Have + Object (pelaku) + Verb 1MakeLetHelp
1) “The curtains of my room needwashing.”“Well, go the laundry and…..”a. Wash themb. they are washedc. it should wash themd. have them washede. make them wash
2). My little brother had scatteredall his toys on my bed, so I had him______ the bed before tonight.A. clearB. to clearC. clearedD. be clearingE. to be cleared
3. “Why are you taking the car to thegarage?”“________________.”A. I will check the brakes myselfB. The brakes will be checkedC. I will have checked the brakesD. I will have the brakes checkedE. the brakes will have been checked
4. “I fixed the light in the bathroomyesterday, but it went out again today.”“why don’t you have an electrician_____it.”A. checkingB. checkedC. to checkedD. checkE. Checks
5. “I’ve tried to fixed my motorbike,but it is still not running well.”“Why don’t you have a mechanic ___it.”A. checkB. checkingC. to checkD. in checkingE. checked
6. Rudi broke his leg in theaccident; therefore, _____ drivehim to his work.A. he doesn’t have to ask Amir toB. he won’t have to get anybodyC. Amir has asked RudiD. Amir doesn’t have toE. he will have Amir
GIVING ADVICE AND SUGGESTIONS +SHOULD +V1OUGHT TO +HAD BETTER +
ADVICE/SUGGESTION RESPONSEACCEPT REFUSEWhy don’t you see the doctor? Yes, I will. Oh I don’t think it isnecessaryHave you thought of seeing the doctor? Yes, Maybe I should...It would be a good to see the doctor. Yes I suppose I should..Perhaps you should lie down. Yes, I guess I should ... I guess notPerhaps you had better lie down. Yes, I will.Perhaps you ought to lie down. May bePerhaps you had better not to go worktoday.I Guess not I don’t think soPerhaps you shouldn’t go to work today. Ok Oh noYou need to/ought to/should… All right Oh noMake sure you…It’s best to…
I have just lost my job at age of 40. Ihave a wife and 7 Children to supportand there seems to be no chance ofgetting another job. We don’t want tomove to another area from our friendsand relations. The other problem is thatI am in debt. I owe the bank $ 6000.What should I do? Can you give me someadvice?
I am 24 years old and I have a super job in anadvertising agency, working for lovely boss. Theprospects for promotion look really good, butbefore I get too old I want to see the world.What I dream of doing is taking a year off andhitch-hiking round the world long. The problemis that my boss says he can’t keep my job openfor me. My boyfriend is against me going too.He says it’s too dangerous. What do you think Ishould do?
I am a housewife and a friend has just told methat my husband, John, is having an affair withsecretary. I am worried because he often comeshome late and says he has been working late atthe office. Last week he said he had to go awayto Paris on business. I really don’t know whatto do. Our two daughters are still at school andI don’t want John to leave us I actually still lovehim. I just don’t know what to do.
Chang is a Chinese student studyingEnglish in Australia. She has been inAustralia for a year. She studies veryhard but she feels her English isn’timproving very quickly. Sheparticularly wants to improve herlistening and speaking ability. Whatshould she do?
You are visiting one of foreigncountries, for example, Australia.When you arrive at the airport inAustralia. You forget to bring yourimportant documents. What willyou do?